With contributions from leading international experts in evidence-based medicine, this book is an indispensable guide on how to conduct and interpret studies in clinical diagnosis. It will serve as a valuable resource for all investigators who want to embark on diagnostic research and for clinicians, practitioners and students who want to learn more about its principles and the relevant methodological options available.
The inclusion of the latest observational and epidemiological data, as well as randomized controlled trial evidence ensures that the book properly reflects the current state of evidence available for nephrological practice. It will be a useful aid to all clinicians, including those caring for transplant and pediatric patients, as it covers the major clinical questions encountered by nephrologists.
This reference is an invaluable source of evidence-based information distilled into guidance for clinical practice which will be welcomed by practitioners, trainees and associated health professionals.
This new third edition, written by the world’s leading cardiologists, provides graded evidence-based reviews of the major trials together with recommendations for optimum management, and now includes new grading and recommendation methodology.
This is a unique book in the field of cardiology, and the largest evidence based clinical cardiology text.
Accompanying the book is the Exploratory Software for Confidence Intervals (ESCI) package, free software that runs under Excel and is accessible at www.thenewstatistics.com. The book’s exercises use ESCI's simulations, which are highly visual and interactive, to engage users and encourage exploration. Working with the simulations strengthens understanding of key statistical ideas. There are also many examples, and detailed guidance to show readers how to analyze their own data using the new statistics, and practical strategies for interpreting the results. A particular strength of the book is its explanation of meta-analysis, using simple diagrams and examples. Understanding meta-analysis is increasingly important, even at undergraduate levels, because medicine, psychology and many other disciplines now use meta-analysis to assemble the evidence needed for evidence-based practice.
The book’s pedagogical program, built on cognitive science principles, reinforces learning:
Boxes provide "evidence-based" advice on the most effective statistical techniques. Numerous examples reinforce learning, and show that many disciplines are using the new statistics. Graphs are tied in with ESCI to make important concepts vividly clear and memorable. Opening overviews and end of chapter take-home messages summarize key points. Exercises encourage exploration, deep understanding, and practical applications.
This highly accessible book is intended as the core text for any course that emphasizes the new statistics, or as a supplementary text for graduate and/or advanced undergraduate courses in statistics and research methods in departments of psychology, education, human development , nursing, and natural, social, and life sciences. Researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the new statistics, and future published research, will also appreciate this book. A basic familiarity with introductory statistics is assumed.
Emergency Care and the Public's Health explores the complex role of emergency care in the context of these changes and as an increasingly vital component of health care systems both within and outside the US.
From an expert emergency medicine team, this new title is a reference for emergency care and critical care providers, allied health professionals and hospital administrators. It is also for relevant for public policy and healthcare policy professionals.
A unique feature is the grading of both the evidence (randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, or lower quality trials) and the treatment recommendations. This structure provides the reader with valuable guidance on implementation.
The third edition has been fully revised, providing the latest reviews of the evidence. It is also enhanced with new topics that have significant evidence for treatment, including;Esinophilic esophagitis Acute dysenteries Prevention and treatment of travellers’ diarrhoea Frequency of adverse drug effects on bowel function Management of hepatitis B Management of Hepatitis C Vascular disorder of the liver Non invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis Drug induced liver disease
This book is an essential read for all public health practitioners, early childhood professionals, health care providers and clinicians working to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity in their communities.
Evidence-based Emergency Medicine is the first book of its kind in emergency medicine to tackle the problems practicing physicians encounter in the emergency setting using an evidence-based approach. It summarizes the published evidence available for the diagnosis and treatment of common emergency health care problems in adults. Each chapter contextualizes a topic area using a clinical vignette and generates a series of key clinically important diagnostic and treatment questions. By completing detailed reviews of diagnostic and treatment research, using evidence from systematic reviews, RCTs, and prospective observational studies, the authors provide conclusions and practical recommendations.
Focusing primarily on diagnosis in areas where evidence for treatment is well accepted (e.g. DVTs), and treatment in other diseases where diagnosis is not complex (e.g. asthma), this text is written by leading emergency physicians at the forefront of evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based Emergency Medicine is ideal for emergency physicians and trainees, emergency department staff, and family physicians specialising in the acute care of medical and injured patients.
Edited and written by the world’s leading infectious disease specialists, Evidence-Based Infectious Diseases contains thoroughly revised clinical chapters, reporting on all new major trials and is ideal for; trainees and clinical instructors in infectious diseases and microbiology, internal medicine physicians and public health physicians.
Diagnoses are often just educated guesses, and prognoses less certain still. There is a significant amount of uncertainty in the daily practice of medicine, resulting in confusion and potentially deadly complications. Dr. Steven Hatch argues that instead of ignoring this uncertainty, we should embrace it. By digging deeply into a number of rancorous controversies, from breast cancer screening to blood pressure management, Hatch shows us how medicine can fail-sometimes spectacularly-when patients and doctors alike place too much faith in modern medical technology. The key to good health might lie in the ability to recognize the hype created by so many medical reports, sense when to push a physician for more testing, or resist a physician's enthusiasm when unnecessary tests or treatments are being offered.
Both humbling and empowering, Snowball in a Blizzard lays bare the inescapable murkiness that permeates the theory and practice of modern medicine. Essential reading for physicians and patients alike, this book shows how, by recognizing rather than denying that uncertainty, we can all make better health decisions.
Contributes an important advance in the practice of pain management providing the information on which to build more coherent and standardised strategies for relief of patient suffering
Answers questions about which are the most effective methods, AND those which are not effective yet continue to be used
Includes discussion of the positive and the negative evidence, and addresses the grey areas where evidence is ambivalent
Written by the world's leading experts in evidence-based pain management this is a seminal text in the field of pain
This book begins with a clinical illustration of the distinction between the patient’s experience and the psycho-analyst’s experience. The succeeding chapters cover the influence of verbal expression, emotional experience, state of mind, and consciousness in psycho-analysis and transformation. These topics are followed by discussion on the relationship of the “no-thing and the thing, wherein the personality that is capable of tolerating a no-thing can make use of the no-thing, and so is able to make use of the so-called thoughts. The remaining chapters describe a clinical system that would represent the chief clinical systems that can be seen to exist in the analytic situation. These chapters also examine the gap between reality and the personality, which are aspects of life with which analysts are familiar under the guise of resistance. Resistance operates because it is feared that the reality of the object is imminent.
This book will be of value to psycho-analysts, psychologists, and psychiatrists.
In a clear and engaging style, How to Read a Paper demystifies evidence-based medicine and explains how to critically appraise published research and also put the findings into practice.
An ideal introduction to evidence-based medicine, How to Read a Paper explains what to look for in different types of papers and how best to evaluate the literature and then implement the findings in an evidence-based, patient-centred way. Helpful checklist summaries of the key points in each chapter provide a useful framework for applying the principles of evidence-based medicine in everyday practice.
This fifth edition has been fully updated with new examples and references to reflect recent developments and current practice. It also includes two new chapters on applying evidence-based medicine with patients and on the common criticisms of evidence-based medicine and responses.
How to Read a Paper is a standard text for medical and nursing schools as well as a friendly guide for everyone wanting to teach or learn the basics of evidence-based medicine.
asking clinical questions
searching for answers
discriminating good from poor information and research
using the answers to make clinical decisions.
This attractive, colour workbook provides a clear explanation of EBP skills and concepts. Written by internationally respected authors, this expanded and updated edition has been developed from evidence-based practice workshops run by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine at the University of Queensland and Oxford, and contains information and exercises to help health professionals learn how to use EBP in their clinical practice.
This book is organized into seven sections encompassing 48 chapters. Section I reviews the anatomy and physiology of human lung. Section II describes the pulmonary response to dust in terms of airway changes and reactions to silica. Sections III and IV deal with lung clearance in animals, the retention, penetration, and elimination of inhaled dusts, and lung deposition and clearance in human. Section V emphasizes the sources of dust inhaled by the human lungs, while Section VI discusses the relationship between pneumonoconiosis and dust exposure. Section VII presents the results of the investigations of dust exposure.
This book will prove useful to pulmonologists, toxicologists, and workers in the field of occupational health.
With an improved layout, this second edition of Evidence-based Medicine Toolkit offers more up-to-date guidance as well as new sections on important areas of research.
New features of this second edition include:
A box for each major database showing how to search the evidence, and highlighting the differences between them
Flow charts for different study types
New critical appraisal sections on qualitative research and economic evaluation
Expanded list of EBM resources on the net.
With these added features to make the job easier, the new Toolkit is now an even better companion for all health care professionals using evidence-based methodology in their research and practice.
This book is composed of eight chapters, and begins with a description of the dynamic concept of schizophrenia. The next chapters examine the role of heredity, and social and environmental conditions on human personality. The remaining chapters discuss the neurophysiology, metabolism, diagnosis, and treatment options of this condition.
This book will be of value to neurologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and general practitioners.
From the author of the bestselling introduction to evidence-based medicine, this brand new title makes sense of the complex and confusing landscape of implementation science, the role of research impact, and how to avoid research waste.
How to Implement Evidence-Based Healthcare clearly and succinctly demystifies the implementation process, and explains how to successfully apply evidence-based healthcare to practice in order to ensure safe and effective practice. Written in an engaging and practical style, it includes frameworks, tools and techniques for successful implementation and behavioural change, as well as in-depth coverage and analysis of key themes and topics with a focus on:
Groups and teams Organisations Patients Technology Policy Networks and systems
How to Implement Evidence-Based Healthcare is essential reading for students, clinicians and researchers focused on evidence-based medicine and healthcare, implementation science, applied healthcare research, and those working in public health, public policy, and management.
This text discusses:
undertaking an initial diagnosis of the context and reaching a consensus on the evidence to be implemented;
how to link the research evidence with clinical and patients’ experience and local information in the form of audit data or patient and staff feedback;
the range of diagnostic, consensus building and stakeholder consultation methods that can be helpful;
a description of facilitator roles and facilitation methods, tools and techniques;
some of theories that underpin the PARIHS framework and how these have been integrated to inform a revised version of PARIHS
Including internationally-sourced case study examples to illustrate how the facilitation role and facilitation skills have been applied in a range of different health care settings, this is the ideal text for those interested in leading or facilitating evidence based implementation projects, from the planning stage through to evaluation.
We then review the history of communal living for recovering addicts and alcoholics and provide concrete examples of the Oxford House model, which is a widespread communal living option for over 10,000 recovering persons in the US. The structure and philosophy of Oxford Houses are presented along with recent outcome studies providing support for their effectiveness.
This book was published as a special issue in the Journal of Groups in Addiction and Recovery.
Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the aspects of the study of malignant disease and the experience needed by the radiotherapist to function fully as a clinical oncologist. This text then describes briefly the experiments and discoveries of Marie Curie and Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen. Other chapters consider the fundamental physical principles underlying the use of ionizing radiations. This book discusses as well the aspects of treatment using external beam therapy, the machines used, the method of planning treatment, as well as special features of the treatment. The final chapter deals with the effects of radiation on tumor, the normal cell, the tissue or organ, and on the whole body.
This book is a valuable resource for radiotherapists, epidemiologists, pathologists, clinical oncologists, nurses, and medical students.
Some of the topics covered in the book are the concept of heterostasis; stressors and conditioning agents; morphology of frostbite; characteristics manifestations of stress; catecholamines and their derivatives; various hormones and hormone-like substances; FFA, triglycerides and lipoproteins; morphologic changes; and hypothalamo-hypophyseal system . The gastrointestinal diseases of adaptation are covered. The schizophrenia and related psychoses is discussed. The text describes the manic-depressive disease and senile psychosis. A study of the experimental cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases is presented. A chapter is devoted to the diseases of adaptation in animals. Another section focuses on the shift in adenohypophyseal activity and catatoxic hormones.
The book can provide useful information to scientists, doctors, students, and researchers.
The book begins with an overview of the humoral immune system and of antibody structure, function, and biosynthesis, which sets the stage for the subsequent discussions of developments in antibody technology. The remaining chapters discuss the making of monoclonal antibodies; the design of antibodies for human therapy; the connection of antibodies (either chemically or genetically) to other potentially therapeutic effector molecules such as toxins, enzymes, or even an antibody of another specificity; idiotypes and anti-idiotypic antibodies; and the ability of antibodies to functionally mimic enzymes and mediate catalysis.
It is hoped that, in addition to illustrating the progress of research in antibody design, the various creative and innovative approaches reviewed in this book will be modified or will stimulate new ideas that will spur the research and application of designer antibodies.
This book discusses immunoglobulins, monoclonal immunoglobulins, IgE and atopic disease, and immune complexes. The antibody deficiency, defects of cell-mediated immunity, disorders of neutrophil function, and overview of autoimmune disease are also covered.
This publication is recommended for junior doctors in training, but is also valuable to senior clinical investigators in all disciplines who find themselves reluctantly obliged to acquire the rudiments of immunology in order to interpret important developments in their own fields.
Some of the topics covered in the book are the pyramidal and extrapyramidal pathways, principles of motor control; effects of lesions in the motor system; muscle spindles and motor control; signals from skin mechanoreceptors in the human hand; afferent c fiber signals and pain; and sympathetic activity in human peripheral nerves. The definition and description of baroreflex control of vasoconstrictor outflow to skeletal muscles are fully covered. An in-depth account of the activity of a motoneuron pool and the muscle activity spectrum is provided. The mechanism of long-latency stretch reflexes and critical exploration of the pyramidal syndrome are completely presented. A chapter is devoted to description of monosynaptic excitability curves after activation of myotatic arc. Another section focuses on the practical applications of pathophysiological analysis.
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This book discusses the clinical cognitive constructs; selected issues in cognitive assessment and therapy; and potential theoretical framework for cognitive-behavioral therapy. The study of self-regulatory failure; social problem solving in adults; and cognitive-behavioral approach to recurrent tension and migraine headache are also deliberated in this text.
This publication is valuable to researchers and clinicians concerned with cognition and behavior.
The text is further divided into five major sections according to the sequence of the workshop sessions. A separate chapter from the sections has been included at the beginning of the book. The introductory chapter clarifies some points in the subject area of NK cells, particularly its definition. The heterogeneity of NK cells is also discussed in this chapter. Then, the book presents the major topics, including the purification and characterization of NK cells and NK target structures and recognition sites. The mechanisms of postrecognition interactions between NK cells and targets; regulation of NK activity and NK cells; and cultured cells with NK-like activity are also discussed.
This book will serve as a helpful guide to students and professionals (scientists, researchers, and professors) in the fields of immunology, biology, microbiology, biochemistry, among others.
The text first introduces the speech-language neurology, and then proceeds to discussing the organization and neural function of the nervous system. Next, the book relates the nervous anatomic systems to language, speech, and hearing. The text also covers clinical speech syndromes and disorders.
The book will be most useful to speech pathologists and therapists. Neurologists and neurosurgeons will also greatly benefit from the text.
The book enumerates the different endocrine glands of the endocrine system, and then details how each gland functions and the parts they play in the metabolism and normal function of the human body. The book also cited disorders of the endocrine system and their treatments.
Physicians, nurses, pathologists, endocrinologists, and students of medicine will find this book a good reference.
A Concise Guide to Clinical Trials provides a comprehensive yet easy-to-read overview of the design, conduct and analysis of trials. It requires no prior knowledge on the subject as the important concepts are introduced throughout. There are chapters that distinguish between the different types of trials, and an introduction to systematic reviews, health-related quality of life and health economic evaluation. The book also covers the ethical and legal requirements in setting up a clinical trial due to an increase in governance responsibilities and regulations.
This practical guidebook is ideal for busy clinicians and other health professionals who do not have enough time to attend courses or search through extensive textbooks. It will help anyone involved in undertaking clinical research, or those reading about trials. The book is aimed at:Those wishing to learn about clinical trials for the first time, or as a quick reference guide, for example as part of a taught course on clinical trials Health professionals who wish to conduct their own trials, or participate in other people’s studies People who work in pharmaceutical companies, grant funding organisations, or regulatory agencies
The second chapter focuses on the cell surface of healthy and disease-infected cells. Topics such as the plasma membrane, the extracellular matrix, and cell culture and transformation are also covered in the said chapter. The third chapter of the book is about the serum steroid transport proteins. This chapter discusses the biochemistry and clinical significance of the steroid binding proteins, albumin, and different binding globulins. The fourth chapter covers the physiology and pharmacology of emesis. The book concludes with a discussion on the mechanisms of pain and opioid-induced analgesia.
The text can be a useful tool for doctors, medical technologists, students, and researchers in the field of medicine.
This book presents reviews of the underlying theory, physiology, and biochemistry of hemostasis and thrombosis, including the enzymology of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis.
This compilation is divided into three levels of specific purposes. First is to provide the most reliable and widely accepted laboratory assays of undisputed diagnostic clinical value, which provides newcomers in the field and experienced workers in the coagulation laboratory with a reference manual to everyday work in a clinically-oriented environment. Second is to review and sketch in outline the theoretical sections focusing on mechanisms. Finally, this text aims to include a systematic review of the most successful purification techniques for individual coagulation factors and moieties of the fibrinolytic enzyme system.
This publication is beneficial to medical students and clinicians concerned with human blood coagulation.
Organized into 15 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the relationships between bronchial asthma and several conditions commonly regarded as allergic in nature, including hay fever, eczema, vasomotor rhinitis, urticarial, gastro-intestinal allergy, and psoriasis. This text then discusses the Weinberg genealogical proband method. Other chapters explore the inherited susceptibility of the bronchial tree to dysfunction, be it inflammation, as with bronchitis, or spasm, as with asthma. The final chapter deals with the inquiry using the Weinberg genealogical proband technique into the genetics of bronchial asthma.
This book is a valuable resource for physicians, dermatologists, and allergists.
After briefly dealing with the major issues in colorectal carcinoma, this book goes on presenting the in vitro and in vivo models of colon carcinogenesis. This topic is followed by a discussion on the history of the development and characterization of commonly used colon cancer cell lines. The following parts describe the biochemical and immunological features and hormones in the colon. These parts also consider the studies on human colon tumors xenografted into nude mice and the biology and treatment of colorectal cancer metastasis. Discussions on the application of human monoclonal antibodies to tumor detection; the expression of blood group-related carbohydrates by normal, premalignant, and malignant colonic tissues; and the correlation of antigen variability in colon carcinoma with certain diagnostic and prognostic parameters are also included in these parts. The concluding part examines various therapeutic strategies and their potential in improving patient management with advanced colon carcinoma.
Researchers, clinicians, and students interested in the biology of colon cancer development and in gastrointestinal cell biology will find this book invaluable.
The selection first offers information on the nature of behavior and systematic desensitization treatment of neuroses. Discussions focus on the technique of systematic desensitization, examples of hierarchies from actual cases, and desensitization procedure. The text then ponders on experimental desensitization of a phobia, treatment by a method derived from experimental psychology, and treatment of anxiety and phobic reactions by systematic desensitization psychotherapy.
The publication examines the treatment of chronic frigidity by systematic desensitization, application of reciprocal inhibition therapy to exhibitionism, and group therapy of phobic disorders by systematic desensitization. The isolation of a conditioning procedure as the crucial psychotherapeutic factor; application of learning principles to the treatment of obsessive-compulsive states in the acute and chronic phases of illness; and case of homosexuality treated by aversion therapy are also discussed.
The selection is a dependable source of data for readers interested in behavior therapy.