Where most books address either one or the other, Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing: Atmospheric Influences with Models and Applications melds coverage of these two subjects to help readers develop solutions to the problems they present. This reference offers a brief, elementary account of microwave propagation through the atmosphere and discusses radiometric applications in the microwave band used to characterize and model atmospheric constituents, which is also known as remote sensing.
Summarizing the latest research results in the field, as well as radiometric models and measurement methods, this book covers topics including:
Free space propagation
Reflection, interference, polarization, and other key aspects of electromagnetic wave propagation
Radio refraction and its effects on propagation delay
Methodology of estimating water vapor attenuation using radiosonde data
Knowledge of rain structures and use of climatological patterns to estimate/measure attenuation of rain, snow, fog, and other prevalent atmospheric particles and human-made substances
Dual/multifrequency methodology to deal with the influence of clouds on radiometric attenuation
Deployment of microwaves to ascertain various tropospheric conditions
Composition and characteristics of the troposphere, to help readers fully understand microwave propagation
Derived parameters of water, free space propagation, and conditions and variable constituents such as water vapor and vapor pressure, density, and ray bending
The book shows you how satellite, inertial, and other navigation technologies work, and focuses on processing chains and error sources. In addition, you get a clear introduction to coordinate frames, multi-frame kinematics, Earth models, gravity, Kalman filtering, and nonlinear filtering. Providing solutions to common integration problems, the book describes and compares different integration architectures, and explains how to model different error sources. You get a broad and penetrating overview of current technology and are brought up to speed with the latest developments in the field, including context-dependent and cooperative positioning.
First, there is a brief overview of the history and development of the spectroscope. This is followed by a short introduction to the theory of stellar spectra. The final parts of this section provide details of the necessary reference spectra required for instrument testing and spectral comparison. It concludes with a chapter covering the various types of spectroscopes available to the amateur.
Next, there is a series of "How to..." sections. These cover all aspects of setting up and using various types of commercially available and home-built spectroscopes. Transmission gratings are covered first, and then more complex models, all the way to the sophisticated Littrow design.
The final part of Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs is about practical spectroscope design and construction. It contains a collection of detailed instructions covering the design and building of three different types of spectroscope, along with the necessary design theory (with minimal math). Developing an instrument in simple steps from the basic grating spectroscope, using standard "off the shelf" adaptors, the author describes how to build spectroscopes equal in performance to the better commercial units, constructed using basic hand tools for a fraction of the cost!
This is the only up-to-date practical spectroscopy book available to amateurs. For the first time, it also brings together an invaluable user knowledge base – a collection of observing, analyzing, and processing hints and tips that will allow the amateur to build up and develop important skills in preparing scientifically acceptable spectral data, which can make a valuable contribution to ProAm (professional/amateur) projects. It covers in detail all aspects of the design, construction techniques, testing, calibrating, and using a spectroscope – enough detail to enable the average amateur astronomer to successfully build and use his own spectroscope for a fraction of the current commercial cost.
This book is an ideal complement to Robinson’s Spectroscopy: the Key to the Stars (Springer 2007) and Martin’s Spectroscopic Atlas of Bright Stars (Springer, due 2009). Together, the three books form a complete package for all amateur astronomers who are interested in practical spectroscopy.
As Professor Chris Kitchin said, "If optical spectroscopy had not been invented then fully 75 percent of all astronomical knowledge would be unknown today, and yet the subject itself receives scant attention in astronomical texts." Olivier Thizy (of Shelyak Instruments, the builder of the LiHiResIII commercial spectroscope) writes on an Internet forum; "What is missing is tutorial books and "how to" books with amateur equipment? I believe spectroscopy is in general moving from builders to users (as CCD cameras did in the 1990's)... ...literature is following but slowly."
This is the practical spectroscopy book that amateur astronomers have been waiting for!
Geochemistry is essential reading for all earth science students, as well as for researchers and applied scientists who require an introduction to the essential theory of geochemistry, and a survey of its applications in the earth and environmental sciences.
Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/white/geochemistry
*Review of GPR theory and applications by leaders in the field
*Up-to-date information and references
*Effective handbook and primary research reference for both experienced practitioners and newcomers
In this volume, the most important contemporary questions on lightning are addressed and analyzed under many experimental and theoretical aspects. Lightning detection techniques using ground-based and space-borne methods are described, along with network engineering and statistical analysis.
Contributions detail research on atmospheric electricity, cloud physics, lightning physics, modeling of electrical storms and middle atmospheric events. Special phenomena such as triggered lightning and sprite observations are examined. Lightning-induced nitrogen oxides and their effects on atmospheric chemistry and climate are discussed.
Each topic is presented by international experts in the field. Topics include:
* air chemistry
* convective storms
* infrasound from lightning
* lightning and climate change
* lightning and precipitation
* lightning and radiation
* lightning and supercells
* lightning and thunderstorms
* lightning detection
* lightning from space
* lighting protection
* lightning return strokes
* observations and interpretations
* spatial distribution and frequency
* triggered lightning
* weather extremes
The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added.
Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.
See What’s New in the Fourth Edition:
Up-to-date information on GNSS and GPS modernization Changes in hardware, software, and procedures Comprehensive treatment of novel signals on new blocks of satellites (L5 and L2C)
The book minimizes your reliance on mathematical explanations and maximizes use of illustrations and examples that allow you to visualize and grasp key concepts. The author explains the progression of ideas at the foundation of satellite positioning and delves into some of the particulars. He keeps presentation practical, providing a guide to techniques used in GPS, from their design through observation, processings, real-time kinematic (RTK), and real-time networks. These features and more make it easier for you to meet the challenge of keeping up in this field.
In addition to a history of the science behind the pursuit, directions are included for four easy-to-build projects, based around long-term NASA and Stanford Solar Center projects. The first three projects constitute self-contained units available as kits, so there is no need to hunt around for parts. The fourth – more advanced – project encourages readers to do their own research and track down items.
Getting Started in Radio Astronomy provides an overall introduction to listening in on the radio spectrum. With details of equipment that really works, a list of suppliers, lists of online help forums, and written by someone who has actually built and operated the tools described, this book contains everything the newcomer to radio astronomy needs to get going.
At last, many unanswered questions about the earth’s creation can be resolved with confidence. For example, how long did it take? Where did it take place? What about evolution, fossils, dinosaurs and cave men? Well-supported answers are here.
For those who have been challenged to explain the earth’s creation from an LDS viewpoint, this book will be helpful and enlightening. And for those who enjoy contemplating both the discoveries of science and the revelations of God, this book will be extremely stimulating and thought-provoking.
Readers have commented:
Dan from Canada: “This book has enlightened my mind and given me the wonderful opportunity to see the intermeshing between science and our religion.”
Paul from Texas: “Well-supported viewpoint and thought-provoking reading.... I appreciate Brother Skousen’s heavy usage of scriptural references and quotes from trustworthy Church leaders.”
Kristy from Utah: “Answered a lot of questions I had from my geology classes and gave me a deeper appreciation for this awesome planet we live on and the creator of it.”
Kelly from California: “This book explained so much about issues that had previously confused or bothered me.”
Jerome from Georgia: “Life altering, made me a better person.... If you really want to understand the ‘Big Picture’ then this book is a must read.”
Dave from Washington: “One unexpected blessing received from reading this book was an enhanced Temple worship experience.”
Ed from Iowa: “If you are LDS, this will open your eyes to things that are incredible and you will not look at the world we live in in the same way again.”
Devon: “Scholarly material well presented for the layman.”
This eBook includes the original index, illustrations, footnotes, table of contents and page numbering from the printed format.
This book explains the basic principles of spectroscopy, including the fundamental optical constraints and all mathematical aspects needed to understand the working principles in detail. It covers the complete theoretical and practical design of standard and Echelle spectrographs. Readers are guided through all necessary calculations, enabling them to engage in spectrograph design. The book also examines data acquisition with CCD cameras and fiber optics, as well as the constraints of specific data reduction and possible sources of error. In closing it briefly highlights some main aspects of the research on massive stars and spectropolarimetry as an extension of spectroscopy. The book offers a comprehensive introduction to spectroscopy for students of physics and astronomy, as well as a valuable resource for amateur astronomers interested in learning the principles of spectroscopy and spectrograph design.
As fields like communications, speech and image processing, and related areas are rapidly developing, the FFT as one of the essential parts in digital signal processing has been widely used. Thus there is a pressing need from instructors and students for a book dealing with the latest FFT topics.
Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications provides a thorough and detailed explanation of important or up-to-date FFTs. It also has adopted modern approaches like MATLAB examples and projects for better understanding of diverse FFTs.
Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is designed for senior undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, engineers, and scientists in the field, and self-learners to understand FFTs and directly apply them to their fields, efficiently. It is designed to be both a text and a reference. Thus examples, projects and problems all tied with MATLAB, are provided for grasping the concepts concretely. It also includes references to books and review papers and lists of applications, hardware/software, and useful websites. By including many figures, tables, bock diagrams and graphs, this book helps the reader understand the concepts of fast algorithms readily and intuitively. It provides new MATLAB functions and MATLAB source codes. The material in Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is presented without assuming any prior knowledge of FFT. This book is for any professional who wants to have a basic understanding of the latest developments in and applications of FFT. It provides a good reference for any engineer planning to work in this field, either in basic implementation or in research and development.
If you sit as still as you can in a quiet room, you might be able to convince yourself that nothing is moving. But air currents are still wafting around you. Blood rushes through your veins. The atoms in your chair jiggle furiously. In fact, the planet you are sitting on is whizzing through space thirty-five times faster than the speed of sound.
Natural motion dominates our lives and the intricate mechanics of the world around us. In ZOOM, Bob Berman explores how motion shapes every aspect of the universe, literally from the ground up. With an entertaining style and a gift for distilling the wondrous, Berman spans astronomy, geology, biology, meteorology, and the history of science, uncovering how clouds stay aloft, how the Earth's rotation curves a home run's flight, and why a mosquito's familiar whine resembles a telephone's dial tone.
For readers who love to get smarter without realizing it, ZOOM bursts with science writing at its best.
About the Editor-in-Chief...
Wai-Kai Chen is Professor and Head Emeritus of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He has extensive experience in education and industry and is very active professionally in the fields of circuits and systems. He was Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Series I and II, President of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society and is the Founding Editor and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers. He is the recipient of the Golden Jubilee Medal, the Education Award, and the Meritorious Service Award from the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society, and the Third Millennium Medal from the IEEE. Professor Chen is a fellow of the IEEE and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
* 77 chapters encompass the entire field of electrical engineering.
* THOUSANDS of valuable figures, tables, formulas, and definitions.
* Extensive bibliographic references.
Fulfilling emission limits and immunity requirements as well as handling apparently complex cases of incompatibility demands a deeper understanding of the physical interrelations and of Maxwell's theory.
Based on the authors’ experiences, the textbook provides some help in solving such interferential cases.
It contains many illustrative examples and more than 80 exercises with solutions.
Additional highlights include:
- Fundamental information on communications, signal and system theories
- Coverage of superheterodyne, direct-conversion, low-IF, and band-pass sampling radio architectures
- Frequency planning, system link budgeting, and performance evaluation of transmitters and receivers
- Nonlinearity effect analyses involving intermodulation, interferer blocking, spectrum regrowth and modulation
- Approaches for specifying RF ASICs on which mobile systems are built
- AGC systems, ADC dynamic range consideration and power management are addressed
- In-depth treatment of both theoretical and practical aspects of mobile station RF system design
This comprehensive reference work covers a wide range of topics from general principles of communication theory, as it applies to digital radio designs to specific examples on implementing multimode mobile systems. Wireless engineering professionals will definitely find this an invaluable reference book.
What’s New in This EditionThree new chapters on electromagnetic fields in transformers, transformer-system interactions and modeling, and monitoring and diagnostics An extensively revised chapter on recent trends in transformer technology An extensively updated chapter on short-circuit strength, including failure mechanisms and safety factors A step-by-step procedure for designing a transformer Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field
A blend of theory and practice, this comprehensive book examines aspects of transformer engineering, from design to diagnostics. It thoroughly explains electromagnetic fields and the finite element method to help you solve practical problems related to transformers. Coverage includes important design challenges, such as eddy and stray loss evaluation and control, transient response, short-circuit withstand and strength, and insulation design. The authors also give pointers for further research. Students and engineers starting their careers will appreciate the sample design of a typical power transformer.
Presenting in-depth explanations, modern computational techniques, and emerging trends, this is a valuable reference for those working in the transformer industry, as well as for students and researchers. It offers guidance in optimizing and enhancing transformer design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring to meet the challenges of a highly competitive market.
Plant Image Analysis: Fundamentals and Applicationsintroduces the basic concepts of image analysis and discusses various techniques in plant imaging, their applications, and future potential. Several types of imaging techniques are discussed including RGB, hyperspectral, thermal, PRI, chlorophyll fluorescence, ROS, and chromosome imaging. The book also covers the use of these techniques in assessing plant growth, early detection of disease and stress, fruit crop yield, plant chromosome analysis, plant phenotyping, and nutrient status both in vivo and in vitro.
The book is an authoritative guide for researchers and those teaching in the fields of stress physiology, precision agriculture, agricultural biotechnology, and cell and developmental biology. Graduate students and professionals using machine vision in plant science will also benefit from this comprehensive resource.
Presenting the theoretical foundations of kernel methods (KMs) relevant to the remote sensing domain, this book serves as a practical guide to the design and implementation of these methods. Five distinct parts present state-of-the-art research related to remote sensing based on the recent advances in kernel methods, analysing the related methodological and practical challenges:Part I introduces the key concepts of machine learning for remote sensing, and the theoretical and practical foundations of kernel methods. Part II explores supervised image classification including Super Vector Machines (SVMs), kernel discriminant analysis, multi-temporal image classification, target detection with kernels, and Support Vector Data Description (SVDD) algorithms for anomaly detection. Part III looks at semi-supervised classification with transductive SVM approaches for hyperspectral image classification and kernel mean data classification. Part IV examines regression and model inversion, including the concept of a kernel unmixing algorithm for hyperspectral imagery, the theory and methods for quantitative remote sensing inverse problems with kernel-based equations, kernel-based BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function), and temperature retrieval KMs. Part V deals with kernel-based feature extraction and provides a review of the principles of several multivariate analysis methods and their kernel extensions.
This book is aimed at engineers, scientists and researchers involved in remote sensing data processing, and also those working within machine learning and pattern recognition.
The book describes preparation of five distinct types of assessments:
Cumulative Impact Assessment (CIA) Preparing Greenhouse Emission Assessments Preparing Risk Assessments and Accident Analyses Social Impact Assessment (SIA) and Environmental Justice The International Environmental Impact Assessment Process Guiding Principles
To date, there is significant variation and disagreement about how such analyses should be prepared. The author introduces best professional practices (BPP) for preparing such EIAs that is intended to meet decision-making and regulatory expectations. He supplies a comprehensive and balanced skill set of tools, techniques, concepts, principles, and practices for preparing these assessments. He also includes directions for developing a comprehensive Environmental Management Systems which can be used to monitor and implement final decisions for such analyses. While the book references the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), most of this guidance is generally applicable to any international EIA process consistent with NEPA.
With thorough coverage of all aspects of assessments, the book presents a theoretical introduction to the subject as well as practical guidance. It delivers state-of-the-art tools, techniques, and approaches for resolving EIA problems.
What’s new in the Second Edition:
Additional material on geographically-weighted statistics and local regression approaches A better overview of local models with reference to recent critical reviews about the subject area Expanded coverage of individual methods and connections between them Chapters have been restructured to clarify the distinction between global and local methods A new section in each chapter references key studies or other accounts that support the book Selected resources provided online to support learning
An introduction to the methods and their underlying concepts, the book uses worked examples and case studies to demonstrate how the algorithms work their practical utility and range of application. It provides an overview of a range of different approaches that have been developed and employed within Geographical Information Science (GIScience). Starting with first principles, the author introduces users of GISystems to the principles and application of some widely used local models for the analysis of spatial data, including methods being developed and employed in geography and cognate disciplines. He discusses the relevant software packages that can aid their implementation and provides a summary list in Appendix A.
Presenting examples from a variety of disciplines, the book demonstrates the importance of local models for all who make use of spatial data. Taking a problem driven approach, it provides extensive guidance on the selection and application of local models.
Understanding Surveillance Technologies is profusely illustrated with extensive references and indexes, laying the groundwork for more specialized texts on specific technologies. It covers each of the major sensing devices and explains how they are used in civilian, criminal justice, scientific, national security, and military applications. It also includes recent changes in legislation and the organization of the intelligence community, and discusses how equal access to high-tech sensing devices and encryption schemes has changed society.
Understanding Surveillance Technologies is modular, so the chapters can be read in any order, and is written in an accessible, somewhat narrative style, to suit the needs of journalists/newscasters, privacy organizations, educators, civic planners, and technology centers. It is appropriate as an adjunct reference for criminal justice/law enforcement/military, and forensic trainees, and as a textbook for courses in Surveillance Studies, Sociology, Communications, and Political Science. Now in its second edition, with 1,000 pages and more than 700 diagrams, it is still the only text that comprehensively conveys the breadth of the field.
Based on the applied research of over 350 participants in academia and industry, this book focuses on the radio aspects of mobile and wireless broadband multimedia communications, by exploring and developing new methods, models, techniques, strategies and tools towards the implementation of 4th generation mobile and wireless communication systems.
This complete reference includes topics ranging from transmission and signal processing techniques to antennas and diversity, ultra wide band, MIMO and reference scenarios for radio network simulation and evaluation.
This book will be an ideal source of the latest developments in mobile multimedia broadband technologies for researchers, R&D engineers, graduates and engineers in industry implementing simulation models and conducting measurements.Based on the well known and respected research of the COST 273 project ‘Towards Mobile Broadband Multimedia Networks', whose previous models have been adopted by standardisation bodies such as ITU, ETSI and 3GPPGives methods, techniques, models and tools for developing 4th generation mobile and wireless communication systemsIncludes the latest development of key technologies and methods such as MIMO systems, ultra wide-band and OFDM
The first chapter is an introduction which starts with explaining in general terms, what seabed seismic is and gives its advantages over conventional marine seismic methods. Specific experiences or implementation of seabed seismic methods in some oil fields are given. In chapter 2, some basic signal properties are given, the PS converted wave process explained and the common conversion point (CCP) approximation formula derived. Basic acquisition techniques of seabed seismic are treated, including topics like sensor orientation, CCP binning and shear wave splitting. P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio (Gamma) is explained. The fundamentals of QC and processing of seabed seismic data are treated in Chapter 3 where two model processing work-flows are showcased to explain the fundamental processing keys for a multicomponent seismic data. The improvement in seabed seismic technology has not been without hurdles. Some of the challenges facing this technology are treated in Chapter 4.
Dr Michael Ainslie is eminently qualified to write this unique book. He has worked on sonar performance modeling problems since 1983. He has written many peer reviewed research articles and conference papers related to sonar performance modeling, making contributions in the fields of sound propagation and detection theory.
Whether you want to conduct scientific experiments, run engineering tests, or present an orbital art project, you’ll select basic components such as an antenna, radio transmitter, solar cells, battery, power bus, processor, sensors, and an extremely small picosatellite chassis. This entertaining series takes you through the entire process—from planning to launch.Prototype and fabricate printed circuit boards to handle your payloadChoose a prefab satellite kit, complete with solar cells, power system, and on-board computerCalculate your power budget—how much you need vs. what the solar cells collectSelect between the Arduino or BasicX-24 onboard processors, and determine how to use the radio transmitter and sensorsLearn your launch options, including the providers and cost requiredUse milestones to keep your project schedule in motion
* The latest results on support vector machines including v-SVM's and their geometric interpretation
* Classifier combinations including the Boosting approach
* State-of-the-art material for clustering algorithms tailored for large data sets and/or high dimensional data, as required by applications such as web-mining and bioinformatics
* Coverage of diverse applications such as image analysis, optical character recognition, channel equalization, speech recognition and audio classification