The third chapter deals with the effects of exposure and load on forests. The chapter moves from small-scale to large-scale: first the effects in laboratory-scale studies are described, then the effects in the field, both at stand level and on a regional scale. In addition, the critical thresholds (critical level of concentration and critical load of deposition) are discussed.
The fourth chapter covers terrestrial ecosystems (or parts thereof) as well as weakly buffered surface waters, springs and other streams. Critical levels and loads are also discussed. The most important results are given in chapter 5.
In the appendices of the book, so-called umbrella theme reports on deposition, stand modelling and effects on forests are presented which describe in more detail the scientific work performed in the third phase of the DPPA.
This book will be of interest to anyone involved in research related to acidification and eutrophication; i.e., not only those who perform the research in the causal chain from emissions to effects, but also policy-makers and students.
The most troublesome of soft soils are organic soils due mainly to their high compressibility (much higher than in mineral soils), and also their very low shear strength. The large diversity of organic soils with respect to their origin as well as their properties make classification, testing, and engineering prediction of behaviour, very difficult. For this reason, engineers try, in general, to avoid constructing on deep layers of organic soils. If forced, by necessity, to do so, they manage with light structures e.g. embankments or low buildings.
The authors of this book have been involved in a joint research project on the testing of embankments on organic soils. This was carried out in the North-Western part of Poland by the Swedish Geotechnical Institute and the Department of Geotechnics of Warsaw Agricultural University.
The results of their research is presented in this new book and provides a valuable insight into this growing area in the field of engineering geology.
When you drop your Diet Coke can or yesterday's newspaper in the recycling bin, where does it go? Probably halfway around the world, to people and places that clean up what you don't want and turn it into something you can't wait to buy. In Junkyard Planet, Adam Minter-veteran journalist and son of an American junkyard owner-travels deeply into a vast, often hidden, 500-billion-dollar industry that's transforming our economy and environment.
Minter takes us from back-alley Chinese computer recycling operations to recycling factories capable of processing a jumbo jet's worth of trash every day. Along the way, we meet an international cast of characters who have figured out how to squeeze Silicon Valley-scale fortunes from what we all throw away. Junkyard Planet reveals how "going green†? usually means making money-and why that's often the most sustainable choice, even when the recycling methods aren't pretty.
With unmatched access to and insight on the waste industry, and the explanatory gifts and an eye for detail worthy of a John McPhee or William Langewiesche, Minter traces the export of America's garbage and the massive profits that China and other rising nations earn from it. What emerges is an engaging, colorful, and sometimes troubling tale of how the way we consume and discard stuff brings home the ascent of a developing world that recognizes value where Americans don't. Junkyard Planet reveals that Americans might need to learn a smarter way to take out the trash.
Clean air is a basic condition for health. Air pollution aggravates respiratory problems, leading to increased sickness absenteeism, increased use of health care services and even premature mortality. Air pollution is under intensive discussion in the United States and Europe.
In The Netherlands, a wide range of policy instruments have been formulated which have reduced air pollution. For example; since 1975, sulphur dioxide and lead emissions have been reduced. However, emission reduction figures for many other substances are more modest. Many air pollution problems persist because progress in countering these problems is nullified by growth in the economy and traffic.
Another important target is the prevention of climate change. The international community is agreed that the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to a gradual increase in the earth's temperature. In terms of the environmental consequences and social implications, the greenhouse problem surpasses all other air quality problems.
Across Europe, strategies are being developed to reduce acidification and photochemical air pollution. An air emission ceiling for each country in the European Union is being agreed. In the area of climate change, there is good co-operation between the United States, The Netherlands and other EU Members States in the ongoing global negotiations. This is the start of a new movement. In the last century economies and societies developed through increasing human productivity. In the next century they must develop through increasing the productivity of fuel and natural resources.
Take a journey inside the secret world of our biggest export, our most prodigious product, and our greatest legacy: our trash. It’s the biggest thing we make: The average American is on track to produce a whopping 102 tons of garbage across a lifetime, $50 billion in squandered riches rolled to the curb each year, more than that produced by any other people in the world. But that trash doesn’t just magically disappear; our bins are merely the starting point for a strange, impressive, mysterious, and costly journey that may also represent the greatest untapped opportunity of the century.
In Garbology, Pulitzer Prize–winning author Edward Humes investigates the trail of that 102 tons of trash—what’s in it; how much we pay for it; how we manage to create so much of it; and how some families, communities, and even nations are finding a way back from waste to discover a new kind of prosperity. Along the way , he introduces a collection of garbage denizens unlike anyone you’ve ever met: the trash-tracking detectives of MIT, the bulldozer-driving sanitation workers building Los Angeles’ immense Garbage Mountain landfill, the artists in residence at San Francisco’s dump, and the family whose annual trash output fills not a dumpster or a trash can, but a single mason jar.
Garbology digs through our epic piles of trash to reveal not just what we throw away, but who we are and where our society is headed. Are we destined to remain the country whose number-one export is scrap—America as China’s trash compactor—or will the country that invented the disposable economy pioneer a new and less wasteful path? The real secret at the heart of Garbology may well be the potential for a happy ending buried in our landfill. Waste, Humes writes, is the one environmental and economic harm that ordinary working Americans have the power to change—and prosper in the process.
Written for students with some background in engineering, this comprehensive, highly acclaimed text does not only provide detailed instructions on how to solve hazardous waste problems but also guides students to think about ways to approach these problems. Each richly detailed, self-contained chapter ends with a set of discussion topics and problems. Case studies, with equations and design examples, are provided throughout the book to give students the chance to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment and containment technologies.
Drawing on historical research, case studies, and interviews with officials, scholars, and activists in China, Economy traces the economic and political roots of China's environmental challenge and the evolution of the leadership's response. She argues that China's current approach to environmental protection mirrors the one embraced for economic development: devolving authority to local officials, opening the door to private actors, and inviting participation from the international community, while retaining only weak central control.
The result has been a patchwork of environmental protection in which a few wealthy regions with strong leaders and international ties improve their local environments, while most of the country continues to deteriorate, sometimes suffering irrevocable damage. Economy compares China's response with the experience of other societies and sketches out several possible futures for the country.
This second edition of The River Runs Black is updated with information about events between 2005 and 2009, covering China's tumultuous transformation of its economy and its landscape as it deals with the political implications of this behavior as viewed by an international community ever more concerned about climate change and dwindling energy resources.
As this book reveals, Canada’s dark legacy of inflicting harm on Indigenous bodies persists through a system that fails to adequately address health and ecological suffering in First Nations’ communities like Aamjiwnaang.
Everyday Exposure uncovers the systemic injustices faced on a daily basis in Aamjiwnaang. Exploring the problems that Canada’s conflicting levels of jurisdiction pose for the creation of environmental justice policy, analyzing clashes between Indigenous and scientific knowledge, and documenting the experiences of Aamjiwnaang residents as they navigate their toxic environment, this book argues that social and political changes require an experiential and transformative “sensing policy” approach, one that takes the voices of Indigenous citizens seriously.
Outstanding features include:
Comprehensive, rigorous, and highly accessible coverageIncludes information on groundwater flow, well hydraulics, field methods for parameter estimation, hydrologic relationships between surface water and groundwater hydrology, mass transport of contaminants by advection, diffusion and dispersion, and special problems posed by nonaqueous phase liquids (oils).
Strong focus on applicationsEmpowers readers with knowledge and methodologies that they can use in real, day-to-day practices. Includes 66 worked examples and 178 problems integrated throughout.
Examination of standard software being used in the industry todayExposes readers to the USGS MODFLOW model (the most widely used numerical simulation model for groundwater flow) and the USGS MOC3D. These models, together with a user interface (MFI), can be downloaded from the Internet.
Individual articles are preceded by a topical outline and discuss the origin, prevalence, mechanisms of toxicity and damaging effects of each hazardous material.
Comprehensive coverage of individual toxic elements, including
Coverage of hazardous material groups, such as
More general articles, such as
Evaluation and testing of carcinogens
Transport of pollutants
The automobile was once seen as a boon to American life, eradicating the pollution caused by horses and granting citizens new levels of personal freedom and mobility. But it was not long before the servant became the master—public spaces were designed to accommodate the automobile at the expense of the pedestrian, mass transportation was neglected, and the poor, unable to afford cars, saw their access to jobs and amenities worsen. Now even drivers themselves suffer, as cars choke the highways and pollution and congestion have replaced the fresh air of the open road.
Today our world revolves around the car—as a nation, we spend eight billion hours a year stuck in traffic. In Asphalt Nation, Jane Holtz Kay effectively calls for a revolution to reverse our automobile-dependency. Citing successful efforts in places from Portland, Maine, to Portland, Oregon, Kay shows us that radical change is not impossible by any means. She demonstrates that there are economic, political, architectural, and personal solutions that can steer us out of the mess. Asphalt Nation is essential reading for everyone interested in the history of our relationship with the car, and in the prospect of returning to a world of human mobility.
Environment, Health and Safety Governance and Leadership: The Making of High Reliability Organizations reviews the factors influencing safety/EHS leadership and governance and addresses all the areas where the role impacts on the performance and sustainability of organizations. Based on the author’s in-depth research, the book draws on much of the best-practice standards developed by many leading organizations such as the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE), the Institute of Directors (IoD) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
This book provides exclusive insights and legal imperatives for practitioners and leaders to inform decision making, strategy and EHS governance, all of which can have a fundamental impact on business continuity, developing company value and the sustainability of large organizations around the world.
home heating to industry. Regions where coal was readily available, such
as the Ruhr Valley in Germany and western Pennsylvania in the United
States, witnessed exponential growth-yet also suffered the greatest
damage from coal pollution.
These conditions prompted civic
activism in the form of “anti-smoke” campaigns to attack the unsightly
physical manifestations of coal burning. This early period witnessed
significant cooperation between industrialists, government, and citizens
to combat the smoke problem. It was not until the 1960s, when attention
shifted from dust and grime to hazardous invisible gases, that
cooperation dissipated, and protests took an antagonistic turn.
The Age of Smoke
presents an original, comparative history of environmental policy and
protest in the United States and Germany. Dividing this history into
distinct eras (1880 to World War I, interwar, post-World War II to
1970), Frank Uekoetter compares and contrasts the influence of
political, class, and social structures, scientific communities,
engineers, industrial lobbies, and environmental groups in each nation.
He concludes with a discussion of the environmental revolution, arguing
that there were indeed two environmental revolutions in both countries:
one societal, where changing values gave urgency to air pollution
control, the other institutional, where changes in policies tried to
catch up with shifting sentiments.
Focusing on a critical period in environmental history, The Age of Smoke
provides a valuable study of policy development in two modern
industrial nations, and the rise of civic activism to combat air
pollution. As Uekoetter's work reveals, the cooperative approaches
developed in an earlier era offer valuable lessons and perhaps the best
hope for future progress.
Organized into five sessions encompassing 94 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the atmospheric cycle of nitrogen oxide in terms of source strength, destruction rates, and atmospheric chemistry. This text then examines the fundamental physical and chemical processes involved in the formation of nitrogen oxides. Other chapters consider the regional pulmonary deposition of nitrogen dioxide in man, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits by using a general mathematical model formulation for the transport of gases in the lungs. This book discusses as well the emission control methods and systems with low nitrogen oxide capability for possible application in The Netherlands and other parts of Europe.
This book is a valuable resource for government administrative officials, research scientists, air pollution control experts, and students.
1. SITE SCREENING
2. FEASIBILITY STUDIES
3. BENCH AND PILOT SCALE STUDIES
4. TREATMENT DESIGN
5. COST AND PERFORMANCE
6. CASE STUDIES.
We have a worldwide trash epidemic. The average American disposes of 4.4 pounds of garbage per day, and our landfills hold 254 million tons of waste.
What if there were a simple—and fun—way for you to make a difference? What if you could take charge of your own waste, reduce your carbon footprint, and make an individual impact on an already fragile environment?
A zero waste lifestyle is the answer—and Shia Su is living it. Every single piece of unrecyclable garbage Shia has produced in one year fits into a mason jar—and if it seems overwhelming, it isn’t! In Zero Waste, Shia demystifies and simplifies the zero waste lifestyle for the beginner, sharing practical advice, quick solutions, and tips and tricks that will make trash-free living fun and meaningful. Learn how to:
Build your own zero waste kit Prepare real food—the lazy way Make your own DIY household cleaners and toiletries Be zero waste even in the bathroom! And more!
Be part of the solution! Implement these small changes at your own pace, and restructure your life to one of sustainable living for your community, your health, and the earth that sustains you.
The guidelines of this action, as a result of the presentations and discussions, are reported in the conclusions. The main points stressed are: tropospheric chemistry, the problem of the conservation of the ozone layer, the growth of carbon dioxide and climate changes, atmospheric acidity, the effects of changes on water, soils and biota as well as the particular problems of the tropical world. The book will be ideal for postgraduates studying atmospheric chemistry and for environmental protection agencies.
Following an introduction to various polymer structures and their resulting properties, the main part of the book deals with different methods of recycling. It discusses in detail the recycling of such common polymers as polyethylene, polypropylene and PET, as well as rubbers, fibers, engineering polymers, polymer blends and composites. The whole is rounded off with a look at future technologies and the toxicological impact of recycled polymers.
An indispensable reference source for those working in the field, whether in academia or industry, and whether newcomers or advanced readers.
* Contains a comprehensive collection of timely, novel and innovative research case studies in the area of wetland systems applied for the treatment of urban runoff
* Demonstrates to practitioners how natural and constructed wetland systems can be integrated into traditional wastewater systems, which are predominantly applied for the treatment of surface runoff and diffuse pollution
* Assesses the design, operation, management and water treatment performance of sustainable urban drainage systems including constructed wetlands
The book is primarily directed to researchers at all levels in the field of freshwater and marine algal biofouling, and is intended to provide the basis for the development of a greater awareness between the work of the two groups, to their mutual benefit. Knowledge of the common ground and underlying similarities should also be beneficial to workers in both fields. Each chapter is self-contained, with its own list of references etc., and several chapters are extensively illustrated with original high-quality photographs and micrographs. The volume is also indexed.
The monograph will be of interest to academic and industrial chemists, health professionals, as well as both undergraduate and graduate students in health and related sciences.
The main trends of development in the field are also dealt with, e.g. the development of insecticides which present less of a threat to human beings and animals than the ones presently used, whose point of attack is the nervous system. Research is now concentrated on developing chemical compounds which affect the biochemistry or the special behavioural features of insects, instead of acting upon their nervous system. Newly discovered chemicals with selective action which are still in the developmental and experimentational stages are also described.
Because of its comprehensive character, the book will be a useful source of information to those engaged in practical work in this field, as well as to researchers in the agricultural sciences.
The fifth edition maintains a strong interdisciplinary approach to the study of air pollution, covering such topics as chemistry, physics, meteorology, engineering, toxicology, policy, and regulation. New material includes near-road air pollution, new risk assessment approaches, indoor air quality, the impact of biofuels and fuel additives, mercury emissions, forecasting techniques, and the most recent results from the National Air Toxics Assessment.Stronger systems approach, emphasizing the impact of air pollution on ecosystems and human healthRisks, measures, models, and control of air pollution are discussed at scale – starting at the individual/niche level and expanding to planetary/global scaleIncreased emphasis on international issues, including coverage of European initiatives and discussions of the impact of emerging economies like India and ChinaUpdated references, standards, and methods throughout the book make this the most current air pollution text/reference on the marketAll new end-of-chapter problems enhance its usefulness as a course text
In the second edition, the section on ecotoxicology and effects on pollutants has been expanded considerably, as has Chapter 4 on ecological principles and concepts. Further improvement has been made by the addition of a section on ecological engineering - the application of ecologically sound technology in ecosystems - and an appendix on environmental examination of chemicals. The problems of agricultural waste have been included in Part B, and in Chapter 6 on waste water treatment, several pages have been added about non-point sources and the application of ``soft'' technology. Throughout the book, more examples, questions and problems have been included, and several figures and tables have been added to better illustrate the text.