When you drop your Diet Coke can or yesterday's newspaper in the recycling bin, where does it go? Probably halfway around the world, to people and places that clean up what you don't want and turn it into something you can't wait to buy. In Junkyard Planet, Adam Minter-veteran journalist and son of an American junkyard owner-travels deeply into a vast, often hidden, 500-billion-dollar industry that's transforming our economy and environment.
Minter takes us from back-alley Chinese computer recycling operations to recycling factories capable of processing a jumbo jet's worth of trash every day. Along the way, we meet an international cast of characters who have figured out how to squeeze Silicon Valley-scale fortunes from what we all throw away. Junkyard Planet reveals how "going green” usually means making money-and why that's often the most sustainable choice, even when the recycling methods aren't pretty.
With unmatched access to and insight on the waste industry, and the explanatory gifts and an eye for detail worthy of a John McPhee or William Langewiesche, Minter traces the export of America's garbage and the massive profits that China and other rising nations earn from it. What emerges is an engaging, colorful, and sometimes troubling tale of how the way we consume and discard stuff brings home the ascent of a developing world that recognizes value where Americans don't. Junkyard Planet reveals that Americans might need to learn a smarter way to take out the trash.
Take a journey inside the secret world of our biggest export, our most prodigious product, and our greatest legacy: our trash. It’s the biggest thing we make: The average American is on track to produce a whopping 102 tons of garbage across a lifetime, $50 billion in squandered riches rolled to the curb each year, more than that produced by any other people in the world. But that trash doesn’t just magically disappear; our bins are merely the starting point for a strange, impressive, mysterious, and costly journey that may also represent the greatest untapped opportunity of the century.
In Garbology, Pulitzer Prize–winning author Edward Humes investigates the trail of that 102 tons of trash—what’s in it; how much we pay for it; how we manage to create so much of it; and how some families, communities, and even nations are finding a way back from waste to discover a new kind of prosperity. Along the way , he introduces a collection of garbage denizens unlike anyone you’ve ever met: the trash-tracking detectives of MIT, the bulldozer-driving sanitation workers building Los Angeles’ immense Garbage Mountain landfill, the artists in residence at San Francisco’s dump, and the family whose annual trash output fills not a dumpster or a trash can, but a single mason jar.
Garbology digs through our epic piles of trash to reveal not just what we throw away, but who we are and where our society is headed. Are we destined to remain the country whose number-one export is scrap—America as China’s trash compactor—or will the country that invented the disposable economy pioneer a new and less wasteful path? The real secret at the heart of Garbology may well be the potential for a happy ending buried in our landfill. Waste, Humes writes, is the one environmental and economic harm that ordinary working Americans have the power to change—and prosper in the process.
The most troublesome of soft soils are organic soils due mainly to their high compressibility (much higher than in mineral soils), and also their very low shear strength. The large diversity of organic soils with respect to their origin as well as their properties make classification, testing, and engineering prediction of behaviour, very difficult. For this reason, engineers try, in general, to avoid constructing on deep layers of organic soils. If forced, by necessity, to do so, they manage with light structures e.g. embankments or low buildings.
The authors of this book have been involved in a joint research project on the testing of embankments on organic soils. This was carried out in the North-Western part of Poland by the Swedish Geotechnical Institute and the Department of Geotechnics of Warsaw Agricultural University.
The results of their research is presented in this new book and provides a valuable insight into this growing area in the field of engineering geology.
This expansive text pulls together the numerous fields of study encompassed by biogeochemistry to analyze the increasing demands of the growing human population on limited resources and the resulting changes in the planet's chemical makeup.
The book helps students extrapolate small-scale examples to the global level, and also discusses the instrumentation being used by NASA and its role in studies of global change. With extensive cross-referencing of chapters, figures and tables, and an interdisciplinary coverage of the topic at hand, this updated edition provides an excellent framework for courses examining global change and environmental chemistry, and is also a useful self-study guide.Winner of a 2014 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors AssociationCalculates and compares the effects of industrial emissions, land clearing, agriculture, and rising population on Earth's chemistrySynthesizes the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur, and suggests the best current budgets for atmospheric gases such as ammonia, nitrous oxide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfideIncludes an extensive review and up-to-date synthesis of the current literature on the Earth's biogeochemistry
Written for students with some background in engineering, this comprehensive, highly acclaimed text does not only provide detailed instructions on how to solve hazardous waste problems but also guides students to think about ways to approach these problems. Each richly detailed, self-contained chapter ends with a set of discussion topics and problems. Case studies, with equations and design examples, are provided throughout the book to give students the chance to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment and containment technologies.
Drawing on historical research, case studies, and interviews with officials, scholars, and activists in China, Economy traces the economic and political roots of China's environmental challenge and the evolution of the leadership's response. She argues that China's current approach to environmental protection mirrors the one embraced for economic development: devolving authority to local officials, opening the door to private actors, and inviting participation from the international community, while retaining only weak central control.
The result has been a patchwork of environmental protection in which a few wealthy regions with strong leaders and international ties improve their local environments, while most of the country continues to deteriorate, sometimes suffering irrevocable damage. Economy compares China's response with the experience of other societies and sketches out several possible futures for the country.
This second edition of The River Runs Black is updated with information about events between 2005 and 2009, covering China's tumultuous transformation of its economy and its landscape as it deals with the political implications of this behavior as viewed by an international community ever more concerned about climate change and dwindling energy resources.
The received wisdom is that we are on an irrevocable path toward climate catastrophe. The political process, we are told, is broken. Coal-fired power plants in China and India are going to inundate the climate system with CO2 before we can convert to less dangerous ways to generate power. Market mechanisms to control emissions have not, as yet, realized their potential. There is some truth in all of this, but it is not, by any means, the whole story. A Newer World surveys the quantum leaps that are being made in clean technology and tells how governments, industry, and financial institutions are moving faster and more vigorously every day toward embracing these technologies. The challenges are real. A Newer World tells the untold story of the major progress already being made in addressing the looming climate crisis.
Nanomaterials for Wastewater Remediationintroduces techniques for nanoparticle formation and their benefits in environmental cleanup, as well as their recent advances and applications in wastewater treatment. The book follows a sequential approach for the treatment of wastewater, presenting state-of-the-art techniques for the characterization and measurement of nanomaterials.
Nanoparticles represent a promising new technology for wastewater remediation, not only because of their high treatment efficiency, but also for their cost effectiveness, as they have the flexibility for in situ and ex situ applications. New methods for developing nanomaterials with less environmental risk are described. Nanomaterials such as magnetic nanoparticles and graphene-based nanocomposites are discussed in detail. Also includes in-depth analyses of the ecotoxicological impacts of nanomaterials and the latest findings on the transport and fate of nanomaterials in the environment.Covers methods for the characterization of nanomaterials using advanced instrumental techniquesIncludes innovative methods for developing new nanomaterials while lessening their environmental riskProvides the latest methods for determining the transport and fate of nanomaterials in the environmentDiscusses in detail nanomaterials such as magnetic nanoparticles and graphene-based nanocomposites
Included in this work are the following major topics in wastewater treatment: application of various innovative techniques of molecular biology such as FISH, DGGE to microbial community analysis of various types of wastewater treatment; microbial aspect of biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus; emission of nitrous oxide during nitrogen transformation; reduction of sludge production in the wastewater treatment process using membrane and material recovery of biopolymer and cell of photosynthetic bacteria.
Health-related microbiology in water supply and water management using recent innovative molecular biological tools is presented and health risk management is discussed. The practical application of wastewater treatment in developing countries, especially tropical countries is also reviewed.
Researchers in the field of environmental engineering and applied microbiology, and practical engineers who wish to learn the most recent progress in the microbiological aspect of water and wastewater management, will find this book a useful tool.
This revised edition deals with the design, operation, maintenance, and water quality monitoring of traditional and novel wetland systems, but also provides information on the analysis of asset performance and modeling of treatment processes, along with performances of existing infrastructures in predominantly developed, but also developing countries, and the sustainability and economic issues involved.
This new edition contains 10 new chapters, along with multidisciplinary, experimental, and modeling-orientated case study topics that include natural wetlands, constructed treatment wetlands for pollution control, sustainable drainage systems, and specific applications, such as wetlands treating hydrocarbon and ammonia, as well as ecological sanitation systems recycling treated.Contains a broad overview of water and environmental engineering aspects relevant for the drainage and treatment of storm water and wastewater, respectivelyIncludes standard and novel design, operation, monitoring and maintenance recommendations for predominantly constructed wetlands and related sustainable drainage systemsProvides detailed solutions to pressing water quality challenges associated with constructed treatment wetlands, integrated constructed wetlands, sustainable flood retention basins, farm constructed wetlands and storm water ponds, and other sustainable biological filtration and treatment technologies linked to public health engineering
In this book, Thomas W. Church and Robert T. Nakamura provide the first in-depth study of Superfund operations at hazardous waste sites. They examine six Superfund cleanups, including three regions and both 'hard' and 'easy' sites, to ask 'what works?' Based on detailed case studies, the book describes various strategies that have been applied by government regulators and lawyers and the responses to those different strategies by businesses and local government officials.
The authors characterize the implementation strategies used by the EPA as prosecution, accommodation, and public works. They point out that the choice of strategy involves setting priorities among Superfund's competing objectives. They conclude that the best implementation strategy is one that considers the context of each site and the particular priorities in each case. Looking toward the reauthorization of Superfund, they also offer recommendations for improvements in the organization of the program and discuss proposals for change in its liability scheme.
From household trash to radioactive material, "Waste Management"covers the many types of waste humans produce, then looks at the latest scientific breakthroughs and policy initiatives focusing on the waste management problem. It provides a historical context for understanding the current garbage crisis and examines a number of important events and current issues, including the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, managing the debris from Hurricane Katrina and the World Trade Center site, shipbreaking and human rights violations in Asia, the freecycling movement, and San Francisco's ban on plastic grocery bags. The book also looks at the problem globally, from the most developed country to cultures that rely on trash picking and scavenging.
Nuclear Waste Management in Canada provides a critical counterpoint to the favourable position taken by government and industry. The contributors build their case by exploring the following key issues and developments: What do frequently used terms such as safety, risk, and acceptability really mean? How and why did the public consultation process in Canada fail to address ethical and social issues? What is the significance and potential of a public consultation process that involves diverse interests, epistemologies, and actors, including Aboriginal peoples? And how do we ensure that the frameworks for discussion are inclusive and ethical?
This collection is a timely antidote to the uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance that surrounds discussions about nuclear energy.
This volume has been written as a desk reference for the Professional Hazards Manager (PHM). The PHM is a qualified environmental manager that has the responsibility of ensuring that his or her facility or division within the corporation is in compliance with environmental statutes and regulations, as well as participating in the selection of technologies and approaches to remediation, pollution control, and in implementing waste minimization practices. These decisions require knowledge and understanding of the federal, state, and local environmental regulations, a working knowledge of the best available technologies and their associated cost. This volume provides an overview of both the technology and compliance requirements that will assist environmental managers in addressing facility management of hazardous wastes, pollution control, and waste minimization. The book has been designed in part as a study guide to help prepare qualified individuals for the national certification and registration program of Professional Hazards Managers conducted by the National Association of Safety & Health Professionals and other organizations including the Hazard Materials Control Resources Institute (HMCRI) and Fairleigh Dickinson University.
The automobile was once seen as a boon to American life, eradicating the pollution caused by horses and granting citizens new levels of personal freedom and mobility. But it was not long before the servant became the master—public spaces were designed to accommodate the automobile at the expense of the pedestrian, mass transportation was neglected, and the poor, unable to afford cars, saw their access to jobs and amenities worsen. Now even drivers themselves suffer, as cars choke the highways and pollution and congestion have replaced the fresh air of the open road.
Today our world revolves around the car—as a nation, we spend eight billion hours a year stuck in traffic. In Asphalt Nation, Jane Holtz Kay effectively calls for a revolution to reverse our automobile-dependency. Citing successful efforts in places from Portland, Maine, to Portland, Oregon, Kay shows us that radical change is not impossible by any means. She demonstrates that there are economic, political, architectural, and personal solutions that can steer us out of the mess. Asphalt Nation is essential reading for everyone interested in the history of our relationship with the car, and in the prospect of returning to a world of human mobility.
Pembangunan dunia yang begitu pesat telah menyebabkan peningkatan pencemaran alam sekitar, terutamanya pencemaran udara yang telah memberikan pelbagai kesan negatif. Sehubungan ini kawalan pencemaran udara perlu diusahakan dan dipertingkatkan untuk mencegah pembebasan bahan pencemar berbahaya ke dalam atmosfera. Pengetahuan tentang bahan pencemar, konsep metereologi dan isu pencemaran udara dan iklim sejagat semestinya perlu difahami terlebih dahulu, diikuti kaedah pengukuran kadar pembebasan bahan pencemar serta perkembangan teknologi terkini bagi merealisasikan usaha ini. Senario pencemaran udara ini juga perlu dilihat daripada aspek undang-undang dan peraturan kawalan udara.
Buku Pengenalan Kepada Pencemaran Udara ini amat sesuai dijadikan rujukan dan panduan para pelajar, jurutera dan mereka yang berminat tentang masalah dan kawalan pencemaran udara. Gaya penyampaian buku yang ringkas namun padat sememangnya menjadi hasrat penulis agar memudahkan pemahaman pembaca. Kes kajian bahan pencemar daripada sektor tenaga, iaitu arang batu turut dibincangkan untuk memberi gambaran sebenar tentang situasi yang berlaku.
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Outstanding features include:
Comprehensive, rigorous, and highly accessible coverageIncludes information on groundwater flow, well hydraulics, field methods for parameter estimation, hydrologic relationships between surface water and groundwater hydrology, mass transport of contaminants by advection, diffusion and dispersion, and special problems posed by nonaqueous phase liquids (oils).
Strong focus on applicationsEmpowers readers with knowledge and methodologies that they can use in real, day-to-day practices. Includes 66 worked examples and 178 problems integrated throughout.
Examination of standard software being used in the industry todayExposes readers to the USGS MODFLOW model (the most widely used numerical simulation model for groundwater flow) and the USGS MOC3D. These models, together with a user interface (MFI), can be downloaded from the Internet.
This book is divided into four sub-sections which discuss: marine fouling organisms and their impact, testing and development of antifouling coatings, developments in chemically-active marine antifouling technologies, and new surface approaches to the control of marine biofouling. It provides an authoritative overview of the recent advances in understanding the biology of fouling organisms, the latest developments on antifouling screening techniques both in the field and in the laboratory, research on safer active compounds and the progress on nontoxic coatings with tailor-made surface properties.
With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Advances in marine antifouling coatings and technologies is a standard reference for manufacturers of marine antifouling solutions, the shipping industry, oil and gas producers, aquaculture and other industries using offshore structures, and academics researching this important area.Assesses marine antifouling organisms and their impact, including a historical review and directions for future researchDiscusses developments in antifouling coatings examining chemically-active and new surface approachesReviews the environmentally friendly alternative of safer active compounds and the progress of non-toxic compounds
Scientist-turned-activist Paul Connett, a leading international figure in decades-long battles to fight pollution, has championed efforts to curtail overconsumption and keep industrial toxins out of our air and drinking water and bodies. But he's best known around the world for leading efforts to help communities deal with their waste in sustainable ways--in other words, to eliminate and reuse waste rather than burn it or stow it away in landfills.
In The Zero Waste Solution, Connett profiles the most successful zero-waste initiatives around the world, showing activists, planners, and entrepreneurs how to re-envision their community's waste-handling process--by consuming less, turning organic waste into compost, recycling, reusing other waste, demanding nonwasteful product design, and creating jobs and bringing community members together in the process. The book also exposes the greenwashing behind renewed efforts to promote waste incinerators as safe, nontoxic energy suppliers, and gives detailed information on how communities can battle incineration projects that, even at their best, emit dangerous particles into the atmosphere, many of which remain unregulated or poorly regulated.
An important toolkit for anyone interested in creating sustainable communities, generating secure local jobs, and keeping toxic alternatives at bay.
It gives the environmental scientist, engineer, and legal specialist a complete toolbox for conducting forensic investigations. It demonstrates the range of scientific analyses that are available to answer questions of environmental liability and support a legal argument, and provides several examples and case studies to illustrate how these methods are applied.
This is a textbook that would prove useful to a range of disciplines, including environmental scientists involved in water and air pollution, contaminated land and geographical information systems; and archaeologists, hydrochemists and geochemists interested in dating sources of pollution.Co-edited by one of the experts from the Civil Action case in Woburn, MAProvides essential information about identifying environmental contaminants responsible for millions of deaths per yearContains the latest information and coverage of issues crucial to both forensics investigators and environmental scientists
home heating to industry. Regions where coal was readily available, such
as the Ruhr Valley in Germany and western Pennsylvania in the United
States, witnessed exponential growth-yet also suffered the greatest
damage from coal pollution.
These conditions prompted civic
activism in the form of “anti-smoke” campaigns to attack the unsightly
physical manifestations of coal burning. This early period witnessed
significant cooperation between industrialists, government, and citizens
to combat the smoke problem. It was not until the 1960s, when attention
shifted from dust and grime to hazardous invisible gases, that
cooperation dissipated, and protests took an antagonistic turn.
The Age of Smoke
presents an original, comparative history of environmental policy and
protest in the United States and Germany. Dividing this history into
distinct eras (1880 to World War I, interwar, post-World War II to
1970), Frank Uekoetter compares and contrasts the influence of
political, class, and social structures, scientific communities,
engineers, industrial lobbies, and environmental groups in each nation.
He concludes with a discussion of the environmental revolution, arguing
that there were indeed two environmental revolutions in both countries:
one societal, where changing values gave urgency to air pollution
control, the other institutional, where changes in policies tried to
catch up with shifting sentiments.
Focusing on a critical period in environmental history, The Age of Smoke
provides a valuable study of policy development in two modern
industrial nations, and the rise of civic activism to combat air
pollution. As Uekoetter's work reveals, the cooperative approaches
developed in an earlier era offer valuable lessons and perhaps the best
hope for future progress.
This report presents research on the land application of wastewater sludge, especially quantitative and qualitative aspects of soil-sludge interaction. Each year, approximately 6.2 million dry metric tons of wastewater sludge are produced by municipal wastewater treatment facilities in the United States. The annual sludge production is expected to reach 12 million dry metric tons by the year 2000. Sludge use and disposal options include incineration, ocean disposal, marketing of processed sludge, landfilling, and land application. Land application of sludge is achieved by spreading the sludge over the ground surface or incorporating it within the topsoil by injection, disking, or plowing. Sludge is applied to agricultural and forest lands for its nutrient value and to disturbed areas for soil amendment and reclamation purposes. At present, land application is the logical alternative because of its environmental and economic advantages over the other methods.
Topics include:mechanisms for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, the role of trace elements, hydrologic effects of soil-sludge interaction, use of municipal sludge to reclaim mined land, and health effects.
The report concludes with recommendations for future research.
- New efficient and selective catalytic processes
- Use of non-usual media or environmentally benign reagents
- New selective and efficient synthetic methods
- New techniques based on alternative energy sources.
All these topics are covered in 15 chapters written by world-renowned experts in these fields who were the lecturers of the NATO ASI NeMeTOC (2005, Siena). Since some of the authors have an industrial background, the book helps to answer virtually any questions which may arise during the development of a new environmentally benign organic process.
GHGT-4 was different from its predecessors in that it included all greenhouse gases, not only CO2, and all issues which could contribute to the mitigation of the greenhouse problem - technical, economic and political. The main focus was on practical solutions and real demonstrations of mitigation technology being planned and implemented today. It also addressed ways to increase the efficiency of power production and utilisation, and looked at proposals to encourage the development of renewable energy sources.
During the Opening Session, 10 keynote addresses were heard from prominent personalities in government, industry and academia. To tackle this very inter-disciplinary problem and to achieve acceptable solutions, it is essential for industry and government to initiate intense dialogue and cooperation. Conferences like this can provide the opportunity for a meeting of minds between engineers and politicians in the face of global challenge. The primary attributes of this global challenge are manifold: the problem is global and international; it is inter-disciplinary, both in substance and approach; it covers technical, political and economic issues and involves government, science, industry and academia; it is complex and non-linear; and it will take the efforts of all parties involved to solve the problem.
These proceedings contain ideas for starting demonstration projects and for making better use of the power and flexibility of market measures. They also show it is a problem we can influence and that there is a wealth of ideas. The challenge now is to find the right partners to put these ideas into action.
Individual articles are preceded by a topical outline and discuss the origin, prevalence, mechanisms of toxicity and damaging effects of each hazardous material.
Comprehensive coverage of individual toxic elements, including
Coverage of hazardous material groups, such as
More general articles, such as
Evaluation and testing of carcinogens
Transport of pollutants
Part I covers a technical and descriptive summary of air quality and global change issues relevant to the oil and gas industry, with Part II summarizing state-of-the-art methods pertaining to the analysis and solution of the problems identified in the earlier section. Examples of state-of-the-art methods covered include real-time monitoring with chemical ionization mass spectrometry, drone-mounted mini-lasers and gas cells, tomographic remote sensing, inverse modeling of emissions, 3D fluid, chemical, and transport models, and contemporary control technologies, such as flare minimization, oxidation catalysts, and vapor recovery.
In addition, field studies, policy-relevant modeling assessments, and regulatory decisions from multiple geographic regions are presented, providing readers best practices from real world applications.Addresses major environmental issues of concern as a result of the oil and gas industryReflects a balanced, objective view that is based on scientific principles Provides a wide geographical perspectivePresents a rigorous and comprehensive scientific basis for crafting solutions to air quality problems created by the oil and gas industry
With its multi-author approach, there is a wide range of expertise in tackling the topic.Addresses real scenarios of polluted sitesPresents updates of the available methodologies for the quality control of indoor and outdoor airIncludes evaluations of working scenarios in different fields as mandated by regulations
This book examines environmental noise pollution, its health implications, the role of strategic noise mapping for problem assessment, major sources of environmental noise pollution, noise mitigation approaches, and related procedural and policy implications. Drawing on the authors' considerable research expertise in the area, the book is the first coherent work on this major environmental stressor, a new benchmark reference across disciplinary, policy and national boundaries.Highlights recent developments in the policy arena with particular focus on developments in the EU within the context of the European Noise DirectiveExplores the lessons emerging from nations within the EU and other jurisdictions attempting to legislate and mitigate against the harmful effects of noise pollutionCovers the core theoretical concepts and principles surrounding the mechanics of noise pollution as well as the evidence-base linking noise with public health concerns