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The book begins with a short review of calculus and ordinary differential equations, then moves on to explore integral curves and surfaces of vector fields, quasi-linear and linear equations of first order, series solutions and the Cauchy Kovalevsky theorem. It then delves into linear partial differential equations, examines the Laplace, wave and heat equations, and concludes with a brief treatment of hyperbolic systems of equations.

Among the most important features of the text are the challenging problems at the end of each section which require a wide variety of responses from students, from providing details of the derivation of an item presented to solving specific problems associated with partial differential equations. Requiring only a modest mathematical background, the text will be indispensable to those who need to use partial differential equations in solving physical problems. It will provide as well the mathematical fundamentals for those who intend to pursue the study of more advanced topics, including modern theory.

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Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems 11e, like its predecessors, is written from the viewpoint of the applied mathematician, whose interest in differential equations may sometimes be quite theoretical, sometimes intensely practical, and often somewhere in between. The authors have sought to combine a sound and accurate (but not abstract) exposition of the elementary theory of differential equations with considerable material on methods of solution, analysis, and approximation that have proved useful in a wide variety of applications. While the general structure of the book remains unchanged, some notable changes have been made to improve the clarity and readability of basic material about differential equations and their applications. In addition to expanded explanations, the 11th edition includes new problems, updated figures and examples to help motivate students.

The program is primarily intended for undergraduate students of mathematics, science, or engineering, who typically take a course on differential equations during their first or second year of study. The main prerequisite for engaging with the program is a working knowledge of calculus, gained from a normal twoï¿1?2 or threeï¿1?2 semester course sequence or its equivalent. Some familiarity with matrices will also be helpful in the chapters on systems of differential equations.

In addition to expanded explanations, the 11th edition includes new problems, updated figures and examples to help motivate students. The program is primarily intended for undergraduate students of mathematics, science, or engineering, who typically take a course on differential equations during their first or second year of study. The main prerequisite for engaging with the program is a working knowledge of calculus, gained from a normal two?] or three?] semester course sequence or its equivalent. Some familiarity with matrices will also be helpful in the chapters on systems of differential equations.

This highly useful text shows the reader how to formulate a partial differential equation from the physical problem (constructing the mathematical model) and how to solve the equation (along with initial and boundary conditions). Written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professionals working in the applied sciences, this clearly written book offers realistic, practical coverage of diffusion-type problems, hyperbolic-type problems, elliptic-type problems, and numerical and approximate methods. Each chapter contains a selection of relevant problems (answers are provided) and suggestions for further reading.

The first chapters of the book focus on the basic concepts and facts of analytic geometry, the theory of space curves, and the foundations of the theory of surfaces, including problems closely related to the first and second fundamental forms. The treatment of the theory of surfaces makes full use of the tensor calculus.

The later chapters address geodesics, mappings of surfaces, special surfaces, and the absolute differential calculus and the displacement of Levi-Cività. Problems at the end of each section (with solutions at the end of the book) will help students meaningfully review the material presented, and familiarize themselves with the manner of reasoning in differential geometry.

The principal aim of analysis of tensors is to investigate those relations which remain valid when we change from one coordinate system to another. This book on Tensors requires only a knowledge of elementary calculus, differential equations and classical mechanics as pre-requisites. It provides the readers with all the information about the tensors along with the derivation of all the tensorial relations/equations in a simple manner. The book also deals in detail with topics of importance to the study of special and general relativity and the geometry of differentiable manifolds with a crystal clear exposition. The concepts dealt within the book are well supported by a number of solved examples. A carefully selected set of unsolved problems is also given at the end of each chapter, and the answers and hints for the solution of these problems are given at the end of the book. The applications of tensors to the fields of differential geometry, relativity, cosmology and electromagnetism is another attraction of the present book.

This book is intended to serve as text for postgraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. It is ideally suited for both students and teachers who are engaged in research in General Theory of Relativity and Differential Geometry.

Many of the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, biology, and economics can be formulated as differential equations. This plain-English guide explores the many applications of this mathematical tool and shows how differential equations can help us understand the world around us. Differential Equations For Dummies is the perfect companion for a college differential equations course and is an ideal supplemental resource for other calculus classes as well as science and engineering courses. It offers step-by-step techniques, practical tips, numerous exercises, and clear, concise examples to help readers improve their differential equation-solving skills and boost their test scores.

The treatment begins with a chapter on curves, followed by explorations of regular surfaces, the geometry of the Gauss map, the intrinsic geometry of surfaces, and global differential geometry. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, this text's prerequisites include an undergraduate course in linear algebra and some familiarity with the calculus of several variables. For this second edition, the author has corrected, revised, and updated the entire volume.

This second edition has been extensively revised and clarified, and the topics have been substantially rearranged. The book now introduces the two most important analytic tools, the rank theorem and the fundamental theorem on flows, much earlier so that they can be used throughout the book. A few new topics have been added, notably Sard’s theorem and transversality, a proof that infinitesimal Lie group actions generate global group actions, a more thorough study of first-order partial differential equations, a brief treatment of degree theory for smooth maps between compact manifolds, and an introduction to contact structures.

Prerequisites include a solid acquaintance with general topology, the fundamental group, and covering spaces, as well as basic undergraduate linear algebra and real analysis.

Written by a noted mathematician and historian of mathematics, this volume presents the fundamental conceptions of the theory of curves and surfaces and applies them to a number of examples. Dr. Struik has enhanced the treatment with copious historical, biographical, and bibliographical references that place the theory in context and encourage the student to consult original sources and discover additional important ideas there.

For this second edition, Professor Struik made some corrections and added an appendix with a sketch of the application of Cartan's method of Pfaffians to curve and surface theory. The result was to further increase the merit of this stimulating, thought-provoking text — ideal for classroom use, but also perfectly suited for self-study. In this attractive, inexpensive paperback edition, it belongs in the library of any mathematician or student of mathematics interested in differential geometry.

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1. Fourier series

1.1 Basic concepts

1.2 Fourier series and Fourier coefficients

1.3 A minimizing property of the Fourier coefficients. The Riemann-Lebesgue theorem

1.4 Convergence of Fourier series

1.5 The Parseval formula

1.6 Determination of the sum of certain trigonometric series

Chapter 2. Orthogonal systems

2.1 Integration of complex-valued functions of a real variable

2.2 Orthogonal systems

2.3 Complete orthogonal systems

2.4 Integration of Fourier series

2.5 The Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process

2.6 Sturm-Liouville problems

Chapter 3. Orthogonal polynomials

3.1 The Legendre polynomials

3.2 Legendre series

3.3 The Legendre differential equation. The generating function of the Legendre polynomials

3.4 The Tchebycheff polynomials

3.5 Tchebycheff series

3.6 The Hermite polynomials. The Laguerre polynomials

Chapter 4. Fourier transforms

4.1 Infinite interval of integration

4.2 The Fourier integral formula: a heuristic introduction

4.3 Auxiliary theorems

4.4 Proof of the Fourier integral formula. Fourier transforms

4.5 The convention theorem. The Parseval formula

Chapter 5. Laplace transforms

5.1 Definition of the Laplace transform. Domain. Analyticity

5.2 Inversion formula

5.3 Further properties of Laplace transforms. The convolution theorem

5.4 Applications to ordinary differential equations

Chapter 6. Bessel functions

6.1 The gamma function

6.2 The Bessel differential equation. Bessel functions

6.3 Some particular Bessel functions

6.4 Recursion formulas for the Bessel functions

6.5 Estimation of Bessel functions for large values of x. The zeros of the Bessel functions

6.6 Bessel series

6.7 The generating function of the Bessel functions of integral order

6.8 Neumann functions

Chapter 7. Partial differential equations of first order

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The differential equation of a family of surfaces

7.3 Homogeneous differential equations

7.4 Linear and quasilinear differential equations

Chapter 8. Partial differential equations of second order

8.1 Problems in physics leading to partial differential equations

8.2 Definitions

8.3 The wave equation

8.4 The heat equation

8.5 The Laplace equation

Answers to exercises; Bibliography; Conventions; Symbols; Index

Written on an advanced level, the book is aimed at advanced undergraduates and graduate students with a background in calculus, linear algebra, ordinary differential equations, and complex analysis. Over 260 carefully chosen exercises, with answers, encompass both routing and more challenging problems to help students test their grasp of the material.

Containing a careful selection of standard and timely topics, the Pocket Book of Integrals and Mathematical Formulas, Fourth Edition presents many numerical and statistical tables, scores of worked examples, and the most useful mathematical formulas for engineering and scientific applications. This fourth edition of a bestseller provides even more comprehensive coverage with the inclusion of several additional topics, all while maintaining its accessible, clear style and handy size.

New to the Fourth Edition

• An expanded chapter on series that covers many fascinating properties of the natural numbers that follow from number theory

• New applications such as geostationary satellite orbits and drug kinetics

• An expanded statistics section that discusses nonlinear regression as well as the normal approximation of the binomial distribution

• Revised format of the table of integrals for easier use of the forms and functions

Easy to Use on the Go

The book addresses a range of areas, from elementary algebra, geometry, matrices, and trigonometry to calculus, vector analysis, differential equations, and statistics. Featuring a convenient, portable size, it is sure to remain in the pockets or on the desks of all who use mathematical formulas and tables of integrals and derivatives.

Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent study will particularly appreciate the worked examples that appear throughout the text.

Starting with an introduction to the various curvatures associated to a hypersurface embedded in Euclidean space, the text advances to a brief review of the differential and integral calculus on manifolds. A discussion of the fundamental notions of linear connections and their curvatures follows, along with considerations of Levi-Civita's theorem, bi-invariant metrics on a Lie group, Cartan calculations, Gauss's lemma, and variational formulas. Additional topics include the Hopf-Rinow, Myer's, and Frobenius theorems; special and general relativity; connections on principal and associated bundles; the star operator; superconnections; semi-Riemannian submersions; and Petrov types. Prerequisites include linear algebra and advanced calculus, preferably in the language of differential forms.

Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and differential equations in the complex field. The author discusses only ordinary differential equations, excluding coverage of the methods of integration and stressing the importance of reading the properties of the integrals directly from the equations. An extensive bibliography and helpful indexes conclude the text.

The Second Edition maintained the accessibility of the first, while providing an introduction to the use of computers and expanding discussion on certain topics. Further emphasis was placed on topological properties, properties of geodesics, singularities of vector fields, and the theorems of Bonnet and Hadamard.

This revision of the Second Edition provides a thorough update of commands for the symbolic computation programs Mathematica or Maple, as well as additional computer exercises. As with the Second Edition, this material supplements the content but no computer skill is necessary to take full advantage of this comprehensive text.

Over 36,000 copies sold worldwideAccessible, practical yet rigorous approach to a complex topic--also suitable for self-studyExtensive update of appendices on Mathematica and Maple software packagesThorough streamlining of second edition's numbering systemFuller information on solutions to odd-numbered problemsAdditional exercises and hints guide students in using the latest computer modeling toolsAbout the First Edition: I have used this book for both regular PDE and topics courses. It has a wonderful combination of insight and technical detail...Evans' book is evidence of his mastering of the field and the clarity of presentation (Luis Caffarelli, University of Texas)

It is fun to teach from Evans' book. It explains many of the essential ideas and techniques of partial differential equations ...Every graduate student in analysis should read it. (David Jerison, MIT)

I use Partial Differential Equations to prepare my students for their Topic exam, which is a requirement before starting working on their dissertation. The book provides an excellent account of PDE's ...I am very happy with the preparation it provides my students. (Carlos Kenig, University of Chicago)

Evans' book has already attained the status of a classic. It is a clear choice for students just learning the subject, as well as for experts who wish to broaden their knowledge ...An outstanding reference for many aspects of the field. (Rafe Mazzeo, Stanford University.

Part 1 begins by employing vector methods to explore the classical theory of curves and surfaces. An introduction to the differential geometry of surfaces in the large provides students with ideas and techniques involved in global research. Part 2 introduces the concept of a tensor, first in algebra, then in calculus. It covers the basic theory of the absolute calculus and the fundamentals of Riemannian geometry. Worked examples and exercises appear throughout the text.

The book is divided into four chapters, with two useful appendices, an excellent bibliography, and an index. A section of exercises enables the student to check his progress. Contents include Volterra Equations, Fredholm Equations, Symmetric Kernels and Orthogonal Systems of Functions, Types of Singular or Nonlinear Integral Equations, and more.

Professor Tricomi has presented the principal results of the theory with sufficient generality and mathematical rigor to facilitate theoretical applications. On the other hand, the treatment is not so abstract as to be inaccessible to physicists and engineers who need integral equations as a basic mathematical tool. In fact, most of the material in this book falls into an analytical framework whose content and methods are already traditional.

Get the confidence and the skills you need to master differential equations!

Need to know how to solve differential equations? This easy-to-follow, hands-on workbook helps you master the basic concepts and work through the types of problems you'll encounter in your coursework. You get valuable exercises, problem-solving shortcuts, plenty of workspace, and step-by-step solutions to every equation. You'll also memorize the most-common types of differential equations, see how to avoid common mistakes, get tips and tricks for advanced problems, improve your exam scores, and much more!

More than 100 Problems!

Detailed, fully worked-out solutions to problems

The inside scoop on first, second, and higher order differential equations

A wealth of advanced techniques, including power series

THE DUMMIES WORKBOOK WAY

Quick, refresher explanations

Step-by-step procedures

Hands-on practice exercises

Ample workspace to work out problems

Online Cheat Sheet

A dash of humor and fun

The main focus is on manifolds in Euclidean space and the metric properties they inherit from it. Among the topics discussed are curvature and how it affects the shape of space, and the generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus known as Stokes' theorem.

Volume III concentrates on the classical aspects of gauge theory, describing the four fundamental forces by the curvature of appropriate fiber bundles. This must be supplemented by the crucial, but elusive quantization procedure.

The book is arranged in four sections, devoted to realizing the universal principle force equals curvature:

Part I: The Euclidean Manifold as a Paradigm

Part II: Ariadne's Thread in Gauge Theory

Part III: Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity

Part IV: Ariadne's Thread in Cohomology

For students of mathematics the book is designed to demonstrate that detailed knowledge of the physical background helps to reveal interesting interrelationships among diverse mathematical topics. Physics students will be exposed to a fairly advanced mathematics, beyond the level covered in the typical physics curriculum.

Quantum Field Theory builds a bridge between mathematicians and physicists, based on challenging questions about the fundamental forces in the universe (macrocosmos), and in the world of elementary particles (microcosmos).

The University of Toronto Undergraduate Competition was founded to provide additional competition experience for undergraduates preparing for the Putnam competition, and is particularly useful for the freshman or sophomore undergraduate. Lecturers, instructors, and coaches for mathematics competitions will find this presentation useful. Many of the problems are of intermediate difficulty and relate to the first two years of the undergraduate curriculum. The problems presented may be particularly useful for regular class assignments. Moreover, this text contains problems that lie outside the regular syllabus and may interest students who are eager to learn beyond the classroom.

The narrative does not evolve along traditional subject lines: each topic develops from its simplest, intuitive starting point; complexity develops naturally via questions and extensions. Throughout, the book includes levels of explanation, discussion and passion rarely seen in traditional textbooks. The choice of material is similarly rich, ranging from number theory and the nature of mathematical thought to quantum mechanics and the history of mathematics. It rounds off with a selection of thought-provoking and stimulating exercises for the reader.

Each of the chapters concludes with groups of exercises and problems, many of them with detailed solutions while others with hints or final answers. More advanced topics, such as Morse's lemma, Sard's theorem , the Weierstrass approximation theorem, the Fourier transform, Vector fields on spheres, Brouwer's fixed point theorem, Whitney's embedding theorem, Picard's theorem, and Hermite polynomials are discussed in stared sections.

The book is divided into three parts. The first introduces the framework for the above-mentioned classification, methodically developing a geometric and topological formulation applicable to all physical laws and properties; the second applies this formulation to a detailed study of particle dynamics, electromagnetism, deformable solids, fluid dynamics, heat conduction, and gravitation. The third part further analyses the general structure of the classification diagram for variables and equations of physical theories.

Suitable for a diverse audience of physicists, engineers, and mathematicians, The Mathematical Structure of Classical and Relativistic Physics offers a valuable resource for studying the physical world. Written at a level accessible to graduate and advanced undergraduate students in mathematical physics, the book can be used as a research monograph across various areas of physics, engineering and mathematics, and as a supplemental text for a broad range of upper-level scientific coursework.

The book contains nearly 900 exercises ranging in difficulty from basic drills to advanced problem-solving exercises.

Professors and students agree that Powers is a master at creating examples and exercises that skillfully illustrate the techniques used to solve science and engineering problems.

Ancillary list:

Online SSM- http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780123747198 Online ISM- http://textbooks.elsevier.com/web/manuals.aspx?isbn=9780123747198 Companion site, Ebook- http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companion.jsp?ISBN=9780123747198 Student Solution Manual for Sixth Edition - https://www.elsevier.com/books/student-solutions-manual-boundary-value-problems/powers/978-0-12-375664-0New animations and graphics of solutions, additional exercises and chapter review questions on the webNearly 900 exercises ranging in difficulty from basic drills to advanced problem-solving exercises Many exercises based on current engineering applicationsIntroduction to Computation and Modeling for Differential Equations, Second Edition features the essential principles and applications of problem solving across disciplines such as engineering, physics, and chemistry. The Second Edition integrates the science of solving differential equations with mathematical, numerical, and programming tools, specifically with methods involving ordinary differential equations; numerical methods for initial value problems (IVPs); numerical methods for boundary value problems (BVPs); partial differential equations (PDEs); numerical methods for parabolic, elliptic, and hyperbolic PDEs; mathematical modeling with differential equations; numerical solutions; and finite difference and finite element methods.

The author features a unique “Five-M” approach: Modeling, Mathematics, Methods, MATLAB®, and Multiphysics, which facilitates a thorough understanding of how models are created and preprocessed mathematically with scaling, classification, and approximation and also demonstrates how a problem is solved numerically using the appropriate mathematical methods. With numerous real-world examples to aid in the visualization of the solutions, Introduction to Computation and Modeling for Differential Equations, Second Edition includes:

New sections on topics including variational formulation, the finite element method, examples of discretization, ansatz methods such as Galerkin’s method for BVPs, parabolic and elliptic PDEs, and finite volume methods Numerous practical examples with applications in mechanics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics, chemical engineering, heat conduction, electromagnetic field theory, and control theory, some of which are solved with computer programs MATLAB and COMSOL Multiphysics® Additional exercises that introduce new methods, projects, and problems to further illustrate possible applications A related website with select solutions to the exercises, as well as the MATLAB data sets for ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and PDEsIntroduction to Computation and Modeling for Differential Equations, Second Edition is a useful textbook for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses in scientific computing, differential equations, ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, and numerical methods. The book is also an excellent self-study guide for mathematics, science, computer science, physics, and engineering students, as well as an excellent reference for practitioners and consultants who use differential equations and numerical methods in everyday situations.

Ordinary Differential Equations: An Introduction to the Fundamentals also includes access to an author-maintained website featuring detailed solutions and a wealth of bonus material. Use of a math software package that can do symbolic calculations, graphing, and so forth, such as MapleTM or Mathematica®, is highly recommended, but not required.

This concise text offers undergraduates in mathematics and science a thorough and systematic first course in elementary differential equations. Presuming a knowledge of basic calculus, the book first reviews the mathematical essentials required to master the materials to be presented.

The next four chapters take up linear equations, those of the first order and those with constant coefficients, variable coefficients, and regular singular points. The last two chapters address the existence and uniqueness of solutions to both first order equations and to systems and n-th order equations.

Throughout the book, the author carries the theory far enough to include the statements and proofs of the simpler existence and uniqueness theorems. Dr. Coddington, who has taught at MIT, Princeton, and UCLA, has included many exercises designed to develop the student's technique in solving equations. He has also included problems (with answers) selected to sharpen understanding of the mathematical structure of the subject, and to introduce a variety of relevant topics not covered in the text, e.g. stability, equations with periodic coefficients, and boundary value problems.

The text is accessible to students from a wide variety of backgrounds, including undergraduate students entering applied mathematics from non-mathematical fields and graduate students in the sciences and engineering who want to learn analysis. A basic background in calculus, linear algebra and ordinary differential equations, as well as some familiarity with functions and sets, should be sufficient.

Topics include first order equations and the method of characteristics, second order linear equations, wave and heat equations, Laplace and Poisson equations, and separation of variables. The book also covers fundamental solutions, Green's functions and distributions, beginning functional analysis applied to elliptic PDEs, traveling wave solutions of selected parabolic PDEs, and scalar conservation laws and systems of hyperbolic PDEs.

Provides an accessible yet rigorous introduction to partial differential equationsDraws connections to advanced topics in analysisCovers applications to continuum mechanicsAn electronic solutions manual is available only to professorsAn online illustration package is available to professors

Starting with an introduction to differential equations, the text proceeds to examinations of first- and second-order differential equations, series solutions, the Laplace transform, systems of differential equations, difference equations, nonlinear differential equations and chaos, and partial differential equations. Numerous figures, problems with solutions, and historical notes clarify the text.

Written by a well-known authority in the field, this volume employs practical examples and analogies to make models more meaningful. The more universal methods appear in considerable detail, and advanced dynamic principles feature easy-to-understand examples. The text draws careful distinctions between mathematical abstractions and observable realities. Additional topics include the role of pure mathematics, the limitations of numerical methods, forecasting in the presence of chaos and randomness, and dynamics without calculus. Specialized techniques and case histories are coordinated with a carefully selected and annotated bibliography. The original edition was a Library of Science Main Selection in May, 1991. This new Dover edition features corrections by the author and a new Preface.

Incorporating many of the techniques of applied mathematics, the book also contains most of the concepts of rigorous analysis usually found in a course in advanced calculus. These techniques and concepts are presented in a setting where their need is clear and their application immediate. Chapters I through IV cover the one-dimensional wave equation, linear second-order partial differential equations in two variables, some properties of elliptic and parabolic equations and separation of variables, and Fourier series. Chapters V through VIII address nonhomogeneous problems, problems in higher dimensions and multiple Fourier series, Sturm-Liouville theory, and general Fourier expansions and analytic functions of a complex variable.

The last four chapters are devoted to the evaluation of integrals by complex variable methods, solutions based on the Fourier and Laplace transforms, and numerical approximation methods. Numerous exercises are included throughout the text, with solutions at the back.

The book formally splits the "pure" and "applied" parts of the contents by placing the discussion of selected mathematical models in separate chapters. At the end of most of the 246 worked examples, the author provides the commands in Mathematica® for verifying the results. The book can be used independently by the average student to learn the fundamentals of the subject, while those interested in pursuing more advanced material can regard it as an easily taken first step on the way to the next level. Additionally, practitioners who encounter differential equations in their professional work will find this text to be a convenient source of reference.

Examples range broadly, exploring the dynamics of neurons and the immune system, through to population dynamics and the Google PageRank algorithm. Each scenario relies only on an interest in the natural world; no biological expertise is assumed of student or instructor. Building on a single prerequisite of Precalculus, the book suits a two-quarter sequence for first or second year undergraduates, and meets the mathematical requirements of medical school entry. The later material provides opportunities for more advanced students in both mathematics and life sciences to revisit theoretical knowledge in a rich, real-world framework. In all cases, the focus is clear: how does the math help us understand the science?

After discussing some mathematical preliminaries, author Raimond A. Struble presents detailed treatments of the existence and the uniqueness of a solution of the initial-value problem, properties of solutions, properties of linear systems, stability in nonlinear systems, and two-dimensional systems. Additional chapters examine perturbations of periodic solutions and a general asymptotic method. Numerous exercises appear throughout the book, along with examples that contribute additional material, illustrate theorems and concepts, and provide a link with more practical aspects of the theory.

Petrovsky was a leading figure in Russian mathematics responsible for many advances in the field of partial differential equations. In these masterly lectures, his commentary and discussion of various aspects of the problems under consideration will prove valuable in deepening students’ understanding and appreciation of these problems.