The Spanish flu of 1918-1920 was one of the greatest human disasters of all time. It infected a third of the people on Earth--from the poorest immigrants of New York City to the king of Spain, Franz Kafka, Mahatma Gandhi and Woodrow Wilson. But despite a death toll of between 50 and 100 million people, it exists in our memory as an afterthought to World War I.
In this gripping narrative history, Laura Spinney traces the overlooked pandemic to reveal how the virus travelled across the globe, exposing mankind's vulnerability and putting our ingenuity to the test. As socially significant as both world wars, the Spanish flu dramatically disrupted--and often permanently altered--global politics, race relations and family structures, while spurring innovation in medicine, religion and the arts. It was partly responsible, Spinney argues, for pushing India to independence, South Africa to apartheid and Switzerland to the brink of civil war. It also created the true "lost generation." Drawing on the latest research in history, virology, epidemiology, psychology and economics, Pale Rider masterfully recounts the little-known catastrophe that forever changed humanity.
"A major work of interpretation of medical and social thought . . . this volume is also to be commended for its skillful, absorbing presentation of the background and the effects of this dread disease."—I.B. Cohen, New York Times
"The Cholera Years is a masterful analysis of the moral and social interest attached to epidemic disease, providing generally applicable insights into how the connections between social change, changes in knowledge and changes in technical practice may be conceived."—Steven Shapin, Times Literary Supplement
"In a way that is all too rarely done, Rosenberg has skillfully interwoven medical, social, and intellectual history to show how medicine and society interacted and changed during the 19th century. The history of medicine here takes its rightful place in the tapestry of human history."—John B. Blake, Science
Starting from the dual premises that a population is not merely the sum of its individuals and that the improvement of population health is not at odds with the practical desire of improving the health of individuals, Sandro Galea and 33 expert contributors present chapters in three sections. The first section includes eleven chapters that each discuss one macrosocial determinant of population health. The factors covered by these chapters encompass a broad range of intellectual concerns, ranging from regulations and legal frameworks (global governance, patent law and policy), to overarching global phenomena (globalization, migration, urbanization, the media), to a specific consideration of the role of economic, political, and corporate policies and practices. The second section considers particular methodologic issues pertinent to those interested in the study of how macrosocial factors influence the health of populations, offering insights on ecological studies and causal inference, and weighing how we may best study the overlapping roles of determinants at local, state, and national levels. The third section presents a framework for interventions that aim to improve population health and innovative case studies that show this framework in action. Throughout, contributors emphasize the potential of population strategies to influence traditional risk factors associated with health and disease. Each section ends with Galea’s integrative chapters, bringing the observations and conclusions from the chapters into clear, usable focus.
Macrosocial Determinants of Population Health is a work of major theoretical, empirical, and practical interest for disciplines as varied as public health, epidemiology, health promotion, sociology, and health policy. Its systematic field-building approach makes it as valuable to the public health provider as to the scholars and students studying the health of populations.
The real story of AIDS—how it originated with a virus in a chimpanzee, jumped to one human, and then infected more than 60 million people—is very different from what most of us think we know. Recent research has revealed dark surprises and yielded a radically new scenario of how AIDS began and spread. Excerpted and adapted from the book Spillover, with a new introduction by the author, Quammen's hair-raising investigation tracks the virus from chimp populations in the jungles of southeastern Cameroon to laboratories across the globe, as he unravels the mysteries of when, where, and under what circumstances such a consequential "spillover" can happen. An audacious search for answers amid more than a century of data, The Chimp and the River tells the haunting tale of one of the most devastating pandemics of our time.
Over forty experts from around the world bring a depth of ideas to the Handbook of Urban Health, making the Handbook a focused resource for a range of health disciplines. The Handbook presents: (1) A discussion of the health of specific urban populations, among them immigrants, children, the elderly, racial and sexual minorities, the homeless, and the poor. (2) Methods relevant to the study of urban health including epidemiology, research methods, funding and policy issues, urban planning. (3) Practical issues for developing healthy cities including interventions, preventive strategies, providing health services, and teaching urban health. (4) International perspectives from developing countries and the World Health Organization. (5) Integrative chapters that conclude each of the book’s sections, bringing together theoretical models with the big picture.
A unique professional idea book, research resource, and teaching text, the Handbook of Urban Health challenges readers to consider the role that cities play in shaping population health and to generate solutions that can make cities healthier places for all those who live there.
Over the past fifty years, more than three hundred infectious diseases have either newly emerged or reemerged, appearing in territories where they’ve never been seen before. Ninety percent of epidemiologists expect that one of them will cause a deadly pandemic sometime in the next two generations. It could be Ebola, avian flu, a drug-resistant superbug, or something completely new. While we can’t know which pathogen will cause the next pandemic, by unraveling the story of how pathogens have caused pandemics in the past, we can make predictions about the future. In Pandemic: Tracking Contagions, from Cholera to Ebola and Beyond, the prizewinning journalist Sonia Shah—whose book on malaria, The Fever, was called a “tour-de-force history” (The New York Times) and “revelatory” (The New Republic)—interweaves history, original reportage, and personal narrative to explore the origins of contagions, drawing parallels between cholera, one of history’s most deadly and disruptive pandemic-causing pathogens, and the new diseases that stalk humankind today.
To reveal how a new pandemic might develop, Sonia Shah tracks each stage of cholera’s dramatic journey, from its emergence in the South Asian hinterlands as a harmless microbe to its rapid dispersal across the nineteenth-century world, all the way to its latest beachhead in Haiti. Along the way she reports on the pathogens now following in cholera’s footsteps, from the MRSA bacterium that besieges her own family to the never-before-seen killers coming out of China’s wet markets, the surgical wards of New Delhi, and the suburban backyards of the East Coast.
By delving into the convoluted science, strange politics, and checkered history of one of the world’s deadliest diseases, Pandemic reveals what the next global contagion might look like— and what we can do to prevent it.
In 1976 a deadly virus emerged from the Congo forest. As swiftly as it came, it disappeared, leaving no trace. Over the four decades since, Ebola has emerged sporadically, each time to devastating effect. It can kill up to 90 percent of its victims. In between these outbreaks, it is untraceable, hiding deep in the jungle. The search is on to find Ebola’s elusive host animal. And until we find it, Ebola will continue to strike. Acclaimed science writer and explorer David Quammen first came near the virus while he was traveling in the jungles of Gabon, accompanied by local men whose village had been devastated by a recent outbreak. Here he tells the story of Ebola—its past, present, and its unknowable future.
Extracted from Spillover by David Quammen, updated and with additional material.
New to This Edition:
*Chapters on the political ecology of health; emerging infectious diseases and landscape genetics; food, diet, and nutrition; and urban health.
*Coverage of Middle East respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika; impacts on health of global climate change; contaminated water crises in economically developed countries, including in Flint, Michigan; China's rapid industrial growth; and other timely topics.
*Updated throughout with current data and concepts plus advances in GIS.
*End-of-chapter review questions and suggestions for further reading.
*Section Introductions that describe each chapter.
*"Quick Reviews"--within-chapter recaps of key concepts.
*Bold-faced key terms and an end-of-book glossary.
· Downloadable data sets
· Library of computer programs in SAS, SPSS, Stata, HLM, MLwiN, and more
· Additional material for data analysis
In December 2013, a young boy in a tiny West African village contracted the deadly Ebola virus. The virus spread to his relatives, then to neighboring communities, then across international borders. The world’s first urban Ebola outbreak quickly overwhelmed the global health system and threatened to kill millions.
In an increasingly interconnected world in which everyone is one or two flights away from New York or London or Beijing, even a localized epidemic can become a pandemic. Ebola’s spread through West Africa to Nigeria, the United Kingdom and the United States sounded global alarms that the next killer outbreak is right around the corner—and that the world is woefully unprepared to combat a new deadly disease.
From the poorest villages of rural West Africa to the Oval Office itself, this book tells the story of a deadly virus that spun wildly out of control—and reveals the truth about how close the world came to a catastrophic global pandemic.
Managerial Epidemiology for Health Care Organizations has introduced the science of epidemiology and population health to students and practitioners in health management and health services for over sixteen years. The book covers epidemiology basics, introducing principles and traditional uses, and then expertly showing its contemporary uses in planning, evaluating, and managing health care for populations and the practical application in health care management. The book’s practical and applied approach, with real-world examples sprinkled throughout, has made it the go-to book for managerial epidemiology and population health courses.
Since the second edition was published in 2005, the health care landscape has undergone significant changes. Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the incorporation of ICD-10 have impacted the entire health care system. This newly updated third edition will address these two significant changes, as well as several others that have taken place. It also features new chapters on reimbursement approaches and managing infection outbreaks, as well as updates to the four case study chapters that anchor the book.Witness how epidemiological principles are applied to the delivery of health care services and the management of health care organizationsExamine the major changes brought on by the passage of health care reform and incorporation of ICD-10Discover the core epidemiology principles and see how they are applied in planning, evaluating, and managing health care for populations
If you’re a student or professional in any area of health services, including health administration, nursing, and allied health, then Managerial Epidemiology for Health Care Organizations is the perfect book for you. It successfully demonstrates how health care executives can incorporate the practice of epidemiology into their various management functions and is rich with current examples, concepts, and case studies that reinforce the essential theories, methods, and applications of managerial epidemiology.
Unlike natural disasters, whose destruction is concentrated in a limited area over a period of days, and illnesses, which have devastating effects but are limited to individuals and their families, infectious disease has the terrifying power to disrupt everyday life on a global scale, overwhelming public and private resources and bringing trade and transportation to a grinding halt.
In today's world, it's easier than ever to move people, animals, and materials around the planet, but the same advances that make modern infrastructure so efficient have made epidemics and even pandemics nearly inevitable. And as outbreaks of Ebola, MERS, yellow fever, and Zika have demonstrated, we are woefully underprepared to deal with the fallout. So what can -- and must -- we do in order to protect ourselves from mankind's deadliest enemy?
Drawing on the latest medical science, case studies, policy research, and hard-earned epidemiological lessons, Deadliest Enemy explores the resources and programs we need to develop if we are to keep ourselves safe from infectious disease. The authors show how we could wake up to a reality in which many antibiotics no longer cure, bioterror is a certainty, and the threat of a disastrous influenza pandemic looms ever larger. Only by understanding the challenges we face can we prevent the unthinkable from becoming the inevitable.
Deadliest Enemy is high scientific drama, a chronicle of medical mystery and discovery, a reality check, and a practical plan of action.
Until recently, Zika—once considered a mild disease—was hardly a cause for global panic. But as early as August 2015, doctors in northeast Brazil began to notice a trend: many mothers who had recently experienced symptoms of the Zika virus were giving birth to babies with microcephaly, a serious disorder characterized by unusually small heads and brain damage.
By early 2016, Zika was making headlines as evidence mounted—and eventually confirmed—that microcephaly is caused by the virus, which can be contracted through mosquito bites or sexually transmitted.
The first death on American soil, in February 2016, was confirmed in Puerto Rico in April. The first case of microcephaly in Puerto Rico was confirmed on May 13, 2016. The virus has been known to be transmitted by the Aedes aegypti or Yellow Fever mosquito, but now Aedes albopictus, the Asian Tiger mosquito, has been found to carry it as well, which means it might affect regions as far north as New England and the Great Lakes. Right now, at least 298 million people in the Americas live in areas “conducive to Zika transmission,” according to a recent study. Over the next year, more than 5 million babies will be born.
In Zika: The Emerging Epidemic, Donald G. McNeil Jr. sets the facts straight in a fascinating exploration of Zika’s origins, how it’s spreading, the race for a cure, and what we can do to protect ourselves now.
The general learning outcomes (LOs) for this workbook are:
1. Become familiar with basic concepts and definitions commonly used in epidemiology
2. Define a public health problem
3. Identify appropriate uses and limitations of data and research design strategies for solving public health problems
4. Make relevant inferences from quantitative and qualitative data
5. Distinguish between statistical association and cause-effect relationships
6. Measure and describe patterns of disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality
7. Identify environmental factors and behaviors associated with health-related states or events
8. Be familiar with the steps for investigating disease outbreaks
9. Identify, calculate, and interpret common indices used in identifying the health status
10. Evaluate program effectiveness
11. Critically assess epidemiological research
12. Be able to communicate health findings
Each chapter features:
• 10-20 mastery check questions with detailed answers
• 5 optional problems
• A case study
• A multiple choice, short answer quiz.
(Answers to the cases and quizzes are provided as part of the online instructor resource package.)
Treating these topics together takes advantage of all they have in common. The authors point out the many-shared elements in the methods they present for selecting, estimating, checking, and interpreting each of these models. They also show that these regression methods deal with confounding, mediation, and interaction of causal effects in essentially the same way.
The examples, analyzed using Stata, are drawn from the biomedical context but generalize to other areas of application. While a first course in statistics is assumed, a chapter reviewing basic statistical methods is included. Some advanced topics are covered but the presentation remains intuitive. A brief introduction to regression analysis of complex surveys and notes for further reading are provided. For many students and researchers learning to use these methods, this one book may be all they need to conduct and interpret multipredictor regression analyses.
The authors are on the faculty in the Division of Biostatistics, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, and are authors or co-authors of more than 200 methodological as well as applied papers in the biological and biomedical sciences. The senior author, Charles E. McCulloch, is head of the Division and author of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (2003), Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models (2000), and Variance Components (1992).
From the reviews:
"This book provides a unified introduction to the regression methods listed in the title...The methods are well illustrated by data drawn from medical studies...A real strength of this book is the careful discussion of issues common to all of the multipredictor methods covered." Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 2005
"This book is not just for biostatisticians. It is, in fact, a very good, and relatively nonmathematical, overview of multipredictor regression models. Although the examples are biologically oriented, they are generally easy to understand and follow...I heartily recommend the book" Technometrics, February 2006
"Overall, the text provides an overview of regression methods that is particularly strong in its breadth of coverage and emphasis on insight in place of mathematical detail. As intended, this well-unified approach should appeal to students who learn conceptually and verbally." Journal of the American Statistical Association, March 2006
This volume provides formulas and procedures for determination of sample size required not only for testing equality, but also for testing non-inferiority/superiority, and equivalence (similarity) based on both untransformed (raw) data and log-transformed data under a parallel-group design or a crossover design with equal or unequal ratio of treatment allocations. It contains a comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical procedures for sample size calculation that are commonly employed at various phases of clinical development. Each chapter includes, whenever possible, real examples of clinical studies from therapeutic areas such as cardiovascular, central nervous system, anti-infective, oncology, and women's health to demonstrate the clinical and statistical concepts, interpretations, and their relationships and interactions.
The book highlights statistical procedures for sample size calculation and justification that are commonly employed in clinical research and development. It provides clear, illustrated explanations of how the derived formulas and/or statistical procedures can be used.
Principles of Biostatisticsis aimed at students in the biological and health sciences who wish to learn modern research methods. It is based on a required course offered at the Harvard School of Public Health. In addition to these graduate students, many health professionals from the Harvard medical area attend as well.
The book is divided into three parts. The first five chapters deal with collections of numbers and ways in which to summarize, explore, and explain them. The next two chapters focus on probability and introduce the tools needed for the subsequent investigation of uncertainty. It is only in the eighth chapter and thereafter that the authors distinguish between populations and samples and begin to investigate the inherent variability introduced by sampling, thus progressing to inference. Postponing the slightly more difficult concepts until a solid foundation has been established makes it easier for the reader to comprehend them.
The supplements include a manual for students with solutions for odd-numbered exercises, a manual for instructors with solutions to all exercises, and selected data sets.
Marcello Paganois Professor of Statistical Computing in the Department of Biostatistics at the Harvard School of Public Health. His research in biostatistics is on computer intensive inference and surveillance methods that involve screening methodologies, with their associated laboratory tests, and in obtaining more accurate testing results that use existing technologies.
Kimberlee Gauvreauis Associate Professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Associate Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Gauvreau’s research focuses on biostatistical issues arising in the field of pediatric cardiology. She also works on the development and validation of methods of adjustment for case mix complexity.
Since the third edition, there have been many developments instatistical techniques. The fourth edition provides the medicalstatistician with an accessible guide to these techniques and toreflect the extent of their usage in medical research.
The new edition takes a much more comprehensive approach to itssubject. There has been a radical reorganization of the text toimprove the continuity and cohesion of the presentation and toextend the scope by covering many new ideas now being introducedinto the analysis of medical research data. The authors have triedto maintain the modest level of mathematical exposition thatcharacterized the earlier editions, essentially confining themathematics to the statement of algebraic formulae rather thanpursuing mathematical proofs.
Received the Highly Commended Certificate in the PublicHealth Category of the 2002 BMA BooksCompetition.
This book provides much-needed guidance on data analysis using Rfor the growing number of scientists in hospital departments whoare responsible for producing reports, and who may have limitedstatistical expertise.
This book explores data analysis using R and is aimed atscientists in hospital departments who are responsible forproducing reports, and who are involved in improving safety.Professionals working in the healthcare quality and safetycommunity will also find this book of interest
Statistical Methods for Hospital Monitoring with R:Provides functions to perform quality improvement and infectionmanagement data analysis.Explores the characteristics of complex systems, such asself-organisation and emergent behaviour, along with theirimplications for such activities as root-cause analysis and thePareto principle that seek few key causes of adverse events.Provides a summary of key non-statistical aspects of hospitalsafety and easy to use functions.Provides R scripts in an accompanying web site enablinganalyses to be performed by the reader ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/hospital_monitoring"http://www.wiley.com/go/hospital_monitoring/aCovers issues that will be of increasing importance in thefuture, such as, generalised additive models, and complex systems,networks and power laws.
The book discusses the relevant principles needed to understand the theoretical underpinnings of bioinformatic analysis and demonstrates, with examples, targeted analysis using freely available web-based software and publicly available databases. Eschewing non-essential information, the work focuses on principles and hands-on analysis, also pointing to further study options.Avoids non-essential coverage, yet fully describes the field for beginnersExplains the molecular basis of evolution to place bioinformatic analysis in biological contextProvides useful links to the vast resource of publicly available bioinformatic databases and analysis toolsContains over 100 figures that aid in concept discovery and illustration
The online toolkit includes Critical appraisal worksheets, Educational prescription, Pocket Cards, EBM calculators, Educational Prescriptions, Clinical Questions log, Self evaluations.Thoroughly updated with examples from latest evidence/studies.
Revised electronic ancillaries, now available online
Expanded coverage of audit and measuring quality improvement.
Teaching moments now indexed for easy reference.
New contributing authors Reena Pattani and Areti Angeliki Veroniki
“. . . an easy-to read introduction to survival analysiswhich covers the major concepts and techniques of thesubject.” —Statistics in Medical Research
Updated and expanded to reflect the latest developments,Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis, FourthEdition continues to deliver a comprehensive introduction tothe most commonly-used methods for analyzing survival data.Authored by a uniquely well-qualified author team, the FourthEdition is a critically acclaimed guide to statistical methods withapplications in clinical trials, epidemiology, areas of business,and the social sciences. The book features many real-world examplesto illustrate applications within these various fields, althoughspecial consideration is given to the study of survival data inbiomedical sciences.
Emphasizing the latest research and providing the mostup-to-date information regarding software applications in thefield, Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis, FourthEdition also includes:Marginal and random effect models for analyzing correlatedcensored or uncensored dataMultiple types of two-sample and K-sample comparisonanalysisUpdated treatment of parametric methods for regression modelfitting with a new focus on accelerated failure time modelsExpanded coverage of the Cox proportional hazards modelExercises at the end of each chapter to deepen knowledge of thepresented material
Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis is anideal text for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses onsurvival data analysis. The book is also an excellent resource forbiomedical investigators, statisticians, and epidemiologists, aswell as researchers in every field in which the analysis ofsurvival data plays a role.
In Forensic Epidemiology, the authors present the legal and scientific theories underlying the methods by which risk is used in the investigation of individual causation. Methods and principles from epidemiology are combined with those from a multitude of other disciplines, including general medicine, pharmacology, forensic pathology, biostatistics, and biomechanics, inter alia, as a basis for investigating the plausibility of injury and disease exposures and mechanisms. The ultimate determination of the probability of causation (PC) results from an assessment of the strength of association of the investigated relationship in the individual, based on a comparison between the risk of disease or injury from the investigated exposure versus the risk of the same disease or injury occurring at the same point in time in the individual, but absent the exposure. The principles and methods described in Forensic Epidemiology will be of interest to those who work and study in the fields of forensic medicine, epidemiology, and the law.Historical perspective on how epidemiologic evidence of causation has been used in courts in the US and EuropeTheory and science underlying the use of risk to assess individual causationPrimer on epidemiologic methods, and various measures used to arrive at individualized comparative risk assessments and PCThe use of statistical methods applied to publicly available data for ad hoc analysis of PC applicable to the specific circumstances of a caseBackground on complementary disciplines, including forensic pathology, death investigation, biomechanics, and survival analysisExamples of applied FE in the investigation of traffic injury and death, automotive and other product defect litigation, medical negligence, and criminal prosecution and defense
• A broad perspective traces CAM therapies from their beginnings to present day practices.
• Clinical guidesfor selecting therapies, and new advances for matching the appropriate therapy to the individual patient, enables you to offer and/or recommend individualized patient care.
• Expert contributorsinclude well-known writers such as Kevin Ergil, Patch Adams, Joseph Pizzorno, and Marc Micozzi himself.
• A unique synthesisof information, including historical usage, cultural and social analysis, current basic science theory and research, and a wide range of clinical investigations and observations, makes this text a focused, authoritative resource.
• Suggested readings and referencesin each chapter list the best resources for further research and study.
• Coverage of CAM therapies and systemsincludes those most commonly encountered or growing in popularity, so you can carefully evaluate each treatment.
• An evidence-based approachfocuses on treatments best supported by clinical trials and scientific evidence.
• Observations from mechanisms of action to evidence of clinical efficacyanswers questions of how, why, and when CAM therapies work.
• Global coverageincludes discussions of traditional healing arts from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
• NEW! Updated chapters feature new content and topics, including: challenges in integrative medicine, legal issues, CAM in the community, psychometric evaluation, placebo effect, stress management, and much more!
• NEW! Updated guides on common herbal remedies in clinical practice, East and Southeast Asia, and native North and South America deliver the latest information.
• NEW! Revised chapters with new contributors offer fresh perspectives on these important and relevant topics.
• EXPANDED! Basic science content and new theory and research studies cover a wide range of sciences such as biophysics, biology and ecology, ethnomedicine, psychometrics, neurosciences, and systems theory.
• NEW! New and expanded global ethnomedical systems include new content on Shamanism and Neo-Shamanism, Central and North Asia, Southeast Asia, Nepal and Tibet, Hawaii and South Pacific, Alaska and Pacific Northwest, and contemporary global healthcare.
This book provides readers with a rich repertoire of efficient solutions to specific equivalence and noninferiority testing problems frequently encountered in the analysis of real data sets. It first presents general approaches to problems of testing for noninferiority and two-sided equivalence. Each subsequent chapter then focuses on a specific procedure and its practical implementation. The last chapter describes basic theoretical results about tests for relevant differences as well as solutions for some specific settings often arising in practice. Drawing from real-life medical research, the author uses numerous examples throughout to illustrate the methods.
As Philip Alcabes persuasively argues in Dread, our anxieties about epidemics often stray from the facts on the ground. In a fascinating exploration of the social and cultural history of epidemics, Alcabes delivers a different narrative of disease—one that requires that we reexamine our choice of enemies, and carefully consider the potential motivation of epidemic alarm-bells to further medical, moral, or political campaigns.