"A major work of interpretation of medical and social thought . . . this volume is also to be commended for its skillful, absorbing presentation of the background and the effects of this dread disease."—I.B. Cohen, New York Times
"The Cholera Years is a masterful analysis of the moral and social interest attached to epidemic disease, providing generally applicable insights into how the connections between social change, changes in knowledge and changes in technical practice may be conceived."—Steven Shapin, Times Literary Supplement
"In a way that is all too rarely done, Rosenberg has skillfully interwoven medical, social, and intellectual history to show how medicine and society interacted and changed during the 19th century. The history of medicine here takes its rightful place in the tapestry of human history."—John B. Blake, Science
Starting from the dual premises that a population is not merely the sum of its individuals and that the improvement of population health is not at odds with the practical desire of improving the health of individuals, Sandro Galea and 33 expert contributors present chapters in three sections. The first section includes eleven chapters that each discuss one macrosocial determinant of population health. The factors covered by these chapters encompass a broad range of intellectual concerns, ranging from regulations and legal frameworks (global governance, patent law and policy), to overarching global phenomena (globalization, migration, urbanization, the media), to a specific consideration of the role of economic, political, and corporate policies and practices. The second section considers particular methodologic issues pertinent to those interested in the study of how macrosocial factors influence the health of populations, offering insights on ecological studies and causal inference, and weighing how we may best study the overlapping roles of determinants at local, state, and national levels. The third section presents a framework for interventions that aim to improve population health and innovative case studies that show this framework in action. Throughout, contributors emphasize the potential of population strategies to influence traditional risk factors associated with health and disease. Each section ends with Galea’s integrative chapters, bringing the observations and conclusions from the chapters into clear, usable focus.
Macrosocial Determinants of Population Health is a work of major theoretical, empirical, and practical interest for disciplines as varied as public health, epidemiology, health promotion, sociology, and health policy. Its systematic field-building approach makes it as valuable to the public health provider as to the scholars and students studying the health of populations.
Over the past fifty years, more than three hundred infectious diseases have either newly emerged or reemerged, appearing in territories where they’ve never been seen before. Ninety percent of epidemiologists expect that one of them will cause a deadly pandemic sometime in the next two generations. It could be Ebola, avian flu, a drug-resistant superbug, or something completely new. While we can’t know which pathogen will cause the next pandemic, by unraveling the story of how pathogens have caused pandemics in the past, we can make predictions about the future. In Pandemic: Tracking Contagions, from Cholera to Ebola and Beyond, the prizewinning journalist Sonia Shah—whose book on malaria, The Fever, was called a “tour-de-force history” (The New York Times) and “revelatory” (The New Republic)—interweaves history, original reportage, and personal narrative to explore the origins of contagions, drawing parallels between cholera, one of history’s most deadly and disruptive pandemic-causing pathogens, and the new diseases that stalk humankind today.
To reveal how a new pandemic might develop, Sonia Shah tracks each stage of cholera’s dramatic journey, from its emergence in the South Asian hinterlands as a harmless microbe to its rapid dispersal across the nineteenth-century world, all the way to its latest beachhead in Haiti. Along the way she reports on the pathogens now following in cholera’s footsteps, from the MRSA bacterium that besieges her own family to the never-before-seen killers coming out of China’s wet markets, the surgical wards of New Delhi, and the suburban backyards of the East Coast.
By delving into the convoluted science, strange politics, and checkered history of one of the world’s deadliest diseases, Pandemic reveals what the next global contagion might look like— and what we can do to prevent it.
The Spanish flu of 1918-1920 was one of the greatest human disasters of all time. It infected a third of the people on Earth--from the poorest immigrants of New York City to the king of Spain, Franz Kafka, Mahatma Gandhi and Woodrow Wilson. But despite a death toll of between 50 and 100 million people, it exists in our memory as an afterthought to World War I.
In this gripping narrative history, Laura Spinney traces the overlooked pandemic to reveal how the virus travelled across the globe, exposing mankind's vulnerability and putting our ingenuity to the test. As socially significant as both world wars, the Spanish flu dramatically disrupted--and often permanently altered--global politics, race relations and family structures, while spurring innovation in medicine, religion and the arts. It was partly responsible, Spinney argues, for pushing India to independence, South Africa to apartheid and Switzerland to the brink of civil war. It also created the true "lost generation." Drawing on the latest research in history, virology, epidemiology, psychology and economics, Pale Rider masterfully recounts the little-known catastrophe that forever changed humanity.
The real story of AIDS—how it originated with a virus in a chimpanzee, jumped to one human, and then infected more than 60 million people—is very different from what most of us think we know. Recent research has revealed dark surprises and yielded a radically new scenario of how AIDS began and spread. Excerpted and adapted from the book Spillover, with a new introduction by the author, Quammen's hair-raising investigation tracks the virus from chimp populations in the jungles of southeastern Cameroon to laboratories across the globe, as he unravels the mysteries of when, where, and under what circumstances such a consequential "spillover" can happen. An audacious search for answers amid more than a century of data, The Chimp and the River tells the haunting tale of one of the most devastating pandemics of our time.
Over forty experts from around the world bring a depth of ideas to the Handbook of Urban Health, making the Handbook a focused resource for a range of health disciplines. The Handbook presents: (1) A discussion of the health of specific urban populations, among them immigrants, children, the elderly, racial and sexual minorities, the homeless, and the poor. (2) Methods relevant to the study of urban health including epidemiology, research methods, funding and policy issues, urban planning. (3) Practical issues for developing healthy cities including interventions, preventive strategies, providing health services, and teaching urban health. (4) International perspectives from developing countries and the World Health Organization. (5) Integrative chapters that conclude each of the book’s sections, bringing together theoretical models with the big picture.
A unique professional idea book, research resource, and teaching text, the Handbook of Urban Health challenges readers to consider the role that cities play in shaping population health and to generate solutions that can make cities healthier places for all those who live there.
In 1976 a deadly virus emerged from the Congo forest. As swiftly as it came, it disappeared, leaving no trace. Over the four decades since, Ebola has emerged sporadically, each time to devastating effect. It can kill up to 90 percent of its victims. In between these outbreaks, it is untraceable, hiding deep in the jungle. The search is on to find Ebola’s elusive host animal. And until we find it, Ebola will continue to strike. Acclaimed science writer and explorer David Quammen first came near the virus while he was traveling in the jungles of Gabon, accompanied by local men whose village had been devastated by a recent outbreak. Here he tells the story of Ebola—its past, present, and its unknowable future.
Extracted from Spillover by David Quammen, updated and with additional material.
New to This Edition:
*Chapters on the political ecology of health; emerging infectious diseases and landscape genetics; food, diet, and nutrition; and urban health.
*Coverage of Middle East respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika; impacts on health of global climate change; contaminated water crises in economically developed countries, including in Flint, Michigan; China's rapid industrial growth; and other timely topics.
*Updated throughout with current data and concepts plus advances in GIS.
*End-of-chapter review questions and suggestions for further reading.
*Section Introductions that describe each chapter.
*"Quick Reviews"--within-chapter recaps of key concepts.
*Bold-faced key terms and an end-of-book glossary.
· Downloadable data sets
· Library of computer programs in SAS, SPSS, Stata, HLM, MLwiN, and more
· Additional material for data analysis
Managerial Epidemiology for Health Care Organizations has introduced the science of epidemiology and population health to students and practitioners in health management and health services for over sixteen years. The book covers epidemiology basics, introducing principles and traditional uses, and then expertly showing its contemporary uses in planning, evaluating, and managing health care for populations and the practical application in health care management. The book’s practical and applied approach, with real-world examples sprinkled throughout, has made it the go-to book for managerial epidemiology and population health courses.
Since the second edition was published in 2005, the health care landscape has undergone significant changes. Passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the incorporation of ICD-10 have impacted the entire health care system. This newly updated third edition will address these two significant changes, as well as several others that have taken place. It also features new chapters on reimbursement approaches and managing infection outbreaks, as well as updates to the four case study chapters that anchor the book.Witness how epidemiological principles are applied to the delivery of health care services and the management of health care organizationsExamine the major changes brought on by the passage of health care reform and incorporation of ICD-10Discover the core epidemiology principles and see how they are applied in planning, evaluating, and managing health care for populations
If you’re a student or professional in any area of health services, including health administration, nursing, and allied health, then Managerial Epidemiology for Health Care Organizations is the perfect book for you. It successfully demonstrates how health care executives can incorporate the practice of epidemiology into their various management functions and is rich with current examples, concepts, and case studies that reinforce the essential theories, methods, and applications of managerial epidemiology.
In December 2013, a young boy in a tiny West African village contracted the deadly Ebola virus. The virus spread to his relatives, then to neighboring communities, then across international borders. The world’s first urban Ebola outbreak quickly overwhelmed the global health system and threatened to kill millions.
In an increasingly interconnected world in which everyone is one or two flights away from New York or London or Beijing, even a localized epidemic can become a pandemic. Ebola’s spread through West Africa to Nigeria, the United Kingdom and the United States sounded global alarms that the next killer outbreak is right around the corner—and that the world is woefully unprepared to combat a new deadly disease.
From the poorest villages of rural West Africa to the Oval Office itself, this book tells the story of a deadly virus that spun wildly out of control—and reveals the truth about how close the world came to a catastrophic global pandemic.
Unlike natural disasters, whose destruction is concentrated in a limited area over a period of days, and illnesses, which have devastating effects but are limited to individuals and their families, infectious disease has the terrifying power to disrupt everyday life on a global scale, overwhelming public and private resources and bringing trade and transportation to a grinding halt.
In today's world, it's easier than ever to move people, animals, and materials around the planet, but the same advances that make modern infrastructure so efficient have made epidemics and even pandemics nearly inevitable. And as outbreaks of Ebola, MERS, yellow fever, and Zika have demonstrated, we are woefully underprepared to deal with the fallout. So what can -- and must -- we do in order to protect ourselves from mankind's deadliest enemy?
Drawing on the latest medical science, case studies, policy research, and hard-earned epidemiological lessons, Deadliest Enemy explores the resources and programs we need to develop if we are to keep ourselves safe from infectious disease. The authors show how we could wake up to a reality in which many antibiotics no longer cure, bioterror is a certainty, and the threat of a disastrous influenza pandemic looms ever larger. Only by understanding the challenges we face can we prevent the unthinkable from becoming the inevitable.
Deadliest Enemy is high scientific drama, a chronicle of medical mystery and discovery, a reality check, and a practical plan of action.
Principles of Biostatisticsis aimed at students in the biological and health sciences who wish to learn modern research methods. It is based on a required course offered at the Harvard School of Public Health. In addition to these graduate students, many health professionals from the Harvard medical area attend as well.
The book is divided into three parts. The first five chapters deal with collections of numbers and ways in which to summarize, explore, and explain them. The next two chapters focus on probability and introduce the tools needed for the subsequent investigation of uncertainty. It is only in the eighth chapter and thereafter that the authors distinguish between populations and samples and begin to investigate the inherent variability introduced by sampling, thus progressing to inference. Postponing the slightly more difficult concepts until a solid foundation has been established makes it easier for the reader to comprehend them.
The supplements include a manual for students with solutions for odd-numbered exercises, a manual for instructors with solutions to all exercises, and selected data sets.
Marcello Paganois Professor of Statistical Computing in the Department of Biostatistics at the Harvard School of Public Health. His research in biostatistics is on computer intensive inference and surveillance methods that involve screening methodologies, with their associated laboratory tests, and in obtaining more accurate testing results that use existing technologies.
Kimberlee Gauvreauis Associate Professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Associate Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Gauvreau’s research focuses on biostatistical issues arising in the field of pediatric cardiology. She also works on the development and validation of methods of adjustment for case mix complexity.
Since the third edition, there have been many developments instatistical techniques. The fourth edition provides the medicalstatistician with an accessible guide to these techniques and toreflect the extent of their usage in medical research.
The new edition takes a much more comprehensive approach to itssubject. There has been a radical reorganization of the text toimprove the continuity and cohesion of the presentation and toextend the scope by covering many new ideas now being introducedinto the analysis of medical research data. The authors have triedto maintain the modest level of mathematical exposition thatcharacterized the earlier editions, essentially confining themathematics to the statement of algebraic formulae rather thanpursuing mathematical proofs.
Received the Highly Commended Certificate in the PublicHealth Category of the 2002 BMA BooksCompetition.
With chapters written by leading researchers in the field, the handbook focuses on advances in survival analysis techniques, covering classical and Bayesian approaches. It gives a complete overview of the current status of survival analysis and should inspire further research in the field. Accessible to a wide range of readers, the book provides:An introduction to various areas in survival analysis for graduate students and novices A reference to modern investigations into survival analysis for more established researchers A text or supplement for a second or advanced course in survival analysis A useful guide to statistical methods for analyzing survival data experiments for practicing statisticians
This book provides much-needed guidance on data analysis using Rfor the growing number of scientists in hospital departments whoare responsible for producing reports, and who may have limitedstatistical expertise.
This book explores data analysis using R and is aimed atscientists in hospital departments who are responsible forproducing reports, and who are involved in improving safety.Professionals working in the healthcare quality and safetycommunity will also find this book of interest
Statistical Methods for Hospital Monitoring with R:Provides functions to perform quality improvement and infectionmanagement data analysis.Explores the characteristics of complex systems, such asself-organisation and emergent behaviour, along with theirimplications for such activities as root-cause analysis and thePareto principle that seek few key causes of adverse events.Provides a summary of key non-statistical aspects of hospitalsafety and easy to use functions.Provides R scripts in an accompanying web site enablinganalyses to be performed by the reader ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/hospital_monitoring"http://www.wiley.com/go/hospital_monitoring/aCovers issues that will be of increasing importance in thefuture, such as, generalised additive models, and complex systems,networks and power laws.
The online toolkit includes Critical appraisal worksheets, Educational prescription, Pocket Cards, EBM calculators, Educational Prescriptions, Clinical Questions log, Self evaluations.Thoroughly updated with examples from latest evidence/studies.
Revised electronic ancillaries, now available online
Expanded coverage of audit and measuring quality improvement.
Teaching moments now indexed for easy reference.
New contributing authors Reena Pattani and Areti Angeliki Veroniki
Until recently, Zika—once considered a mild disease—was hardly a cause for global panic. But as early as August 2015, doctors in northeast Brazil began to notice a trend: many mothers who had recently experienced symptoms of the Zika virus were giving birth to babies with microcephaly, a serious disorder characterized by unusually small heads and brain damage.
By early 2016, Zika was making headlines as evidence mounted—and eventually confirmed—that microcephaly is caused by the virus, which can be contracted through mosquito bites or sexually transmitted.
The first death on American soil, in February 2016, was confirmed in Puerto Rico in April. The first case of microcephaly in Puerto Rico was confirmed on May 13, 2016. The virus has been known to be transmitted by the Aedes aegypti or Yellow Fever mosquito, but now Aedes albopictus, the Asian Tiger mosquito, has been found to carry it as well, which means it might affect regions as far north as New England and the Great Lakes. Right now, at least 298 million people in the Americas live in areas “conducive to Zika transmission,” according to a recent study. Over the next year, more than 5 million babies will be born.
In Zika: The Emerging Epidemic, Donald G. McNeil Jr. sets the facts straight in a fascinating exploration of Zika’s origins, how it’s spreading, the race for a cure, and what we can do to protect ourselves now.
This book provides readers with a rich repertoire of efficient solutions to specific equivalence and noninferiority testing problems frequently encountered in the analysis of real data sets. It first presents general approaches to problems of testing for noninferiority and two-sided equivalence. Each subsequent chapter then focuses on a specific procedure and its practical implementation. The last chapter describes basic theoretical results about tests for relevant differences as well as solutions for some specific settings often arising in practice. Drawing from real-life medical research, the author uses numerous examples throughout to illustrate the methods.
Practical examples demonstrate the most important points
The author first discusses how to write computer code using HTML as a concrete example. He then covers a variety of data storage topics, including different file formats, XML, and the structure and design issues of relational databases. After illustrating how to extract data from a relational database using SQL, the book presents tools and techniques for searching, sorting, tabulating, and manipulating data. It also introduces some very basic programming concepts as well as the R language for statistical computing. Each of these topics has supporting chapters that offer reference material on HTML, CSS, XML, DTD, SQL, R, and regular expressions.
One-stop shop of introductory computing information
Written by a member of the R Development Core Team, this resource shows readers how to apply data technologies to tasks within a research setting. Collecting material otherwise scattered across many books and the web, it explores how to publish information via the web, how to access information stored in different formats, and how to write small programs to automate simple, repetitive tasks.
The book discusses the relevant principles needed to understand the theoretical underpinnings of bioinformatic analysis and demonstrates, with examples, targeted analysis using freely available web-based software and publicly available databases. Eschewing non-essential information, the work focuses on principles and hands-on analysis, also pointing to further study options.Avoids non-essential coverage, yet fully describes the field for beginnersExplains the molecular basis of evolution to place bioinformatic analysis in biological contextProvides useful links to the vast resource of publicly available bioinformatic databases and analysis toolsContains over 100 figures that aid in concept discovery and illustration