It turns out that a lot of people administering Linux does not know where it cames from? What is TUX? And even what is really a "distribution"? Micro-course introduces you to the world of Linux so that you could start feeling that by administering Linux you become a member of something big. The idea of Linux social network, which has lasted more than 20 years and is still evolving, has been changing world. Micro-course also organizes many of the basic concepts. This will introduces you to the world of Linux administrators, starting your adventure with this system.
We live our lives in Internet era - it's a fact. Shopping, payments and money management are all subjects of online transactions too. Consequently it is necessary to ensure the safety of online transactions. That's what SSL protocol does. SSL is the main topic discussed in this micro course. Additionally, the course shows an example of configuring Stunnel package, which is used to secure any communictaion service with an encrypted SSL channel.
A description of advanced techniques of using the SSH server such as remote command execution, creating backup copies of files using an encoded channel or using the limited chroot environment at the start of the session.
Keywords: ssh, client SSH, backup SSH, chroot ssh
Discussions on the newsgroups, so called Usenet, it really was the beginning of building communities (social groups) on the Internet. What is interesting - Usnet still works and is even quite dynamicly. You should know how to get there, because many Linux specialists and hackers are still using this mean of communication.
The importance of the DNS server is known to every person using its resources such as electronic mail or WWW. The micro-course discusses the way of installing and configuring the ISC BIND server, the way of creating zones and entries in the base for particular domain records.
Keywords: BIND, named, named.conf, zone
Modern web page viewed in a text console? It seems something completely unnecessary, but it turns out that sometimes it is necessary. Especially when the remote server does not have a graphical environment, and you need to log in to the manufacturer's website and download additional packages.
File transfer over the Internet, on the contrary to the opinions of some lamers, should not be done through the HTTP protocol. FTP, optimized for transmission of different (and largr, small, binary and text) files is the solution. In this micro-course we will present the tools to use it.
In desktop environments, there are many amazing and powerful programs to download both files and whole web sites. For many years, wget has been the undisputed leader in the text environment programs to do these tasks. The program is easy to use for basic tasks, but having discovered an incredibly powerful capabilities of it, users who need more specific than simply copying files will use wget instead of graphical programs.
Every Internet user knows how important electronic mail is. The role of the administrator is securing the mail server against possible attacks. This micro-course describes the basics of installation, configuration and managing the Qmail electronic mail server. The server was created as a safe alternative to the SMTP Sendmail server.
Keywords: qmail, smtp, /var/qmail/alias, alias, /var/qmail/control
SSH is used for remote administration of operating systems (shell and copy files). It is a secure tool that every administrator needs to know very well. Thanks to SSH, adminstrator can administer the server, and also copy files between servers, etc.
Description of SMTP, the main protocol by which email messages are sent between the client and the server and between servers. Session of communication between two devices is shown. How to verify the server? All these issues can be found in the micro-course.
Data transfer takes time, and time is expensive. Data storage takes space, and the space is also the cost of IT. Most of the data can be compressed, resulting in a reduction of costs. In this micro-course each professional administrator will find the knowledge and skills necessary for zipping files. The administrator should also pay attention to costs, shouldn't he?
Before making major changes in the system, it is good idea to copy some data (sometimes all files) on a separate disk resource (or tape). Something can always goes wrong, a person can make mistakes. But if we have a copy of the data (backup) we are safe(r). Tools for performing data backup are discussed precisely in this micro-course.
Micro-course concentrates on operation of FTP - the protocol used to transfer files over the Internet. - It is the oldest protocol, which main task is two-way file transfer. Nowadays more and more popular are HTTP protocols - small files are downloaded directly from a web page or the BitTorrent protocol is used for the propagation of large files. However, for example, when creating a file repository for third party company (eg leaflets, high-resolution product images) the FTP is still unreplaceable. The course describes how to test the FTP server on the basis of information about the operation of this protocol. The course also explains why some older firewalls cannot handle this protocol and how to fix it.
Equipment can always fail, a person may also fail. If the administrators don't want to get fired due to data loss they should have the backup of all the systems. There are several methods and strategies of backup, but as long as the administrator (you) is not sure which of them are implemented, and that they work correcty, you should not sleep peacefully.
The micro-course shows the way of using the iproute2 packet in the Linux system. It is a modern approach to the network management mechanism in new Linux system kernels. Thanks to this packet the kernel does not have to be limited only to one routing table. From the ip application level you can manage the Ethernet, IP or the TCP layers.
Keywords: ip, ip addr, ip route, ip link, ip neigh, ip rule
The introduction of general concepts for understanding the structure of Linux. There are some definitions which the administrator uses to describe the system and the problems encountered. In almost non-technical way, the basic concepts are explained, such as the kernel or command interpreter.
Micro-course in a simple way gives basic information about the construction of modern computers. The operating system cannot function in isolation from the hardware, hence knowledge of the subject is essential. Even Linux running in a virtual machine has access to equipment, of course, is not "rela hardware" but "wirtual hardware".
The micro-course discusses configuration of the Apache server, httpd.conf and htaccess configuration files. It describes the most important commands of the configuration file and their meaning and examples. If you want to implement the WWW server in your own company, this micro-course is necessary to do this task quickly.
Keywords: httpd.conf, htaccess, DirectoryRoot
It is very important to know who pulls the strings in the world of Linux. Propbably you will not impress your girl freind with information presented in this micro-course but recognizing GURUS and their opinions in the Linux forums will help you understand what will change in future versions of Linux.
How to explain the company management board that something can be free? How to explain usch software can be used in the company and company will even make profits of it. You will learn all of these in this micro-course. You will be able to udenrstand some legal issues. You will also understand the limitations of commercial software licenses. Unfortunately, afther having read this micro-course you will start to read the licenses of the programs you use. The software vendors will not like you any more, you will be a very difficult client asking very uncomfortable and difficult questions.
The micro-course describes the most popular in the Linux system way of supporting resources shared in the Microsoft Windows network. This possibility is provided by the Samba program packet. It enables both sharing data contained in the Linux system partition with work stations with Microsoft Windows systems and their support of printers supported by Linux servers. Another function is the support of authorization for Linux users on the basis of data contained in the Active Directory system.
Keywords: SAMBA, smbd, CIFS, SMB, samba-tools, smb.conf
Linux is a UNIX cousin. It is like a side line of evolution, which, unlike the original UNIX, survived and has been developing very well. It is worth to know that when you meet Unix somewhere else, do not be afraid to start using it and say hello to a good friend, because all this Unix-like-jazz is very similar to Linux.
This micro-course presents the examples of various distributions of the Linux system and the reasons to use. We discuss the features of the main distributions. You will learn, what is the difference between RedHat and Fedora disrtibution. Why does CentOS exist ?
Every modern database should be compatible with the SQL language. This micro-course discusses basic operations performed from the client level and on the MySQL base using this language. The examples show the way of creating a table, adding records or updating them.
Keywords: SQL, INSERT, DELETE, SELECT
Each Linux system administrator should feel as comfortable as possible among the main distribution of the operating system. We will not choose the distribution for you, but, thanks to this micro-course, you will learn what questions you need to ask yourself in order to select it.
This micro-course describes the mechanism of exchanging a name for the IP address used in Linux systems. Both the local base, i.e. the /etc/hosts file and the distributed DNS mechanism were described.
Keywords: DNS, hosts, in-addr.arpa, delegation, zone, DNS, record RR
It is not always possible to predict for what and how your server will be used in the coming months and years. However, wrong decisions regarding allocation of disk space on partitions taken at the beginning can take revenge in the future. It is worth to learn how to partition the disk, to save time later.
Data loss is equal to the loss of money by the administrator, and sometimes administrator gets fired. Methods of use of redundant disks have been systematized for a very long time and practically it is not acceptable for the admin not to know and understand the concepts of disk redundancy.
The micro-course discusses the procedure of modifying the LVM system enabling introducetion of an additional logical structure between the file system segments and the hard drive. Thanks to this solution the administrator can increase, decrese, copy, create snapshots of partition with data in real time.
Storage devices in computers have come a long way. Today, we observe that the mechanical hard drives are beeing replaced by SSD. However, the concept of operation of mechanical disks (eg, head, sector) will be used for new construction of disks, for a long time. The administrator will certainly need to know the sturucture of hard disk if one will have to retrieve the overwritten MBR.
The process of installing and configuring the Mandriva distribution is presented here, step by step. Starting from partitioning, configuring the time zone up to setting up passwords. As a result, you will get ready to use operating system.
In the Linux system kernel there are more and more advanced mechanisms of network support introduced. One of big changes in network management was introducing the iproute2 packet. One of new functions that were obtained thanks to it is the possibility to support many routing tables which are chosen depending on according conditions met by the coming packet. In this micro-course there is information on the source routing, i.e. how to configure it in the Linux system with the iproute2 packet.
Keywords: ip rule, source routing
Implementing an IT system in a small company, installing the ISC BIND server is pointless. In many cases simple solutions integrating a few protocols are enough. An example of such a solution is the DNSmasq program. The micro-course describes the architecture of this program, the installation of the program, an example configuration and useful configuration options.
The process of installing and configuring the Slackware distribution is presented here, step by step. Starting from partitioning, configuring the time zone up to setting up passwords. As a result, you will get ready to use operating system.
The process of installing and configuring the Debian distribution is presented here, step by step. Starting from partitioning, configuring the time zone up to setting up passwords. As a result, you will get ready to use operating system.
The micro-course describes the most popular server of HTTP which is the free Apache server. It shows the history of the system, the architecture of the server work, and the way to install it. The micro-course is necessary if you want to implement the WWW server.
Keywords: apache, httpd, httpd.conf
The process of installing and configuring the openSUSE distribution is presented here, step by step. Starting from partitioning, configuring the time zone up to setting up passwords. As a result, you will get ready to use operating system.
The micro-course shows configuration of the most popular server of supporting printers seen in Linux distributions, i.e. the CUPS server.
Keywords: cups, cupsd, localhost:631, printers, print server
Even desktop elements that differ from systems which the user usualluly uses, for novice Linux users often make the problem. For example, Start Menu in Linux is not what another operating systems offer. Often, even typing in the login name and password can be a problem.
On the basis of this course you will build knowledge about how to manage the virtual console using the chvt, openvt or dellocvt commands. You will learn how to run an emergency session and to use a graphic terminal called xterm. You'll notice that working in graphical mode in Linux and Microsoft Windows is very similar, and that shutting down the system is as easy as "to eat launch".
Issues addressed in this micro-course, allow the Administrator to build knowledge of how to log into the system via the remote console. Administrator willractically learn how to use Putty, Telnet or SSH programs to get to the system. Finally the Administrator wii find out how to display information about users in the network.
In new distributions attempts of exchanging the init mechanism, which has existed since the Linux system was created, are more and more often seen. This mechanism in the version used in unix systems has a static configuration file (inittab), which in modern distributions is problematic in administration. The micro-course shows two solutions: upstart and the D system which are alternative to the start procedure.
This course will give you practical knowledge of how to talk with the system. You will learn the commands and how to arrange them in sequences so the shell can properly interpret them. You will learn how the regular user becomes an administrator.
Issues addressed in this course, you will learn how through the contents of the TERM variable, cause a change in behavior of running applications. You will learn what commands and programs initialize the terminal, and what they charge the console driver.
A description of the procedure of recovering files in the Bacula system. The micro-course describes the mechanism of client configuration in the network, the way of creating backup copies and the way of recovering data.
Keywords: Bacula, DIR, SD, FD, directory manager, storage daemon, file daemon, rescue, recovery, restore backup