generalized continuum mechanics in differential geometry. Besides applications to first-
order elasticity and elasto-plasticity an appreciation thereof is particularly illuminating
for generalized models of continuum mechanics such as second-order (gradient-type)
elasticity and elasto-plasticity.
After a motivation that arises from considering geometrically linear first- and second-
order crystal plasticity in Part I several concepts from differential geometry, relevant
for what follows, such as connection, parallel transport, torsion, curvature, and metric
for holonomic and anholonomic coordinate transformations are reiterated in Part II.
Then, in Part III, the kinematics of geometrically nonlinear continuum mechanics
are considered. There various concepts of differential geometry, in particular aspects
related to compatibility, are generically applied to the kinematics of first- and second-
order geometrically nonlinear continuum mechanics. Together with the discussion on
the integrability conditions for the distortions and double-distortions, the concepts
of dislocation, disclination and point-defect density tensors are introduced. For
concreteness, after touching on nonlinear first- and second-order elasticity, a detailed
discussion of the kinematics of (multiplicative) first- and second-order elasto-plasticity
is given. The discussion naturally culminates in a comprehensive set of different types
of dislocation, disclination and point-defect density tensors. It is argued, that these
can potentially be used to model densities of geometrically necessary defects and the
accompanying hardening in crystalline materials. Eventually Part IV summarizes the
above findings on integrability whereby distinction is made between the straightforward
conditions for the distortion and the double-distortion being integrable and the more
involved conditions for the strain (metric) and the double-strain (connection) being
The book addresses readers with an interest in continuum modelling of solids from
engineering and the sciences alike, whereby a sound knowledge of tensor calculus and
continuum mechanics is required as a prerequisite.
“Artfully envisions a breathtakingly better world.” —Los Angeles Times
“Elaborate, smart and persuasive.” —The Boston Globe
“A pleasure to read.” —The Wall Street Journal
One of CBS News’s Best Fall Books of 2005 • Among St Louis Post-Dispatch’s Best Nonfiction Books of 2005 • One of Amazon.com’s Best Science Books of 2005
A radical and optimistic view of the future course of human development from the bestselling author of How to Create a Mind and The Age of Spiritual Machines who Bill Gates calls “the best person I know at predicting the future of artificial intelligence”
For over three decades, Ray Kurzweil has been one of the most respected and provocative advocates of the role of technology in our future. In his classic The Age of Spiritual Machines, he argued that computers would soon rival the full range of human intelligence at its best. Now he examines the next step in this inexorable evolutionary process: the union of human and machine, in which the knowledge and skills embedded in our brains will be combined with the vastly greater capacity, speed, and knowledge-sharing ability of our creations.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Artificial Intelligence helps choose what books you buy, what movies you see, and even who you date. It puts the "smart" in your smartphone and soon it will drive your car. It makes most of the trades on Wall Street, and controls vital energy, water, and transportation infrastructure. But Artificial Intelligence can also threaten our existence.
In as little as a decade, AI could match and then surpass human intelligence. Corporations and government agencies are pouring billions into achieving AI's Holy Grail—human-level intelligence. Once AI has attained it, scientists argue, it will have survival drives much like our own. We may be forced to compete with a rival more cunning, more powerful, and more alien than we can imagine.
Through profiles of tech visionaries, industry watchdogs, and groundbreaking AI systems, Our Final Invention explores the perils of the heedless pursuit of advanced AI. Until now, human intelligence has had no rival. Can we coexist with beings whose intelligence dwarfs our own? And will they allow us to?
Ray Kurzweil is arguably today’s most influential—and often controversial—futurist. In How to Create a Mind, Kurzweil presents a provocative exploration of the most important project in human-machine civilization—reverse engineering the brain to understand precisely how it works and using that knowledge to create even more intelligent machines.
Kurzweil discusses how the brain functions, how the mind emerges from the brain, and the implications of vastly increasing the powers of our intelligence in addressing the world’s problems. He thoughtfully examines emotional and moral intelligence and the origins of consciousness and envisions the radical possibilities of our merging with the intelligent technology we are creating.
Certain to be one of the most widely discussed and debated science books of the year, How to Create a Mind is sure to take its place alongside Kurzweil’s previous classics which include Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever and The Age of Spiritual Machines.
From the Hardcover edition.
Jeff Hawkins, the man who created the PalmPilot, Treo smart phone, and other handheld devices, has reshaped our relationship to computers. Now he stands ready to revolutionize both neuroscience and computing in one stroke, with a new understanding of intelligence itself.
Hawkins develops a powerful theory of how the human brain works, explaining why computers are not intelligent and how, based on this new theory, we can finally build intelligent machines.
The brain is not a computer, but a memory system that stores experiences in a way that reflects the true structure of the world, remembering sequences of events and their nested relationships and making predictions based on those memories. It is this memory-prediction system that forms the basis of intelligence, perception, creativity, and even consciousness.
In an engaging style that will captivate audiences from the merely curious to the professional scientist, Hawkins shows how a clear understanding of how the brain works will make it possible for us to build intelligent machines, in silicon, that will exceed our human ability in surprising ways.
Written with acclaimed science writer Sandra Blakeslee, On Intelligence promises to completely transfigure the possibilities of the technology age. It is a landmark book in its scope and clarity.
Integrated throughout the text are real-world applications that emphasize the relevance of thermodynamics principles to some of the most critical problems and issues of today, including a wealth of coverage of topics related to energy and the environment, biomedical/bioengineering, and emerging technologies.
In Love and Math, renowned mathematician Edward Frenkel reveals a side of math we’ve never seen, suffused with all the beauty and elegance of a work of art. In this heartfelt and passionate book, Frenkel shows that mathematics, far from occupying a specialist niche, goes to the heart of all matter, uniting us across cultures, time, and space.
Love and Math tells two intertwined stories: of the wonders of mathematics and of one young man’s journey learning and living it. Having braved a discriminatory educational system to become one of the twenty-first century’s leading mathematicians, Frenkel now works on one of the biggest ideas to come out of math in the last 50 years: the Langlands Program. Considered by many to be a Grand Unified Theory of mathematics, the Langlands Program enables researchers to translate findings from one field to another so that they can solve problems, such as Fermat’s last theorem, that had seemed intractable before.
At its core, Love and Math is a story about accessing a new way of thinking, which can enrich our lives and empower us to better understand the world and our place in it. It is an invitation to discover the magic hidden universe of mathematics.
The Future of the Mind brings a topic that once belonged solely to the province of science fiction into a startling new reality. This scientific tour de force unveils the astonishing research being done in top laboratories around the world—all based on the latest advancements in neuroscience and physics—including recent experiments in telepathy, mind control, avatars, telekinesis, and recording memories and dreams. The Future of the Mind is an extraordinary, mind-boggling exploration of the frontiers of neuroscience. Dr. Kaku looks toward the day when we may achieve the ability to upload the human brain to a computer, neuron for neuron; project thoughts and emotions around the world on a brain-net; take a “smart pill” to enhance cognition; send our consciousness across the universe; and push the very limits of immortality.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Now updated with 30% new material, Roark Formulas for Stress and Strain, Seventh Edition, is the ultimate resource for designers, engineers, and analysts who need to calculate loads and stress. This landmark reference from Warren Young and Richard Budynas provides you with equations and diagrams of structural properties in an easy-to-use, thumb-through format. Updated, with a user-friendly page layout, this new edition includes expanded coverage of joints, bearing and shear stress, experimental stress analysis, and stress concentrations, as well as material behavior coverage and stress and strain measurement. You’ll also find expanded tables and cases; improved notations and figures in the tables; consistent table and equation numbering; and verification of correction factors.
In this work Einstein intended, as far as possible, to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general and scientific philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics. The theory of relativity enriched physics and astronomy during the 20th century.(Relativity: The Special and the General Theory by Albert Einstein, 9789380914220)
At the outset the text explains the various key terms of thermodynamics with suitable examples and then thoroughly deals with the virial and cubic equations of state by showing the P-V-T (pressure, molar volume and temperature) relation of fluids. It elaborates on the first and second laws of thermodynamics and their applications with the help of numerous engineering examples. The text further discusses the concepts of exergy, standard property changes of chemical reactions, thermodynamic property relations and fugacity. The book also includes detailed discussions on residual and excess properties of mixtures, various activity coefficient models, local composition models, and group contribution methods. In addition, the text focuses on vapour-liquid and other phase equilibrium calculations, and analyzes chemical reaction equilibria and adiabatic reaction temperature for systems with complete and incomplete conversion of reactants.
Includes a large number of fully worked-out examples to help students master the concepts discussed.
Provides well-graded problems with answers at the end of each chapter to test and foster students’ conceptual understanding of the subject. The total number of solved examples and end-chapter exercises in the book are over 600.
Contains chapter summaries that review the major concepts covered.
The book is primarily designed for the undergraduate students of chemical engineering and its related disciplines such as petroleum engineering and polymer engineering. It can also be useful to professionals.
The Solution Manual containing the complete worked-out solutions to chapter-end exercises and problems is available for instructors.
Reif first introduces basic probability concepts and statistical methods used throughout all of physics. Statistical ideas are then applied to systems of particles in equilibrium to enhance an understanding of the basic notions of statistical mechanics, from which derive the purely macroscopic general statements of thermodynamics. Next, he turns to the more complicated equilibrium situations, such as phase transformations and quantum gases, before discussing nonequilibrium situations in which he treats transport theory and dilute gases at varying levels of sophistication. In the last chapter, he addresses some general questions involving irreversible processes and fluctuations.
A large amount of material is presented to facilitate students later access to more advanced works, to allow those with higher levels of curiosity to read beyond the minimum given on a topic, and to enhance understanding by presenting several ways of looking at a particular question. Formatting within the text either signals material that instructors can assign at their own discretion or highlights important results for easy reference to them. Additionally, by solving many of the 230 problems contained in the text, students activate and embed their knowledge of the subject matter.
Physicist Dave Goldberg speeds across space, time and everything in between showing that our elegant universe—from the Higgs boson to antimatter to the most massive group of galaxies—is shaped by hidden symmetries that have driven all our recent discoveries about the universe and all the ones to come.
Why is the sky dark at night? If there is anti-matter, can there be anti-people? Why are past, present, and future our only options? Saluting the brilliant but unsung female mathematician Emmy Noether as well as other giants of physics, Goldberg answers these questions and more, exuberantly demonstrating that symmetry is the big idea—and the key to what lies ahead.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
This authoritative, modern translation by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, the first in more than 285 years, is based on the 1726 edition, the final revised version approved by Newton; it includes extracts from the earlier editions, corrects errors found in earlier versions, and replaces archaic English with contemporary prose and up-to-date mathematical forms.
Newton's principles describe acceleration, deceleration, and inertial movement; fluid dynamics; and the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets. A great work in itself, the Principia also revolutionized the methods of scientific investigation. It set forth the fundamental three laws of motion and the law of universal gravity, the physical principles that account for the Copernican system of the world as emended by Kepler, thus effectively ending controversy concerning the Copernican planetary system.
The illuminating Guide to Newton's Principia by I. Bernard Cohen makes this preeminent work truly accessible for today's scientists, scholars, and students.
The Theoretical Minimum is a book for anyone who has ever regretted not taking physics in college—or who simply wants to know how to think like a physicist. In this unconventional introduction, physicist Leonard Susskind and hacker-scientist George Hrabovsky offer a first course in physics and associated math for the ardent amateur. Unlike most popular physics books—which give readers a taste of what physicists know but shy away from equations or math—Susskind and Hrabovsky actually teach the skills you need to do physics, beginning with classical mechanics, yourself. Based on Susskind's enormously popular Stanford University-based (and YouTube-featured) continuing-education course, the authors cover the minimum—the theoretical minimum of the title—that readers need to master to study more advanced topics.
An alternative to the conventional go-to-college method, The Theoretical Minimum provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.
Knowledge flow — A mobile learning platform provides Apps and Books.
Knowledge flow provides learning book of Engineering Thermodynamics. This book is for all engineering students and professionals across the world. Thermodynamics deals with heat and temperature and also their relation with work and energy. This book of thermodynamics describes Carnot engine cycle, entropy and laws of thermodynamics that partly describe a body of matter or radiation.
1. Thermodynamic System and Control Volume
2. Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
3. First law of Thermodynamics
4. Thermodynamic processes
5. Second law of Thermodynamics
6. Entropy and Third Law of Thermodynamics
7. Working Fluids in Thermodynamics
8. Carnot Engine Cycle
9. Refrigeration Cycle
10. Vapour Compression and Absorption System
To find more education books, visit here http://knowledgeflow.in/books.
The first half of the book focuses on water chillers and the second half addresses cooling towers. In both sections, the author includes the following material:
Fundamentals—basic information about systems and equipment, including how they and their various components work Design and Application—equipment sizing, selection, and application; details of piping, control, and water treatment; and special considerations such as noise control, electrical service, fire protection, and energy efficiency Operations and Maintenance—commissioning and programmed maintenance of components and systems, with guidelines and recommended specifications for procurement
This up-to-date book provides HVAC designers, building owners, operating and maintenance staff, architects, and mechanical contractors with definitive and practical guidance on the application, design, purchase, operation, and maintenance of water chillers and cooling towers. It offers helpful information for you to use on a daily basis, including checklists and troubleshooting guidelines.
"Such a richness of topics and amazing splendor of illustrations!" — Mathematics Magazine
"An inviting exposition for a literate but not highly scientific audience." — American Mathematical Monthly
This fascinating book explores the connections between chaos theory, physics, biology, and mathematics. Its award-winning computer graphics, optical illusions, and games illustrate the concept of self-similarity, a typical property of fractals. Author Manfred Schroeder — hailed by Publishers Weekly as a modern Lewis Carroll — conveys memorable insights in the form of puns and puzzles that relate abstract mathematics to everyday experience.
Excellent entertainment for readers with a grasp of algebra and some calculus, this book forms a fine university-level introduction to fractal math. Eight pages of color images clarify the text, along with numerous black-and-white illustrations.
Two of the authors co-wrote The Elements of Statistical Learning (Hastie, Tibshirani and Friedman, 2nd edition 2009), a popular reference book for statistics and machine learning researchers. An Introduction to Statistical Learning covers many of the same topics, but at a level accessible to a much broader audience. This book is targeted at statisticians and non-statisticians alike who wish to use cutting-edge statistical learning techniques to analyze their data. The text assumes only a previous course in linear regression and no knowledge of matrix algebra.
Kaku skillfully guides us through the latest innovations in string theory and its latest iteration, M-theory, which posits that our universe may be just one in an endless multiverse, a singular bubble floating in a sea of infinite bubble universes. If M-theory is proven correct, we may perhaps finally find answer to the question, “What happened before the big bang?” This is an exciting and unforgettable introduction into the new cutting-edge theories of physics and cosmology from one of the pre-eminent voices in the field.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Richard Feynman, winner of the Nobel Prize in physics, thrived on outrageous adventures. Here he recounts in his inimitable voice his experience trading ideas on atomic physics with Einstein and Bohr and ideas on gambling with Nick the Greek; cracking the uncrackable safes guarding the most deeply held nuclear secrets; accompanying a ballet on his bongo drums; painting a naked female toreador. In short, here is Feynman's life in all its eccentric—a combustible mixture of high intelligence, unlimited curiosity, and raging chutzpah.
The Nuclear Engineering Handbook is a response to this global resurgence of interest in commercial nuclear power. A broad overview of nuclear power and engineering and their limitless potential, this basic introduction to the field provides an in-depth discussion of power plants and extensive coverage of the nuclear fuel cycle, waste disposal, and related engineering technologies.
Organized into three sections—Nuclear Power Reactors, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Processes and Facilities, and Engineering and Analytical Applications—this book addresses the entire nuclear fuel cycle and process. Topics include everything from the mining, milling, and enrichment of uranium and thorium fuel resources, to fuel fabrication, nuclear materials transportation, fuel reprocessing, and safe waste disposal. This all-encompassing volume discusses current analytical techniques related to nuclear engineering, addressing safety, heat transfer, shielding, thermo-hydraulics, and heat physics. Covering reactor operation and radiation protection, it also outlines the economic considerations involved in building new nuclear power stations instead of large fossil-fueled plants, and elaborates on concerns regarding the control of emissions from the latter.
A review of past and current nuclear engineering capabilities, this valuable resource covers the gamut of crucial topics, including historical perspectives, a detailed technological review, and an assessment of the field’s future direction. It is an exceptional tool that will help readers to foster optimal understanding and use of nuclear power for electricity generation now and in the future.
Drawing on physics and mechanical engineering, Steven Vogel looks at how animals swim and fly, modes of terrestrial locomotion, organism responses to winds and water currents, circulatory and suspension-feeding systems, and the relationship between size and mechanical design. He also investigates links between the properties of biological materials--such as spider silk, jellyfish jelly, and muscle--and their structural and functional roles. Early chapters and appendices introduce relevant physical variables for quantification, and problem sets are provided at the end of each chapter. Comparative Biomechanics is useful for physical scientists and engineers seeking a guide to state-of-the-art biomechanics. For a wider audience, the textbook establishes the basic biological context for applied areas--including ergonomics, orthopedics, mechanical prosthetics, kinesiology, sports medicine, and biomimetics--and provides materials for exhibit designers at science museums.Problem sets at the ends of chapters Appendices cover basic background information Updated and expanded documentation and materials Revised figures and text Increased coverage of friction, viscoelastic materials, surface tension, diverse modes of locomotion, and biomimetics
"Vivid . . . impressive. . . . Splendidly informative."—The New York Times
"A tour de force."—Salon
Already internationally acclaimed for his elegant, lucid writing on the most challenging notions in modern physics, Sean Carroll is emerging as one of the greatest humanist thinkers of his generation as he brings his extraordinary intellect to bear not only on Higgs bosons and extra dimensions but now also on our deepest personal questions: Where are we? Who are we? Are our emotions, our beliefs, and our hopes and dreams ultimately meaningless out there in the void? Do human purpose and meaning fit into a scientific worldview?
In short chapters filled with intriguing historical anecdotes, personal asides, and rigorous exposition, readers learn the difference between how the world works at the quantum level, the cosmic level, and the human level—and then how each connects to the other. Carroll's presentation of the principles that have guided the scientific revolution from Darwin and Einstein to the origins of life, consciousness, and the universe is dazzlingly unique.
Carroll shows how an avalanche of discoveries in the past few hundred years has changed our world and what really matters to us. Our lives are dwarfed like never before by the immensity of space and time, but they are redeemed by our capacity to comprehend it and give it meaning.
The Big Picture is an unprecedented scientific worldview, a tour de force that will sit on shelves alongside the works of Stephen Hawking, Carl Sagan, Daniel Dennett, and E. O. Wilson for years to come.
It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived.
As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.
A comprehensive and comprehensible introduction to the subject, this book is ideal for undergraduates in computer science, physicists, communications engineers, workers involved in artificial intelligence, biologists, psychologists, and physiologists.
Providing the big picture view that other detailed, data-focused resources lack, this book has a strong focus on the information needed to effectively decision-make and plan gas turbine system use for particular applications, taking into consideration not only operational requirements but long-term life-cycle costs in upkeep, repair and future use.
With concise, easily digestible overviews of all important theoretical bases and a practical focus throughout, Gas Turbines is an ideal handbook for those new to the field or in the early stages of their career, as well as more experienced engineers looking for a reliable, one-stop reference that covers the breadth of the field.Covers installation, maintenance, manufacturer's specifications, performance criteria and future trends, offering a rounded view of the area that takes in technical detail as well as well as industry economics and outlookUpdated with the latest industry developments, including new emission and efficiency regulations and their impact on gas turbine technology Over 300 pages of new/revised content, including new sections on microturbines, non-conventional fuel sources for microturbines, emissions, major developments in aircraft engines, use of coal gas and superheated steam, and new case histories throughout highlighting component improvements in all systems and sub-systems.
Helps Students Better Understand Numerical Methods through Use of MATLAB®
The authors uniquely emphasize both theoretical numerical analysis and practical implementation of the algorithms in MATLAB, making the book useful for students in computational science and engineering. They provide students with simple, clear implementations instead of sophisticated usages of MATLAB functions.
All the Material Needed for a Numerical Analysis Course
Based on the authors’ own courses, the text only requires some knowledge of computer programming, advanced calculus, and difference equations. It includes practical examples, exercises, references, and problems, along with a solutions manual for qualifying instructors. Students can download MATLAB code from www.crcpress.com, enabling them to easily modify or improve the codes to solve their own problems.
Since the first edition only five years ago, the simulation world has changed significantly -- current techniques have matured and new ones have appeared. This new edition deals with these new developments; in particular, there are sections on:
· Transition path sampling and diffusive barrier crossing to simulaterare events
· Dissipative particle dynamic as a course-grained simulation technique
· Novel schemes to compute the long-ranged forces
· Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian dynamics in the context constant-temperature and constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulations
· Multiple-time step algorithms as an alternative for constraints
· Defects in solids
· The pruned-enriched Rosenbluth sampling, recoil-growth, and concerted rotations for complex molecules
· Parallel tempering for glassy Hamiltonians
Examples are included that highlight current applications and the codes of case studies are available on the World Wide Web. Several new examples have been added since the first edition to illustrate recent applications. Questions are included in this new edition. No prior knowledge of computer simulation is assumed.
New in the Third Edition:
Computer-aided calculation of phase diagrams Recent developments in metallic glasses The Scheil method of calculating a CCT diagram from a TTT diagram Expanded treatment of the nucleation and growth of polygonal ferrite and bainite New case studies covering copper precipitation hardening of very low carbon bainitic steel and very fine carbide-free bainite Detailed treatment of strain-induced martensite provides a theoretical background to transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels
Unique Presentation Links Theory to Application
Adding new case studies, detailed examples, and exercises drawn from current applications, the third edition keeps the previous editions’ popular easy-to -follow style and excellent mix of basic and advanced information, making it ideal for those new to the field. The book’s unique presentation links basic understanding of theory with application in a gradually progressive yet exciting manner. Based on the author’s teaching notes, the book takes a pedagogical approach and provides examples for applications and problems that can be readily used for exercises.
PowerPoint© illustrations available with qualifying course adoptions
For more than thirty years as a beloved professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lewin honed his singular craft of making physics not only accessible but truly fun, whether putting his head in the path of a wrecking ball, supercharging himself with three hundred thousand volts of electricity, or demonstrating why the sky is blue and why clouds are white. Now, as Carl Sagan did for astronomy and Brian Green did for cosmology, Lewin takes readers on a marvelous journey in For the Love of Physics, opening our eyes as never before to the amazing beauty and power with which physics can reveal the hidden workings of the world all around us. “I introduce people to their own world,” writes Lewin, “the world they live in and are familiar with but don’t approach like a physicist—yet.”
Could it be true that we are shorter standing up than lying down? Why can we snorkel no deeper than about one foot below the surface? Why are the colors of a rainbow always in the same order, and would it be possible to put our hand out and touch one? Whether introducing why the air smells so fresh after a lightning storm, why we briefly lose (and gain) weight when we ride in an elevator, or what the big bang would have sounded like had anyone existed to hear it, Lewin never ceases to surprise and delight with the extraordinary ability of physics to answer even the most elusive questions.
Recounting his own exciting discoveries as a pioneer in the field of X-ray astronomy—arriving at MIT right at the start of an astonishing revolution in astronomy—he also brings to life the power of physics to reach into the vastness of space and unveil exotic uncharted territories, from the marvels of a supernova explosion in the Large Magellanic Cloud to the unseeable depths of black holes.
“For me,” Lewin writes, “physics is a way of seeing—the spectacular and the mundane, the immense and the minute—as a beautiful, thrillingly interwoven whole.” His wonderfully inventive and vivid ways of introducing us to the revelations of physics impart to us a new appreciation of the remarkable beauty and intricate harmonies of the forces that govern our lives.
In science fiction, artificial intelligence takes the shape of computers that can speak like people, think for themselves, and sometimes act against us. Sometimes the machines seem to know everything, and symbolize implacable and unknowable power, as in The Matrix. Such machines can also embody the limits of logic, and by extension our own powers of reason. In Arthur C. Clarke's 2001: A Space Odyssey, HAL was a computer of vast capability driven insane by the demands of his programming – to honestly and completely report information – when those instructions conflicted with orders to keep state secrets. Star Trek has given us the android, Lieutenant Commander Data, who strives to be more human. None of these visions came true in quite the way science fiction writers imagined, even though in many ways computers surpass their fictional counterparts. This eBook reviews work in the field and covers topics from chess-playing to quantum computing. The writers tackle how to make computers more powerful, how we define consciousness, what the hard problems are and even how computers might be built once the limits of silicon chips have been reached. Artificial intelligence also raises some thorny ethical questions, such as whether morality can be programmed. These are kinds of issues that make artificial intelligence and computing fascinating. Building an intelligent machine brings together the human desire to create and the question of what makes us what we are. If anyone ever builds a true thinking machine, that last question becomes much more complicated, not less. Data and HAL would probably agree.
Three millennia ago, the Greek philosopher Zeno constructed a series of logical paradoxes to prove that motion is impossible. Today, these paradoxes remain on the cutting edge of our investigations into the fabric of space and time. Zeno?s Paradox uses the motion paradox as a jumping-off point for an exploration of the twenty-five-hundred-year quest to uncover the true nature of the universe. From Galileo to Einstein to Stephen Hawking, some of the greatest minds in history have tackled the problem and made spectacular breakthroughs?but through it all, the paradox of motion remains.
Helping you overcome these hurdles, Hydraulic Power System Analysis demonstrates modern computer-aided analytical techniques used to model nonlinear, dynamic fluid power systems. Following an overview of fluid power, the authors examine various relevant fluid properties, energy calculations, and steady state and dynamic analysis along with a review of automatic control theory. Turning to modeling, the next few chapters address valves and motors and then apply dynamic modeling to examples relating to pumps, hydrostatic transmissions, and valves. The book includes a unique chapter showing how to combine flow resistance equations with the differential equations governing dynamic system performance. The final chapter translates electrical circuit theory concepts to noise attenuation in fluid power systems.
Illustrated with many equations, practical computer modeling examples, and exercises, Hydraulic Power System Analysis provides a much-needed modernization of dynamic modeling for fluid power systems using powerful computational tools.