Joseph Butler was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher. He was born in Wantage in the English county of Berkshire. He is known, among other things, for his critique of Thomas Hobbes's egoism and John Locke's theory of personal identity. During his life and after his death, Butler influenced many philosophers, including David Hume, Thomas Reid, and Adam Smith
The introductory essay by Albert Barnes "was originally prepared as a Review of Butler's Analogy, for the Quarterly Christian Spectator, and appeared in that work in the numbers for Decembers, 1830, and March, 1831. With some slight alterations and additions, it is now reprinted as an introductory Essay to this Edition of the Analogy."