Beginning with the principles of symbolism and the necessary relations between words and objects, the author applies his theories to various branches of traditional philosophy, illustrating how mistakes arise from inappropriate use of symbolism and misuses of language. After examining the logical structure of propositions and the nature of logical inference, he discusses the theory of knowledge as well as principles of physics and ethics and aspects of the mystical.
Supervised by the author himself, this translation from the German by C. K. Ogden is regarded as the definitive text. A magisterial introduction by the distinguished philosopher Bertrand Russell hails Wittgenstein's achievement as extraordinarily important, "one which no serious philosopher can afford to neglect." Introduction by Bertrand Russell.
Its chief influence, at first, was on the Logical Positivists of the 1920s and 1930s, but many other philosophers were stimulated by its philosophy of language, finding attractive, even if ultimately unsatisfactory, its view that propositions were pictures of reality. Perhaps most of all, its own author, after his return to philosophy in the late 1920s, was fascinated by its vision of an inexpressible, crystalline world of logical relationships.
C.K. Ogden's translation of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus has a unique provenance. As revealed in Letters of C.K. Ogden (1973) and in correspondence in The Times Literary Supplement, Wittgenstein, Ramsey and Moore all worked with Ogden on the translation, which had Wittgenstein's complete approval. The very name Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus was of Ogden's devising; and there is very strong feeling among philosophers that, among the differing translations of this work, Ogden's is the definitive text - and Wittgenstein's version of the English equivalent of his Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung.
He sat on a chair in the middle of the room, with some of the class sitting in chairs, some on the floor. He never used notes. He paused frequently, sometimes for several minutes, while he puzzled out a problem. He often asked his listeners questions and reacted to their replies. Many meetings were largely conversation.
These lectures were attended by, among others, D. A. T. Gasking, J. N. Findlay, Stephen Toulmin, Alan Turing, G. H. von Wright, R. G. Bosanquet, Norman Malcolm, Rush Rhees, and Yorick Smythies. Notes taken by these last four are the basis for the thirty-one lectures in this book.
The lectures covered such topics as the nature of mathematics, the distinctions between mathematical and everyday languages, the truth of mathematical propositions, consistency and contradiction in formal systems, the logicism of Frege and Russell, Platonism, identity, negation, and necessary truth. The mathematical examples used are nearly always elementary.
What makes the difference between failure and success?
A New York Times, Wall Street Journal, USA Today, and Publisher’s Weekly bestseller, The Traveler’s Gift offered a modern-day parable of one man’s choices.
Only a few months ago, David Ponder was a successful executive. Now he’s a desperate man. In times of great uncertainty, we need divine wisdom. Many of the greatest minds in history overcame personal struggles and adversity, and they emerged the stronger for it. What guidance would iconic heroes, such as Abraham Lincoln, King Solomon, and Anne Frank, give us today in our ever-changing climate of world events?
Join David Ponder in The Traveler’s Summit on his incredible journey to discover the Seven Decisions for Success that can turn any life around, no matter how hopeless a situation may seem.
The Traveler’s Gift became required reading for some of America’s high schools and a “life skills” tool for members of several college sports teams as well as some MLB and NFL franchises. Discover with David Ponder that attitude makes the difference between success and failure.
With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age.
This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.
George R.R. Martin's New York Times bestselling epicfantasy book series, A Song of Ice and Fire, and the HBO televisionshow adapted from it, have earned critical acclaim and inspiredfanatic devotion. This book delves into the many philosophicalquestions that arise in this complex, character-driven series,including: Is it right for a "good" king to usurp the throne of a"bad" one and murder his family? How far should you go to protectyour family and its secrets? In a fantasy universe with medievalmores and ethics, can female characters reflect modern feministideals?Timed for the premiere of the second season of the HBO Gameof Thrones seriesGives new perspectives on the characters, storylines, andthemes of Game of ThronesDraws on great philosophers from ancient Greece to modernAmerica to explore intriguing topics such as the strange creaturesof Westeros, the incestuous relationship of Jaime and CerseiLannister, and what the kings of Westeros can show us about virtueand honor (or the lack thereof) as they play their game ofthrones
Essential reading for fans, Game of Thrones andPhilosophy will enrich your experience of your favoritemedieval fantasy series.
Harry Potter has been heralded as one of the most popularbook series of all time and the philosophical nature of Harry,Hermione, and Ron's quest to rid the world of its ultimate evil isone of the many things that make this series special. TheUltimate Harry Potter and Philosophy covers all seven titles inJ.K. Rowling's groundbreaking series and takes fans back toGodric's Hollow to discuss life after death, to consider what moralreasoning drove Harry to choose death, and to debate whether SiriusBlack is a man or a dog.
With publication timed to coincide with the release of the movieHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (Part 1), this bookwill be the definitive guide for all fans looking to appreciate theseries on a deeper level.Covers a range of intriguing topics such as the redemption ofSeverus Snape, the power of love, and destiny in the wizardingworldGives you a new perspective on Harry Potter characters,plot lines, and themesMakes a perfect companion to the Harry Potter books andmovies
Packed with interesting ideas and insights, The UltimateHarry Potter and Philosophy is an ideal companion for anyoneinterested in unraveling the subtext and exploring the greaterissues at work in the story.
"A genuine spiritual quest. ... Extraordinary." — New York Times
With a foreword by Ryo Horikawa, the Japanese voice of Vegeta, Dragon Ball Z Its Over 9,000. When Worldviews Collide is the first e-book to explain where Its Over 9,000! came from, how the original video spread to receive over 7 million views, and why it continues to be such a popular catchphrase.
Featuring a thoroughly researched analysis of Goku and Vegetas colliding worldviews, this e-book helps the reader better understand why conflict is necessary for profound personal growth and character development.
Referencing East Asian belief systems and high tech futuristic paradigms, Derek Padula, the author of The Dao of Dragon Ball book and blog, provides a deeper understanding of this epic story and the inherent values within it.
It will forever change the way we look at Dragon Ball Z.
Bella and Edward, and their family and friends, have facedcountless dangers and philosophical dilemmas in Stephenie Meyer'sTwilight novels. This book is the first to explore them,drawing on the wisdom of philosophical heavyweights to answeressential questions such as: What do the struggles of "vegetarian"vampires who control their biological urge for human blood sayabout free will? Are vampires morally absolved if they kill onlyanimals and not people? From a feminist perspective, is Edward aromantic hero or is he just a stalker? Is Jacob "better" for Bellathan Edward?
As absorbing as the Meyer novels themselves, Twilight andPhilosophy:
Twilight and Philosophy is a must-have companion forevery Twilight fan, whether you're new to the series or havefollowed it since the beginning.
Katniss Everdeen is "the girl who was on fire," but she is alsothe girl who made us think, dream, question authority, and rebel.The post-apocalyptic world of Panem's twelve districts is a dividedsociety on the brink of war and struggling to survive, while theCapitol lives in the lap of luxury and pure contentment. At everyturn in the Hunger Games trilogy, Katniss, Peeta, Gale, and theirmany allies wrestle with harrowing choices and ethical dilemmasthat push them to the brink. Is it okay for Katniss to break thelaw to ensure her family's survival? Do ordinary moral rules applyin the Arena? Can the world of The Hunger Games shine alight into the dark corners of our world? Why do we often enjoywatching others suffer? How can we distinguish between what's Realand Not Real? This book draws on some of history's most engagingphilosophical thinkers to take you deeper into the story and itsthemes, such as sacrifice, altruism, moral choice, and gender.Gives you new insights into the Hunger Games series and its keycharacters, plot lines, and ideasExamines important themes such as the state of nature, war,celebrity, authenticity, and social classApplies the perspective of some of world's greatest minds, suchas Charles Darwin, Thomas Hobbes, Friedrich Nietzsche, Plato, andImmanuel Kant to the Hunger Games trilogyCovers all three books in the Hunger Games trilogy
An essential companion for Hunger Games fans, this book willtake you deeper into the dystopic world of Panem and into the mindsand motivations of those who occupy it.
“I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practise resignation, unless it was quite necessary. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner, and reduce it to its lowest terms, and, if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it, and publish its meanness to the world; or if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion. ”
— Henry David Thoreau, Walden
Looking both east and west, in bulletins from the past and from far afield, Oliver Burkeman introduces us to an unusual group of people who share a single, surprising way of thinking about life. Whether experimental psychologists, terrorism experts, Buddhists, hardheaded business consultants, Greek philosophers, or modern-day gurus, they argue that in our personal lives, and in society at large, it's our constant effort to be happy that is making us miserable. And that there is an alternative path to happiness and success that involves embracing failure, pessimism, insecurity, and uncertainty—the very things we spend our lives trying to avoid. Thought-provoking, counterintuitive, and ultimately uplifting, The Antidote is the intelligent person's guide to understanding the much-misunderstood idea of happiness.
The Final Fantasy universe is packed with compellingcharacters and incredible storylines. In this book, you'll take afascinating look at the deeper issues that Final Fantasyforces players to think about while trying to battle their way tothe next level, such as: Does Cloud really exist (or should wereally care)? Is Kefka really insane? Are Moogles part of asocialist conspiracy? Does the end of the game justify themeans?
As Mages, Moogles, fiends, and Kefka are mashed together withthe likes of Machiavelli, Marx, Foucault, and Kafka, you'll delveinto crucial topics such as madness, nihilism, environmentalethics, Shintoism, the purpose of life, and much more.Examines the philosophical issues behind one of the world'soldest and most popular video-game seriesOffers new perspectives on Final Fantasy characters andthemesGives you a psychological advantage--or at least aphilosophical one--against your Final Fantasy enemiesAllows you to apply the wisdom of centuries of philosophy toany game in the series, including Final Fantasy XIII
Guaranteed to add a new dimension to your understanding of theFinal Fantasy universe, this book is the ultimate companionto the ultimate video-game series.
As A Man Thinketh by James Allen
The Age of Reason by Thomas Paine
Alcibiades I by Plato
Alexandria and her Schools by Charles Kingsley
An 'Attic' Philosopher by Emile Souvestre
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding by David Hume
An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Taste, and of the Origin of our Ideas of Beauty, etc. by Frances Reynolds
An Essay on the Beautiful by Plotinus
An Introduction to Philosophy by George Stuart Fullerton
The Analects of Confucius by James Legge
The Analysis of Mind by Bertrand Russell
The Ancient East by D. G. Hogarth
SUN TZU ON THE ART OF WAR by Sun Tzu
The Basis of Morality by Annie Besant
Bergson and His Philosophy by J. Alexander Gunn
Beyond Good and Evil by Friedrich Nietzsche
The Book of Tea by Kakuzo Okakura
Book of Wise Sayings by W. A. Clouston
The Breath of Life by John Burroughs
Bushido, the Soul of Japan by Inazo Nitobé
The Conditions of Existence as Affecting the Perpetuation of Living Beings by Thomas H. Huxley
The Complete Angler 1653 by Isaak Walton
The Conquest of Fear by Basil King
Cosmic Consciousness by Ali Nomad
Creative Unity by Rabindranath Tagore
The Critique of Practical Reason by Immanuel Kant
Death by Maurice Maeterlinck
Hints Towards the Formation of a More Comprehensive Theory of Life by Samuel Taylor Coleridge
A History of Freedom of Thought by John Bagnell Bury History of Mediaeval Jewish Philosophy by Isaac Husik
The Idea of God in Early Religions by F. B. Jevons
Initiation into Philosophy by Emile Faguet
Introduction to the Philosophy and Writings of Plato by Thomas Taylor
Kant's Theory of Knowledge by Harold Arthur Prichard
The Law and the Word by Thomas Troward
Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes
Man And Superman by George Bernard Shaw
On the Duty of Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau
Pragmatism by William James
Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes
Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus by Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
Tragic Sense of Life by Miguel de Unamuno
What is Property? by P. J. Proudhon
Where No Fear Was: A Book About Fear by Arthur Christopher Benson
Within You is the Power by Henry Thomas Hamblin
Fundamental Principals of the Metaphysic of Morals by Immanuel Kant
Thus Spake Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche
A Treatise of Human Nature by David Hume
The Problems of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell
The Ethics by Benedict de Spinoza
Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking offers seventy-seven of Dennett’s most successful "imagination-extenders and focus-holders" meant to guide you through some of life’s most treacherous subject matter: evolution, meaning, mind, and free will. With patience and wit, Dennett deftly deploys his thinking tools to gain traction on these thorny issues while offering readers insight into how and why each tool was built.
Alongside well-known favorites like Occam’s Razor and reductio ad absurdum lie thrilling descriptions of Dennett’s own creations: Trapped in the Robot Control Room, Beware of the Prime Mammal, and The Wandering Two-Bitser. Ranging across disciplines as diverse as psychology, biology, computer science, and physics, Dennett’s tools embrace in equal measure light-heartedness and accessibility as they welcome uninitiated and seasoned readers alike. As always, his goal remains to teach you how to "think reliably and even gracefully about really hard questions."
A sweeping work of intellectual seriousness that’s also studded with impish delights, Intuition Pumps offers intrepid thinkers—in all walks of life—delicious opportunities to explore their pet ideas with new powers.
Ever wonder what Aristotle might say about the life SheldonCooper leads? Why Thomas Hobbes would applaud the roommateagreement? Who Immanuel Kant would treat with "haughty derision"for weaving "un-unravelable webs?" And—mostimportantly—whether Wil Wheaton is truly evil? Ofcourse you have. Bazinga!
This book mines the deep thinking of some of history's mostpotent philosophical minds to explore your most pressing questionsabout The Big Bang Theory and its nerdy genius characters.You might find other philosophy books on science and cosmology, butonly this one refers to Darth Vader Force-chokes, cloning LeonardNimoy, and oompa-loompa-like engineers. Fo-shizzle.Gives you irresistibly geek-worthy insights on your favoriteBig Bang Theory characters, story lines, and ideasExamines important themes involving ethics and virtue, science,semiotics, religion, and the human conditionBrings the thinking of some of the world's greatestphilosophers to bear on The Big Bang Theory, from Aristotleand Plato to Nietzsche, Wittgenstein, Simone de Beauvoir, andmore
Essential reading for every Big Bang Theory fan, thisbook explores whether comic-book-wielding geeks can lead the goodlife, and whether they can know enough science to "tear the maskoff nature and stare at the face of God."
-- Francis Collins, Director, National Human Genome Research Institute
Many of history's greatest thinkers have wrestled with the ultimate question of belief and nonbelief in God. Though it might seem unlikely that any new arguments could possibly be raised on either side, the twentieth century managed to produce two men who each made brilliant, new, and lasting arguments, one in favor of belief and one opposed. Few spokesmen have ever championed their respective positions better than Sigmund Freud and C. S. Lewis. Sadly, as far as we know, they never met or debated each other directly.
In The Question of God their arguments are placed side by side, as if they were standing at podiums in a shared room. Both thought carefully about the flaws and alternatives to their positions; each considered the other's views. Both men considered the problem of pain and suffering, the nature of love and sex, and the ultimate meaning of life and death. Here, with their debate made explicit, we can take ringside seats at one of history's most profound encounters.
For more than twenty-five years Armand Nicholi has studied the philosophical writings of both men, and has taught a popular course at Harvard that compares the two worldviews. In The Question of God he presents the fruits of years of labor among the published and unpublished writings of Lewis and Freud, including an extensive exploration of their private letters. He allows them to speak for themselves on every major question of belief and nonbelief, but also skillfully draws conclusions from their own lives. Why did Freud have such difficulty maintaining lifelong friendships? How did Lewis's friendships change after his transition from atheism to belief? Why was Freud unable to willfully ignore his own internal moral sense, even though he believed it to be purely a product of socialization and not in any way eternally "true"?
The Question of God may be the best book about belief and nonbelief ever written, since it does not presuppose which answer is correct. Instead, it uses two of history's most articulate spokesmen to present arguments on both sides. In the end, readers must join Nicholi's hundreds of former students in deciding for themselves which path to follow.
"The Perennial Philosophy," Aldous Huxley writes, "may be found among the traditional lore of peoples in every region of the world, and in its fully developed forms it has a place in every one of the higher religions."
With great wit and stunning intellect—drawing on a diverse array of faiths, including Zen Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Christian mysticism, and Islam—Huxley examines the spiritual beliefs of various religious traditions and explains how they are united by a common human yearning to experience the divine. The Perennial Philosophy includes selections from Meister Eckhart, Rumi, and Lao Tzu, as well as the Bhagavad Gita, Tibetan Book of the Dead, Diamond Sutra, and Upanishads, among many others.
“I can imagine few more enjoyable ways of thinking than to read this book.”—Sarah Bakewell, New York Times Book Review, front-page review Tackling the “darkest question in all of philosophy” with “raffish erudition” (Dwight Garner, New York Times), author Jim Holt explores the greatest metaphysical mystery of all: why is there something rather than nothing? This runaway bestseller, which has captured the imagination of critics and the public alike, traces our latest efforts to grasp the origins of the universe. Holt adopts the role of cosmological detective, traveling the globe to interview a host of celebrated scientists, philosophers, and writers, “testing the contentions of one against the theories of the other” (Jeremy Bernstein, Wall Street Journal). As he interrogates his list of ontological culprits, the brilliant yet slyly humorous Holt contends that we might have been too narrow in limiting our suspects to God versus the Big Bang. This “deft and consuming” (David Ulin, Los Angeles Times) narrative humanizes the profound questions of meaning and existence it confronts.
Originally published in 1940, this book is a rare phenomenon, a living classic that introduces and elucidates the various levels of reading and how to achieve them—from elementary reading, through systematic skimming and inspectional reading, to speed reading. Readers will learn when and how to “judge a book by its cover,” and also how to X-ray it, read critically, and extract the author’s message from the text.
Also included is instruction in the different techniques that work best for reading particular genres, such as practical books, imaginative literature, plays, poetry, history, science and mathematics, philosophy and social science works.
Finally, the authors offer a recommended reading list and supply reading tests you can use measure your own progress in reading skills, comprehension, and speed.
Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) was one of the leading social theorists in the United States. Her Lectures on Kant's Political Philosophy and Love and Saint Augustine are also published by the University of Chicago Press.
The sequel to Agamben's Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, State of Exception is the first book to theorize the state of exception in historical and philosophical context. In Agamben's view, the majority of legal scholars and policymakers in Europe as well as the United States have wrongly rejected the necessity of such a theory, claiming instead that the state of exception is a pragmatic question. Agamben argues here that the state of exception, which was meant to be a provisional measure, became in the course of the twentieth century a normal paradigm of government. Writing nothing less than the history of the state of exception in its various national contexts throughout Western Europe and the United States, Agamben uses the work of Carl Schmitt as a foil for his reflections as well as that of Derrida, Benjamin, and Arendt.
In this highly topical book, Agamben ultimately arrives at original ideas about the future of democracy and casts a new light on the hidden relationship that ties law to violence.
“If man will strike, strike through the mask!
How can the prisoner reach outside except
by thrusting through the wall?”
Those interested in striking through the mask will welcome a theory of everything that makes sense, doesn’t rely on religious or scientific chicanery, and can be easily understood. And those familiar with Jed McKenna and the Enlightenment Trilogy will know that it’s not just a theory.
Building on the success of his first book WORLD TRANSFORMATION, Dr. Jawara D. King returns with a spectacular effort full of techniques that will make dramatic positive changes for you if practiced, and help you see and imagine yourself being what you affirm to be. A decision backed by action is the root of all change, along with a change in your thinking. You have to believe it before you see it. Images of what you want in your mind begin the creative process. You attract situations that match the images of your daily thoughts and what you mostly focus upon. Through mind power, your new life will reflect your new thoughts and habits.