Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children’s social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children’s awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental period, this book examines this question from both social and cognitive perspectives, and investigates the real-life significance of individual differences in theory of mind.
After tracing the key age-related changes in the development of theory of mind, this book examines individual differences in relation to children’s cognitive abilities and their social experiences. Why might language or executive function matter for children’s social understanding? And how do children’s linguistic environments and relationships with parents and siblings contribute to their ability to reflect on people’s thoughts and feelings?
The book also reviews the evidence for predictive links between early social understanding and later social behaviour. Using information gathered from classmates, teachers and the children themselves, the author investigates links between individual differences in early social understanding and in the quality of children’s interactions with friends, in their ability to resolve conflict, and in diverse aspects of school adjustment.
Drawing on rich observational data gathered in this extended longitudinal study, as well as skills acquired during her early experimental studies of children with autism and a six year collaboration with Professor Judy Dunn, the author integrates both cognitive and social accounts of theory of mind. The book is ideal reading for researchers actively working in the field, graduate and undergraduate students specializing in developmental psychology, educational and health professionals, and parents interested in learning about children’s early social development.
Drawing from a decade of work with hundreds of twentysomething clients and students, THE DEFINING DECADE weaves the latest science of the twentysomething years with behind-closed-doors stories from twentysomethings themselves. The result is a provocative read that provides the tools necessary to make the most of your twenties, and shows us how work, relationships, personality, social networks, identity, and even the brain can change more during this decade than at any other time in adulthood-if we use the time wisely.
THE DEFINING DECADE is a smart, compassionate and constructive book about the years we cannot afford to miss.
Your biography becomes your biology. The emotional trauma we suffer as children not only shapes our emotional lives as adults, but it also affects our physical health, longevity, and overall wellbeing. Scientists now know on a bio-chemical level exactly how parents’ chronic fights, divorce, death in the family, being bullied or hazed, and growing up with a hypercritical, alcoholic, or mentally ill parent can leave permanent, physical “fingerprints” on our brains.
When children encounter sudden or chronic adversity, stress hormones cause powerful changes in the body, altering the body’s chemistry. The developing immune system and brain react to this chemical barrage by permanently resetting children’s stress response to “high,” which in turn can have a devastating impact on their mental and physical health as they grow up.
Donna Jackson Nakazawa shares stories from people who have recognized and overcome their adverse experiences, shows why some children are more immune to stress than others, and explains why women are at particular risk. “Groundbreaking” (Tara Brach, PhD, author of Radical Acceptance) in its research, inspiring in its clarity, Childhood Disrupted explains how you can reset your biology—and help your loved ones find ways to heal. “A truly important gift of understanding—illuminates the heartbreaking costs of childhood trauma and like good medicine offers the promising science of healing and prevention” (Jack Kornfield, author of A Path With Heart).
A groundbreaking book on autism, by one of the world’s leading experts, who portrays autism as a unique way of being human—this is “required reading....Breathtakingly simple and profoundly positive” (Chicago Tribune).
Autism therapy typically focuses on ridding individuals of “autistic” symptoms such as difficulties interacting socially, problems in communicating, sensory challenges, and repetitive behavior patterns. Now Dr. Barry M. Prizant offers a new and compelling paradigm: the most successful approaches to autism don’t aim at fixing a person by eliminating symptoms, but rather seeking to understand the individual’s experience and what underlies the behavior.
“A must-read for anyone touched by autism... Dr. Prizant’s Uniquely Human is a crucial step in promoting better understanding and a more humane approach” (Associated Press). Instead of classifying “autistic” behaviors as signs of pathology, Dr. Prizant sees them as part of a range of strategies to cope with a world that feels chaotic and overwhelming. Rather than curb these behaviors, it’s better to enhance abilities, build on strengths, and offer supports that will lead to more desirable behavior and a better quality of life.
“A remarkable approach to autism....A truly impactful, necessary book” (Kirkus Reviews, starred review), Uniquely Human offers inspiration and practical advice drawn from Dr. Prizant’s four-decade career. It conveys a deep respect for people with autism and their own unique qualities. Filled with humanity and wisdom, Uniquely Human “should reassure parents and caregivers of kids with autism and any other disability that their kids are not broken, but, indeed, special” (Booklist, starred review).
Once we confront our own mortality, Dr. Yalom writes, we are inspired to rearrange our priorities, communicate more deeply with those we love, appreciate more keenly the beauty of life, and increase our willingness to take the risks necessary for personal fulfillment.
How much credit do parents deserve when their children turn out welt? How much blame when they turn out badly? Judith Rich Harris has a message that will change parents' lives: The "nurture assumption" -- the belief that what makes children turn out the way they do, aside from their genes, is the way their parents bring them up -- is nothing more than a cultural myth. This electrifying book explodes some of our unquestioned beliefs about children and parents and gives us a radically new view of childhood.
Harris looks with a fresh eye at the real lives of real children to show that it is what they experience outside the home, in the company of their peers, that matters most, Parents don't socialize children; children socialize children. With eloquence and humor, Judith Harris explains why parents have little power to determine the sort of people their children will become.
The Nurture Assumption is an important and entertaining work that brings together insights from psychology, sociology, anthropology, primatology, and evolutionary biology to offer a startling new view of who we are and how we got that way.
When Joan Frances Casey, a married twenty-six-year-old graduate student, “awoke” on the ledge of a building ready to jump, it wasn’t the first time she couldn’t explain her whereabouts. Soon after, Lynn Wilson, an experienced psychiatric social worker, diagnosed Joan with multiple personality disorder. She prescribed a radical program of reparenting therapy to individually treat her patient’s twenty-four separate personalities. As Lynn came to know Joan’s distinct selves—Josie, the self-destructive toddler; Rusty, the motherless boy; Renee, the people pleaser—she uncovered a pattern of emotional and physical abuse that had nearly consumed a remarkable young woman.
Praise for The Flock
“A testimony to [Casey’s] courage and the dedication of her therapist, who believed that a profoundly fragmented self has the capacity to heal within a loving therapeutic relationship.”—The New York Times Book Review
“Absolutely mesmerizing . . . the first coherent autobiographical study of its kind.”—The Detroit News
“A compelling psychological odyssey offering unique insights into a nightmare world.”—Kirkus Reviews
“Extraordinary . . . deftly told and studded with striking images.”—Publishers Weekly
Alan Carr's Positive Psychology has become essential reading for anyone requiring a thorough and accessible introduction to the field. This new edition retains all the features that made the first edition so popular, including:accounts of major theories and relevant research learning objectives chapter summaries research and personal development questions suggestions for further reading measures for use in research glossaries of new terms.
The book has also been completely updated to take account of recent research and major advances, and includes a new chapter on Positive Psychotherapy, an extended account of research on character strengths and virtues, and a discussion of recent ground-breaking research on emotional intelligence.
This new edition of Positive Psychology will prove a valuable resource for psychology students and lecturers, as well as those involved in postgraduate training in related areas such as clinical psychology, social work, counselling and psychotherapy.
This classic text provides practical parenting strategies designed to enhance children's happiness and emotional health. It explains what attachment is, how grief and trauma can affect children's emotional development, and how to improve attachment, respect, cooperation and trust. Parenting techniques are matched to children's emotional needs and stages, and checklists are included to help parents assess how their child is doing at each developmental stage. The book covers a wide range of issues including international adoption, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, and learning disabilities, and combines sound theory and direct advice with case examples throughout.
This book is a must read for anyone interested in adoption and for all adoptive families. It will also be a valuable resource for adoption professionals.
What makes us the way we are? Some say it’s the genes we inherit at conception. Others are sure it’s the environment we experience in childhood. But could it be that many of our individual characteristics—our health, our intelligence, our temperaments—are influenced by the conditions we encountered before birth?
That’s the claim of an exciting and provocative field known as fetal origins. Over the past twenty years, scientists have been developing a radically new understanding of our very earliest experiences and how they exert lasting effects on us from infancy well into adulthood. Their research offers a bold new view of pregnancy as a crucial staging ground for our health, ability, and well-being throughout life.
Author and journalist Annie Murphy Paul ventures into the laboratories of fetal researchers, interviews experts from around the world, and delves into the rich history of ideas about how we’re shaped before birth. She discovers dramatic stories: how individuals gestated during the Nazi siege of Holland in World War II are still feeling its consequences decades later; how pregnant women who experienced the 9/11 attacks passed their trauma on to their offspring in the womb; how a lab accident led to the discovery of a common household chemical that can harm the developing fetus; how the study of a century-old flu pandemic reveals the high personal and societal costs of poor prenatal experience.
Origins also brings to light astonishing scientific findings: how a single exposure to an environmental toxin may produce damage that is passed on to multiple generations; how conditions as varied as diabetes, heart disease, and mental illness may get their start in utero; why the womb is medicine’s latest target for the promotion of lifelong health, from preventing cancer to reducing obesity. The fetus is not an inert being, but an active and dynamic creature, responding and adapting as it readies itself for life in the particular world it will enter. The pregnant woman is not merely a source of potential harm to her fetus, as she is so often reminded, but a source of influence on her future child that is far more powerful and positive than we ever knew. And pregnancy is not a nine-month wait for the big event of birth, but a momentous period unto itself, a cradle of individual strength and wellness and a crucible of public health and social equality.
With the intimacy of a personal memoir and the sweep of a scientific revolution, Origins presents a stunning new vision of our beginnings that will change the way you think about yourself, your children, and human nature itself.
Child psychology is required for college level psych and elementary education majors. It is a complex subject that can include developmental psychology, biology, sociological psychology, and various schools of theory and therapies. The only sources of information about this complex subject are long, expensive textbooks. Until now. This, the first trade book to give a detailed, easy to understand explanation of the subject.
? Age-by-age discussion of the psychological development of children.
In this counterintuitive book, psychologist Catherine Salmon and journalist Katrin Schumann combine science, history, and real-life stories to reveal for the first time that our perception of middle children is dead wrong.
Using unpublished and little-known research from evolutionary psychology, sociology, and communications, The Secret Power of Middle Children illustrates how adaptive strategies middleborns develop during childhood translate into stronger friendships, lasting marriages, successful careers, and effective parenting.
Over seventy million adult Americans are middle children, and forty percent of young American families have middle children. With constructive advice on how to maximize the benefits and avoid the pitfalls of being a middle child, Salmon and Schumann help middle children at any age (and their parents) use birth order as a strategy for success.
From Smartphones to Social Media investigates these questions and many complex issues related to technology. Readers will discover what researchers know about how the use of technology affects us through accessibly written, thematic chapters. The main text is complemented by a collection of case studies and interviews with a variety of experts, providing insight into how technology's positive and negative effects manifest in our everyday lives and what we can do to mediate the negative ones.
Unlike any other time in our lives, we remember almost nothing from our first three years. As infants, not only are we like the proverbial blank slate but our memories are like teflon: nothing sticks. In this beautifully written account of his daughter's first three years, Charles Fernyhough combines his vivid observations with a synthesis of developmental theory, re-creating what that time, lost to the memory of adults, is like from a child's perspective.
In A Thousand Days of Wonder, Fernyhough, a psychologist and novelist, attempts to get inside his daughter's head as she acquires all the faculties that make us human, including social skills, language, morality, and a sense of self. Written with a father's tenderness and a novelist's empathy and style, this unique book taps into a parent's wonder at the processes of psychological development.
The bestselling author of The Art of Possibility returns with a new vision for achieving true human fulfillment that's sure to appeal to fans of Brene Brown's Daring Greatly and Elizabeth Gilbert's Big Magic
As children, we develop stories about how the world works, most of which get improved upon and amended over time. But some do not, even as we mature in other ways. Opinionated, self-centered and fear-driven, these “child stories” are the source of the behavioral and emotional patterns that hold us back. When we learn to identify and rewrite these stories, limitless growth becomes possible.
In her groundbreaking and inspiring new book, Rosamund Stone Zander shows us that life is a story we tell ourselves, and that we have the power to change that story. She illuminates how breaking old patterns and telling a new story can transform not just our own lives, but also our relationships with others—whether in a marriage, a classroom, or a business. Finally, she demonstrates how, with this new understanding of ourselves and our place within an interconnected world, we can take powerful action in the collective interest, and gain a sense of deep connection to the universe.
Pathways to Possibility expands our notions of how much we can grow and change, whether we can affect others or the world at large, and how much freedom and joy we can experience. Stimulating and profound, it is the perfect companion to her beloved first book, The Art of Possibility.
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Humans are born to create theories about the world--unfortunately, we're usually wrong and bad theories keep us from understanding science as it really is
Why do we catch colds? What causes seasons to change? And if you fire a bullet from a gun and drop one from your hand, which bullet hits the ground first? In a pinch we almost always get these questions wrong. Worse, we regularly misconstrue fundamental qualities of the world around us. In Scienceblind, cognitive and developmental psychologist Andrew Shtulman shows that the root of our misconceptions lies in the theories about the world we develop as children. They're not only wrong, they close our minds to ideas inconsistent with them, making us unable to learn science later in life. So how do we get the world right? We must dismantle our intuitive theories and rebuild our knowledge from its foundations. The reward won't just be a truer picture of the world, but clearer solutions to many controversies--around vaccines, climate change, or evolution--that plague our politics today.
Drawing on fascinating new research as well as their own extensive experience in schools, Thompson and Grace demonstrate that children’s friendships begin early–in infancy–and run exceptionally deep in intensity and loyalty. As children grow, their friendships become more complex and layered but also more emotionally fraught, marked by both extraordinary intimacy and bewildering cruelty. As parents, we watch, and often live through vicariously, the tumult that our children experience as they encounter the “cool” crowd, shifting alliances, bullies, and disloyal best friends.
Best Friends, Worst Enemies brings to life the drama of childhood relationships, guiding parents to a deeper understanding of the motives and meanings of social behavior. Here you will find penetrating discussions of the difference between friendship and popularity, how boys and girls deal in unique ways with intimacy and commitment, whether all kids need a best friend, why cliques form and what you can do about them.
Filled with anecdotes that ring amazingly true to life, Best Friends, Worst Enemies probes the magic and the heartbreak that all children experience with their friends. Parents, teachers, counselors–indeed anyone who cares about children–will find this an eye-opening and wonderfully affirming book.
Personality disorders—borderline, narcissistic, and schizoid—have become the classic psychological disorders of our age. Outwardly successful, charming and powerful, personality-disordered individuals have long confounded their colleagues, family, lovers and employees—as well as mental health professionals. The author helps the reader understand them. After describing how the healthy real self develops and functions, he explains what can go wrong. Drawing on case histories, he shows how the false self behaves in relationships and on the job, and then delineates appropriate treatments, offering real hope for cure.
With sales in the tens of billions of dollars each year, just about everybody is playing some kind of video game whether it's on a console, a computer, a web browser, or a phone. Much of the medium’s success is built on careful (though sometimes unwitting) adherence to basic principles of psychology. This is something that’s becoming even more important as games become more social, interactive, and sophisticated. This book offers something unique to the millions of people who play or design games: how to use an understanding of psychology to be a better part of their gaming communities, to avoid being manipulated when they shop and play, and to get the most enjoyment out of playing games. With examples from the games themselves, Jamie Madigan offers a fuller understanding of the impact of games on our psychology and the influence of psychology on our games.
Everything you need to pass the exam and get the college credit you deserve.
CLEP* is the most popular credit-by-examination program in the country, accepted by more than 2,900 colleges and universities. For over 15 years, REA has helped students pass the CLEP* exam and earn college credit while reducing their tuition costs.
Our CLEP* test preps are perfect for adults returning to college (or attending for the first time), military service members, high-school graduates looking to earn college credit, or home-schooled students with knowledge that can translate into college credit.
There are many different ways to prepare for the CLEP* exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. Our test prep for CLEP* Human Growth & Development and the free online tools that come with it, will allow you to create a personalized CLEP* study plan that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge.
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REA is the acknowledged leader in CLEP* preparation, with the most extensive library of CLEP* titles available. Our test preps for CLEP* exams help you earn valuable college credit, save on tuition, and get a head start on your college degree.
These exceptional people possess a range of intellectual, social and emotional gifts in fields such as mathematics, the arts, music and spirituality. Through their particular abilities, they were often confronted with extra emotional challenges, such as over-anxious and pushy parents, teacher put-downs, social trip-wires, boredom and bullying in school and conflicting life choices. Their stories illustrate how seemingly innocuous events could have devastating life-long consequences, and confront the reader with intriguing questions such as: Does having a brilliant mind help when you are ethnically different or suffering serious depression? How does a world-class pianist cope when repetitive strain injury strikes, or a young financier when he hits his first million? What is the emotional impact of grade-skipping?
Joan Freeman’s insights into the twists and turns of these lives are fascinating and deeply moving. She shows us that while fate has a part to play, so does a personal outlook which can see and grab a fleeting chance, overcome great odds, and put in the necessary hard work to lift childhood prodigy to greatness. Readers will identify with many of the intriguing aspects of these people’s lives, and perhaps learn something about themselves too.
Drop something in front of a two-year-old, and she's likely to pick it up for you. This is not a learned behavior, psychologist Michael Tomasello argues. Through observations of young children in experiments he himself has designed, Tomasello shows that children are naturally—and uniquely—cooperative. Put through similar experiments, for example, apes demonstrate the ability to work together and share, but choose not to. As children grow, their almost reflexive desire to help—without expectation of reward—becomes shaped by culture. They become more aware of being a member of a group. Groups convey mutual expectations, and thus may either encourage or discourage altruism and collaboration. Either way, cooperation emerges as a distinctly human combination of innate and learned behavior. In Why We Cooperate, Tomasello's studies of young children and great apes help identify the underlying psychological processes that very likely supported humans' earliest forms of complex collaboration and, ultimately, our unique forms of cultural organization, from the evolution of tolerance and trust to the creation of such group-level structures as cultural norms and institutions. Scholars Carol Dweck, Joan Silk, Brian Skyrms, and Elizabeth Spelke respond to Tomasello's findings and explore the implications.
*Chapter subheadings written as questions to help students quickly find the answers they need.
*Key tips and checklists for managing each phase of a study.
*Exercises that build core research skills.
*Annotated sample journal article with commentary on the writing and publication process.
Emotions are the world's universal language. Understand them, and you understand yourself-and others. Packed with thought-provoking articles on mindfulness, on connecting emotionally with others, and on freeing your feelings, The Science of Emotions, a new Special Edition from the Editors of TIME draws from the trusted reporting of TIME magazine to help you get in touch with you. Three distinct sections - "Know Yourself," "Connect with Others," and "Free Your Feelings" help you unlock your emotional intelligence, tame social media envy, understand why we cry, learn how to read body language and more. You'll also discover the secrets to mental toughness, learn how to let go of guilt, discover the upside of a bad mood, and learn the eight easy ways to get happier. Filled with photos, infographics and illustrations, including a photo essay on joy, this empowering collection offers a full-circle view of feelings ranging from despair to elation, and reveals how to harness emotions to build a richer life.
Writing Works is a guide for writers or therapists working with groups or individuals and is full of practical advice on everything from the equipment needed to run a session to ideas for themes, all backed up by the theory that underpins the methods explained. Experienced practitioners in the field contribute detailed illuminating accounts of organizing writing workshops for a wide range of different clients, together with examples of their outcomes.
This book will be an invaluable start-up reference for arts therapists and professionals working across the health, social care and caring professions, and one that will be referred to again and again.
No matter how old you are and whether or not your parents are alive, you have to come to terms with them. This wise and practical book will show you how to deal with the most fundamental relationships in your life and, in the process, become the happy, creative, and fulfilled person you are meant to be.
“A marvelous and helpful book on how to release the emotional pains of growing up, to forgive and release the feelings of guilt, and to celebrate the miracle of being alive. Dr. Bloomfield’s book is worth thousands of dollars of therapy.”—Elisabeth Kübler-Ross
“No one book can resolve a lifetime of hurts and misunderstandings, but it can remove the blinders from our eyes. Make an effort now.”—Los Angeles Times
While many adults now understand how mindfulness practice helps us alleviate the stress and anxiety of our busy modern lives, getting a typical teenager on board is another story. Dr. Christopher Willard draws on his work with hundreds of young children, tweens, and teens—along with countless hours training parents, teachers, and other counselors—to make the principles and practices of mindfulness accessible, entertaining, and cool for people of all ages and interests.
Features dozens of exercises to incorporate mindfulness into daily life (in class, extracurricular activities, among peers), specific meditations and movement practices, compassion training, and more.
Written by a renowned developmental psychologist
Examines the role that our period of immaturity plays on the social, emotional, and educational needs of today’s children
Challenges common perceptions of children as simply “adults in training”
Every moment is a learning experience for babies and young children. Now, the Editors of Time bring you the latest science and research to guide you in understanding your childrenÑand helping your baby grow up to be a happy, well-adjusted, confident teen and adult in this new Special Edition, The Science of Childhood. Separate sections on babies, kids, and teens include parenting tips for every age, plus clear explanations of the science of play, problem-solving ideas, best activities, autism research, and more. A beautiful photo essay on 12-year-olds as they make the journey from childhood to adolescence, along with a useful list of best books for every age, make this an indispensable resource for parents, grandparents, educators and anyone who wants to bring out the best children.
Millions of children are affected by bullies each year. Advances in social media, email, instant messaging, and cell phones, however, have moved bullying from a schoolyard fear to a constant threat. The second edition of Cyberbullying offers the most current information on this constantly-evolving issue and outlines the unique concerns and challenges it raises for children, parents, and educators. Authored by psychologists who are internationally recognized as experts in this field, the text uses the latest research in this area to provide an updated, reliable text ideal for parents and educators concerned about the cyberbullying phenomenon.
*Structured to follow the sequence of a typical social development course.
*Chapters are brief and can be assigned along with primary source readings.
*Includes end-of-chapter suggested reading lists.
*Coverage is broader and higher-level than other social development texts.
*Designed with the needs of students in mind, in terms of writing style, size, and price.
Life’s first important lessons on how to handle emotions often emerge early on within family relationships, forming the foundation for emotional development over the life-span. Couples, siblings, parents and extended family members all have profound influences on each other's emotional lives as well as on the lives of the children they are socialising.
Emotional Development and Families:
Provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to how emotional experiences, expressions, and regulation are socialised within families
Takes an international and cross-cultural approach to a complex and nuanced topic
Combines classic studies with contemporary evidence-based research to demonstrate how biology, the environment, and development interact.
Filled with a wealth of resources and suggestions for further reading, this book is ideal for students of developmental psychology, family studies, social work, counselling, education studies and clinical psychology.
This book may be used as a map for therapists and Adult Children on the road to recovery from Co-Dependency. Developmental issues are addressed, patterns of substitute behavior are identified and a treatment plan to meet the needs of the Inner Child is created.
Adult Children are in the position of trying to manage their adult lives on the basis of decisions made by mistreated children. Sometimes the pain of carrying out these life-repressing decisions becomes so overwhelming that they try to self-medicate it. The resulting addictive or compulsive substitute behaviors, which represent a denial of what their Inner Child really needs, typically make the situation even more unmanageable. Even though Co-Dependents are usually unaware of the source of their own dysfunctional patterns, they recognize that their lives aren't working and come for help.
In therapy Co-dependents can gain permission, information and modeling in order to learn what is naturally learned by children who grow up in healthy families. Through this corrective parenting the Inner Child can be healed.