In concise, high-def videos, various skills and techniques are demonstrated and explained. These cover topics for the novice, such as mounting and cleaning of optics, as well as for the more advanced learner, such as balanced detection, and lock-in amplifiers.
Various interactive widgets let you simulate the experience of aligning a laser beam to an optical system, aligning an interferometer to get fringes, or adjust a Fabry-Perot cavity while observing the mode spectrum. Other tools help you quickly find the Gaussian beam parameters of your laser from measured beam radii, and to calculate the position of a lens or pair of lenses to mode match a laser to a cavity.
The book begins at the simplest level, develops the basics, and reinforces fundamentals, ensuring a solid foundation in the principles and methods of physics. It provides an ideal introduction for college-level students of physics, chemistry, and engineering; for motivated AP Physics students; and for general readers interested in advances in the sciences.
"Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work."
—Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News
Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexity and build electro-optical systems that just work, with maximum insight and minimum trial and error.
Written in an engaging and conversational style, this Second Edition has been updated and expanded over the previous edition to reflect technical advances and a great many conversations with working designers. Key features of this new edition include:Expanded coverage of detectors, lasers, photon budgets, signal processing scheme planning, and front ends Coverage of everything from basic theory and measurement principles to design debugging and integration of optical and electronic systems Supplementary material is available on an ftp site, including an additional chapter on thermal Control and Chapter problems highly relevant to real-world design Extensive coverage of high performance optical detection and laser noise cancellation
Each chapter is full of useful lore from the author's years of experience building advanced instruments. For more background, an appendix lists 100 good books in all relevant areas, introductory as well as advanced. Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work, Second Edition is essential reading for researchers, students, and professionals who have systems to build.
Dr. Kock's lucid introduction to lasers and holography has now been revised and updated for a second edition. It begins with a clear discussion of wave patterns and coherence. Then the development of lasers is summarized, along with the phenomenon of wave diffraction. Finally, the important subjects of zone plates and the properties of holograms are skillfully described. A new, concluding chapter brings the story up to the present, with a survey of recent advances in such areas as viewing holograms, hologram computer memories, liquid surface holography, synthetic-aperture radar and sonar, large new lasers, fiber optics, etc.
Using language that can be readily understood by high school and junior high school students, Dr. Kock has written a brief, yet authoritative volume that should satisfy anyone's curiosity about this burgeoning field. The remarkable discoveries that have already occurred are only a prelude to an even more remarkable future. 84 illustrations, including 8 new to this edition. New preface. Suggested (1981) additional reading. Index.
This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications. The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced in the second edition, including:Analysis of the Vander Pol oscillator model of laser light Coverage on coherence tomography and coherence multiplexing of fiber sensors An expansion of the chapter on imaging with partially coherent light, including several new examples An expanded section on speckle and its properties New sections on the cross-spectrum and bispectrum techniques for obtaining images free from atmospheric distortions A new section on imaging through atmospheric turbulence using coherent light The addition of the effects of “read noise” to the discussions of limitations encountered in detecting very weak optical signals A number of new problems and many new references have been added Statistical Optics, Second Edition is written for researchers and engineering students interested in optics, physicists and chemists, as well as graduate level courses in a University Engineering or Physics Department.
Divided into four sections, the book covers fundaments of IR detection, IR thermal detectors, IR photon detectors, and focal plane arrays. It begins with a tutorial introduction to essential of different types of IR detectors and systems. The author explores the theory and technology of different thermal detectors and then moves on to the theory and technology of photon detectors. He concludes his treatment with a discussion of IR focal plane arrays where relations between performance of detector array and infrared system quality are considered.
New to the Second Edition:
Fundamentals of IR detection, radiometry, and flux-transfer issues needed for IR detector and system analysis Major achievements and trends in the development of IR detectors Novel uncooled detectors such as cantilever, antenna, and optically coupled detectors Type II superlattice detectors Quantum dot IR detectors Terahertz (THz) arrays and new generation of IR detectors, so-called third generation detectors
The author accomplishes the difficult task of making the information accessible to a wide readership. A comprehensive analysis of the latest developments in IR detector technology and basic insight into the fundamental processes important to evolving detection techniques, the book provides the most complete and up-to-date resource of its kind, including a summary of useful data, guide to the literature, and overview of applications.
This book explains the basic principles of spectroscopy, including the fundamental optical constraints and all mathematical aspects needed to understand the working principles in detail. It covers the complete theoretical and practical design of standard and Echelle spectrographs. Readers are guided through all necessary calculations, enabling them to engage in spectrograph design. The book also examines data acquisition with CCD cameras and fiber optics, as well as the constraints of specific data reduction and possible sources of error. In closing it briefly highlights some main aspects of the research on massive stars and spectropolarimetry as an extension of spectroscopy. The book offers a comprehensive introduction to spectroscopy for students of physics and astronomy, as well as a valuable resource for amateur astronomers interested in learning the principles of spectroscopy and spectrograph design.
If you sit as still as you can in a quiet room, you might be able to convince yourself that nothing is moving. But air currents are still wafting around you. Blood rushes through your veins. The atoms in your chair jiggle furiously. In fact, the planet you are sitting on is whizzing through space thirty-five times faster than the speed of sound.
Natural motion dominates our lives and the intricate mechanics of the world around us. In ZOOM, Bob Berman explores how motion shapes every aspect of the universe, literally from the ground up. With an entertaining style and a gift for distilling the wondrous, Berman spans astronomy, geology, biology, meteorology, and the history of science, uncovering how clouds stay aloft, how the Earth's rotation curves a home run's flight, and why a mosquito's familiar whine resembles a telephone's dial tone.
For readers who love to get smarter without realizing it, ZOOM bursts with science writing at its best.
Amateur astronomers are always contemplating the "next telescope up" and this will point the way to the most suitable instrument to which they should aspire. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescope – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and makes.
Jim Mullaney is an astronomy writer, lecturer and consultant who has published more than 500 articles and five books: he has also been an editor for Sky & Telescope, Astronomy, and Star & Sky magazines. One of the contributors to Carl Sagan’s award-winning Cosmos PBS-Television series, his work has received recognition from such notables as Sir Arthur Clarke, Johnny Carson, Ray Bradbury, Dr. Wernher von Braun, and one of his former students – NASA scientist/astronaut Dr. Jay Apt. He is probably the ideal person to write this book, containing as it does a directory of instruments offered by all the major manufacturers.
This exciting, upbeat new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand and model of such instruments on today’s market – truly an invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Also includes details on the the latest released telescope lines, e.g., the 10-, 12-, 14- and 16-inch aperture models of the Meade LX-R series.
This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of the fundamentals of holography, with particular reference to spatial and temporal coherence, diffraction at finite and infinite distances, and filtering of spatial frequencies. The reader is then introduced to the principles and applications of holography, focusing on the geometric optics and aberrations of holograms as well as interferometry and microscopy. The following chapters explore how images are produced and reconstructed using a hologram and explain how to detect the differences between two images. Three main types of synthetic holograms are also considered: binary holograms, holograms with several intensity levels, and the holograms called kinoforms. The last chapter is devoted to optical filtering and pattern recognition.
This monograph will be of value to physicists and researchers as well as to those interested in how holography works.
This book will be mandatory reading for anyone working on the foundations of modern devices such as free electron lasers, plasma accelerators, synchroton sources and other modern sources of bright, coherent radiation with high spectral density.
One of the nineteenth century's most significant papers, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," appears here, along with similarly influential expositions of Maxwell's dynamical theory of gases. The author's extensive range of interests is well represented, from his discussions of color blindness and the composition of Saturn's rings to his essays on geometrical optics, ether, and protecting buildings from lightning. His less technical writings are featured as well, including items written for the Encyclopedia Britannica and Nature magazine, book reviews, and popular lectures. Striking in their originality, these papers offer a wealth of stimulating and inspiring reading to modern students of mathematics and physics.
This comprehensive reference provides up-to-date information on component and subsystem technologies, fundamental limitations, and approaches to reach those limits. It covers basic concepts and state-of-the-art technologies, emphasizing device technology, implementation techniques, and system trades. The authors discuss hardware technologies and their applications, and also explore ongoing research activities and those planned for the near future.
The analytical aspects of laser communication have been covered to a great extent in several books. However, a detailed approach to system design and development, including trades on subsystem choices and implications of the hardware selection for satellite and aircraft telecommunications, is missing. Highlighting key design variations and critical differences between them, this book distills decades’ worth of experience into a practical resource on hardware technologies.
Laser Fabrication and Machining of Materials introduces readers to the fundamental properties and physical phenomena of laser machining and its applications on the macro, micro, and nano scales. Examples of existing, emerging, and potential techniques are discussed, giving students and practicing engineers alike the opportunity to expand their use of lasers in such disciplines as mechanical processes, electronics, materials, and manufacturing.
Each topic is carefully introduced at three levels to aid student understanding. First, theoretical ideas and background information are discussed, then explanations of mathematical solutions follow and finally practical solutions are presented using MATLAB. The content includes:A compendium of equations and numerical data required by the modern colour and imaging scientist. Numerous examples of solutions and algorithms for a wide-range of computational problems in colour science. Example scripts using the MATLAB programming language.
This 2nd edition contains substantial new and revised material, including three innovative chapters on colour imaging, psychophysical methods, and physiological colour spaces; the MATLAB toolbox has been extended with a professional, optimized, toolbox to go alongside the current teaching toolbox; and a java toolbox has been added which will interest users who are writing web applications and/or applets or mobile phone applications.
Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition is an invaluable resource for students taking courses in colour science, colour chemistry and colour physics as well as technicians and researchers working in the area. In addition, it acts a useful reference for professionals and researchers working in colour dependent industries such as textiles, paints, print & electronic imaging.
Review from First Edition:
“…highly recommended as a concise introduction to the practicalities of colour science…” (Color Technology, 2004)
Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter on supercontinuum generation in optical fibers.Continues to be industry bestseller providing unique source of comprehensive coverage on the subject of nonlinear fiber optics Updated coverage of intrapulse Raman scattering, four-wave mixing, and Harmonic GenerationIncludes a new chapter excusively devoted to supercontinuum generation in optical fibers
An adaptive lens is a lens whose shape has been changed to a different focal length by an external stimulus such as pressure, electric field, magnetic field, or temperature. Introduction to Adaptive Lenses is the first book ever to address all of the fundamental operation principles, device characteristics, and potential applications of various types of adaptive lenses.
This comprehensive book covers basic material properties, device structures and performance, image processing and zooming, optical communications, and biomedical imaging. Readers will find homework problems and solutions included at the end of each chapter—and based on the described device structures, they will have the knowledge to fabricate adaptive lenses for practical applications or develop new adaptive devices or concepts for advanced investigation.
Introduction to Adaptive Lenses includes chapters on:
Elastomeric membrane lenses
Liquid crystal lenses
This is an important reference for optical engineers, research scientists, graduate students, and undergraduate seniors.
Nonlinear optics is essentially the study of the interaction of strong laser light with matter. It lies at the basis of the field of photonics, the use of light fields to control other light fields and to perform logical operations. Some of the topics of this book include the fundamentals and applications of optical systems based on the nonlinear interaction of light with matter. Topics to be treated include: mechanisms of optical nonlinearity, second-harmonic and sum- and difference-frequency generation, photonics and optical logic, optical self-action effects including self-focusing and optical soliton formation, optical phase conjugation, stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering, and selection criteria of nonlinear optical materials.
· Covers all the latest topics and technology in this ever-evolving area of study that forms the backbone of the major applications of optical technology
· Offers first-rate instructive style making it ideal for self-study
· Emphasizes the fundamentals of non-linear optics rather than focus on particular applications that are constantly changing
The book covers topics such as Fourier spectrometry and field-widened interferometers; the applications of Fourier transform spectrometry; transmission studies on the different phases of matter; asymmetric interferometry; and the measurement of complex indices of refraction. Also included in the book are the areas of cryogenic instrumentation; Hadamard-Transform spectrometry and its related theory; measurement of infrared transient phenomena; and calibration techniques.
The text is applicable for both novices and practitioners in the field of spectrometry, as it can serve as a guide and handbook for the former and reference for the latter.
The book begins with a brief history of the effort to enable the device that generates light through modern organic LEDs and reviews the fundamentals and principles of light prior to a detailed explanation of how LEDs generate different colors. After forming this basic foundation, the book examines the key LEDs in lighting and communications. It then discusses the latest opportunities and advancements in high brightness (HB) LED technology, solid state lighting, and handheld electronic applications.
As we approach a new decade the role of LEDs is literally set to explode, with organic light emitting diodes emerging as a leading next generation technology for electronic displays and lighting. Challenges still exist, including light extraction, luminosity, and white light generation, not to mention non-technical obstacles such as IP disputes and the lack of standards. This book provides a foundation for resolving these issues and developing new applications for LEDs in the promising general illumination market.
This book guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use telescopes (from small amateur models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and to observe objects in the sky. Mathematics to around Advanced Placement standard (US) or A level (UK) is assumed, although High School Diploma (US) or GCSE-level (UK) mathematics plus some basic trigonometry will suffice most of the time. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires no prior knowledge or experience.
This is a ‘how to’ book that provides the knowledge and background required to understand how and why telescopes work. Equipped with the techniques discussed in this book, the observer will be able to operate with confidence his or her telescope and to optimize its performance for a particular purpose. In principle the observer could calculate his or her own predictions of planetary positions (ephemerides), but more realistically the observer will be able to understand the published data lists properly instead of just treating them as ‘recipes.’ When the observer has obtained measurements, he/she will be able to analyze them in a scientific manner and to understand the significance and meaning of the results.
“Telescopes and Techniques, 3rd Edition” fills a niche at the start of an undergraduate astronomer’s university studies, as shown by it having been widely adopted as a set textbook. This third edition is now needed to update its material with the many new observing developments and study areas that have come into prominence since it was published. The book concentrates on the knowledge needed to understand how small(ish) optical telescopes function, their main designs and how to set them up, plus introducing the reader to the many ways in which objects in the sky change their positions and how they may be observed. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the most advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable the reader to see some of the developments possible from the basic observing techniques covered in the main parts of the book.
Starting from Maxwell's equations and Fourier analysis, the authors develop the theoretical tools of photonics using principles of linear algebra and symmetry, emphasizing analogies with traditional solid-state physics and quantum theory. They then investigate the unique phenomena that take place within photonic crystals at defect sites and surfaces, from one to three dimensions. This new edition includes entirely new chapters describing important hybrid structures that use band gaps or periodicity only in some directions: periodic waveguides, photonic-crystal slabs, and photonic-crystal fibers. The authors demonstrate how the capabilities of photonic crystals to localize light can be put to work in devices such as filters and splitters. A new appendix provides an overview of computational methods for electromagnetism. Existing chapters have been considerably updated and expanded to include many new three-dimensional photonic crystals, an extensive tutorial on device design using temporal coupled-mode theory, discussions of diffraction and refraction at crystal interfaces, and more. Richly illustrated and accessibly written, Photonic Crystals is an indispensable resource for students and researchers.Extensively revised and expanded Features improved graphics throughout Includes new chapters on photonic-crystal fibers and combined index-and band-gap-guiding Provides an introduction to coupled-mode theory as a powerful tool for device design Covers many new topics, including omnidirectional reflection, anomalous refraction and diffraction, computational photonics, and much more.
The book is based on the materials taught by S. Fujita for several courses in Quantum Theory of Solids, Advanced Topics in Modern Physics, and Quantum Statistical Mechanics.
Features include:Comprehensive and authoritative treatments of the latest research in this area of nanophotonics, written by the leading researchersAccounts of numerous microfluidics, nanofabrication, quantum informatics and optical manipulation applicationsCoverage that fully spans the subject area, from fundamental theory and simulations to experimental methods and results
Graduate students and established researchers in academia, national laboratories and industry will find this book an invaluable guide to the latest technologies in this rapidly developing field.Comprehensive and definitive source of the latest research in nanotechnology written by the leading people in the fieldFrom theory to applications - all is presented in detailEditor is Chair of the SPIE Nanotechnology Technical Group and is leading the way in generation and manipulation of complex beams
Gas-Liquid And Liquid-Liquid Separators is divided into six parts: Part one and two covers fundamentals such as: physical properties, phase behaviour and calculations. Part three through five is dedicated to topics such as: separator construction, factors affecting separation, vessel operation, and separator operation considerations. Part six is devoted to the ASME codes governing wall thickness determination of vessel weight fabrication, inspection, alteration and repair of separators500 illustrationsEasy to understand calculations methodsGuide for protecting downstream equipmentHelps reduce the loss of expensive intermediate endsHelps increase product purity
Designed for those new to FTIR, but with enough reference material to appeal to journeyman and expert spectroscopists, this book does not demand any extensive familiarity with chemistry or physics. Specializing in concise and comprehensible explanations of FTIR topics, the author introduces the field of infrared spectroscopy, including the strengths and weaknesses of FTIR as a chemical analysis technique. He then describes the instrument itself and explores topics such as how an interferometer generates a spectrum, optimization of spectral quality, and which tests are used to monitor instrument health.
The book discusses how to properly use spectral processing to increase the information of a spectrum without damaging the data and takes considerable care in instructing on sample preparation, as good sample preparation constitutes half the battle in extracting good data. The final chapters examine single analyte quantitative analysis and conclude with an overview of infrared microscopy.
Drawing on the experience and knowledge of the author as both a professor and practitioner, Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy offers up-to-date information given in clear, easily understood language to appeal to beginner and expert spectroscopists alike. The author maintains a website and blog with supplemental material. His training course schedule is also available online.
The coverage of the book includes basic principles such as the quantization of energy, as well as the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules; general experimental methods and features of instrumentation; and microwave, millimeter wave, and lamb dip spectroscopy. Also covered in the book are subjects such as the principles behind rotational spectroscopy; diatomic and polyatomic molecules in vibrational spectroscopy; and the electronic spectroscopy of atoms, as well as diatomic and polyatomic molecules.
The text is recommended for engineers and physicists who would like to know more about the concepts, theories, methods, and instrumentation related to spectroscopy, particularly in the field of high resolution spectroscopy.
This third revised edition is a considerably rewritten and updated version which now includes all important developments which have taken place in recent years.
Author Sal Cangeloso shows you the working parts of a “simple” LED bulb and explains the challenges electronics companies face as they push LED lighting into the mainstream. You’ll learn how you can use LEDs now, and why solid state lighting will bring dramatic changes in the near future.Explore the drivers, phosphors, and integrated circuits in a typical LED bulb Understand the challenges in producing LED bulbs with acceptable brightness, color temperature, and power consumption Learn about non-bulb LED applications, including lamps, street lights, and signage Discover the market forces driving—and impeding—the adoption of LED lighting Compare LEDs to compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and electron-stimulated luminescence (ESL) bulbs Gaze into the future of intelligent lighting, including networked lighting systems
Since the publication of the highly successful first edition of Basic Gas Chromatography, the practice of chromatography has undergone several notable developments. Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Edition covers the latest in the field, giving readers the most up-to-date guide available, while maintaining the first edition's practical, applied approach to the subject and its accessibility to a wide range of readers.
The text provides comprehensive coverage of basic topics in the field, such as stationary phases, packed columns and inlets, capillary columns and inlets, detectors, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. At the same time, the coverage also features key additions and updated topics including:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Sampling methods Multidimensional gas chromatography Fast gas chromatography Gas chromatography analysis of nonvolatile compounds Inverse gas chromatography and pyrolysis gas chromatography
Along with these new and updated topics, the references, resources, and Web sites in Basic Gas Chromatography have been revised to reflect the state of the field. Concise and fundamental in its coverage, Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Edition remains the standard handbook for everyone from undergraduates studying analytical chemistry to working industrial chemists.
Beginning with a summary of the ITU-T standards defining CWDM, the book addresses the three essential component classes, optical fibers, transceivers, and WDM filters, which combine to form the basis for the CWDM transmission link. The following chapters include coverage of different architectures such as hubbed rings and meshed networks, and upgrade paths to overcome limitations of current CWDM systems. The book outlines the feasibility of optically amplified CWDM systems, investigates the challenges present with high-speed CWDM and bidirectional transmission, and finally elucidates the importance of CWDM for a wide range of applications.
Each chapter provides sufficient information to be used independently and contains references to relevant papers and articles for further study. The last sections of the book focus on applications and case studies where CWDM plays an ever-increasing role. They include extensive studies on networking, reach extension by amplification, and the latest concepts of transmission capacity upgrades using increased bit-rates or new channel plans. Filled with practical information, the book provides a clear understanding of recent developments in the dynamic field of CWDM.
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
Intended for science and engineering students with one year of introductory physics background, this textbook presents the medical applications of fundamental principles of physics to students who are considering careers in medical physics, biophysics, medicine, or nuclear engineering. It also serves as an excellent reference for advanced students, as well as medical and health researchers, practitioners, and technicians who are interested in developing the background required to understand the changing landscape of medical science. Practice exercises are included and solutions are available separately in an instructor's manual.Complete discussion of the fundamental physical principles underlying modern medicineAccessible exploration of the physics encountered in a typical visit to a doctorPractice exercises are included and solutions are provided in a separate instructor’s manual (available to professors)A companion website (modernphysicsinmedicine.com) presents supplementary materials
* Includes a solid introduction to the simulation of equilibrium processes and the simulation of complex kinetic processes.
* Provides examples of routines that are easily adapted to the processes investigated by the reader
* 'Model-based' analysis (linear and non-linear regression) and 'model-free' analysis are covered