The book begins with a short review of calculus and ordinary differential equations, then moves on to explore integral curves and surfaces of vector fields, quasi-linear and linear equations of first order, series solutions and the Cauchy Kovalevsky theorem. It then delves into linear partial differential equations, examines the Laplace, wave and heat equations, and concludes with a brief treatment of hyperbolic systems of equations.
Among the most important features of the text are the challenging problems at the end of each section which require a wide variety of responses from students, from providing details of the derivation of an item presented to solving specific problems associated with partial differential equations. Requiring only a modest mathematical background, the text will be indispensable to those who need to use partial differential equations in solving physical problems. It will provide as well the mathematical fundamentals for those who intend to pursue the study of more advanced topics, including modern theory.
A Practical Introduction to Index Numbers will be the ideal accompaniment for students taking the index number components of the Royal Statistical Society Ordinary and Higher Certificate exams; it provides suggested routes through the book for students, and sets of exercises with solutions.
Many of the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, biology, and economics can be formulated as differential equations. This plain-English guide explores the many applications of this mathematical tool and shows how differential equations can help us understand the world around us. Differential Equations For Dummies is the perfect companion for a college differential equations course and is an ideal supplemental resource for other calculus classes as well as science and engineering courses. It offers step-by-step techniques, practical tips, numerous exercises, and clear, concise examples to help readers improve their differential equation-solving skills and boost their test scores.
Nigel Kalton (1946-2010) was an extraordinary mathematician who made major contributions to an amazingly diverse range of fields over the course of his career.
Nigel Kalton (1946-2010) was an extraordinary mathematician who made major contributions to an amazingly diverse range of fields over the course of his career.
Those familiar with mathematics texts will note the fine illustrations throughout and large number of problems offered at the chapter ends. An answer section is provided. Students weary of plodding mathematical prose will find Professor Flanigan's style as refreshing and stimulating as his approach.
Though the Japanese abacus may appear mysterious or even primitive, this intriguing tool is capable of amazing speed and accuracy. it is still widely used throughout the shop and markets of Asia and its popularity shows no sign of decline.
This volume is designed for the student desiring a greater understanding of the abacus and its calculative functions. The text provides thorough explanations of the advanced operations involving negative numbers, decimals, different units of measurement, and square roots. Diagrams illustrate bead manipulation, and numerous exercises provide ample practice.
Concise and easy-to-follow, this book will improve your abacus skills and help you perform calculations with greater efficiency and precision.
In addition to expanded explanations, the 11th edition includes new problems, updated figures and examples to help motivate students. The program is primarily intended for undergraduate students of mathematics, science, or engineering, who typically take a course on differential equations during their first or second year of study. The main prerequisite for engaging with the program is a working knowledge of calculus, gained from a normal two?] or three?] semester course sequence or its equivalent. Some familiarity with matrices will also be helpful in the chapters on systems of differential equations.
This highly useful text shows the reader how to formulate a partial differential equation from the physical problem (constructing the mathematical model) and how to solve the equation (along with initial and boundary conditions). Written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professionals working in the applied sciences, this clearly written book offers realistic, practical coverage of diffusion-type problems, hyperbolic-type problems, elliptic-type problems, and numerical and approximate methods. Each chapter contains a selection of relevant problems (answers are provided) and suggestions for further reading.
Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent study will particularly appreciate the worked examples that appear throughout the text.
The University of Toronto Undergraduate Competition was founded to provide additional competition experience for undergraduates preparing for the Putnam competition, and is particularly useful for the freshman or sophomore undergraduate. Lecturers, instructors, and coaches for mathematics competitions will find this presentation useful. Many of the problems are of intermediate difficulty and relate to the first two years of the undergraduate curriculum. The problems presented may be particularly useful for regular class assignments. Moreover, this text contains problems that lie outside the regular syllabus and may interest students who are eager to learn beyond the classroom.
The "lost notebook" contains considerable material on mock theta functions and so undoubtedly emanates from the last year of Ramanujan's life. It should be emphasized that the material on mock theta functions is perhaps Ramanujan's deepest work. Mathematicians are probably several decades away from a complete understanding of those functions. More than half of the material in the book is on q-series, including mock theta functions; the remaining part deals with theta function identities, modular equations, incomplete elliptic integrals of the first kind and other integrals of theta functions, Eisenstein series, particular values of theta functions, the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction, other q-continued fractions, other integrals, and parts of Hecke's theory of modular forms.
Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).
The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in calculus. To help give students a sound footing, Part One of the text reviews the fundamental concepts of sets and functions and the rational numbers. Part Two explores the real line in terms of the real number system, sequences and series of number and the structure of point sets. Part Three examines the functions of a real variable in terms of continuity, differentiability, spaces of continuous functions, measure and integration, and the Fourier series.
An especially valuable feature of the book is the exercises which follow each section. There are over five hundred, ranging from the simple to the highly difficult, each focusing on a concept previously introduced.
This concise text offers undergraduates in mathematics and science a thorough and systematic first course in elementary differential equations. Presuming a knowledge of basic calculus, the book first reviews the mathematical essentials required to master the materials to be presented.
The next four chapters take up linear equations, those of the first order and those with constant coefficients, variable coefficients, and regular singular points. The last two chapters address the existence and uniqueness of solutions to both first order equations and to systems and n-th order equations.
Throughout the book, the author carries the theory far enough to include the statements and proofs of the simpler existence and uniqueness theorems. Dr. Coddington, who has taught at MIT, Princeton, and UCLA, has included many exercises designed to develop the student's technique in solving equations. He has also included problems (with answers) selected to sharpen understanding of the mathematical structure of the subject, and to introduce a variety of relevant topics not covered in the text, e.g. stability, equations with periodic coefficients, and boundary value problems.
Starting with an introduction to differential equations, the text proceeds to examinations of first- and second-order differential equations, series solutions, the Laplace transform, systems of differential equations, difference equations, nonlinear differential equations and chaos, and partial differential equations. Numerous figures, problems with solutions, and historical notes clarify the text.
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Volume III concentrates on the classical aspects of gauge theory, describing the four fundamental forces by the curvature of appropriate fiber bundles. This must be supplemented by the crucial, but elusive quantization procedure.
The book is arranged in four sections, devoted to realizing the universal principle force equals curvature:
Part I: The Euclidean Manifold as a Paradigm
Part II: Ariadne's Thread in Gauge Theory
Part III: Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
Part IV: Ariadne's Thread in Cohomology
For students of mathematics the book is designed to demonstrate that detailed knowledge of the physical background helps to reveal interesting interrelationships among diverse mathematical topics. Physics students will be exposed to a fairly advanced mathematics, beyond the level covered in the typical physics curriculum.
Quantum Field Theory builds a bridge between mathematicians and physicists, based on challenging questions about the fundamental forces in the universe (macrocosmos), and in the world of elementary particles (microcosmos).
Ingeniously relying on elementary algebra and just a smidgen of calculus, Professor Walker demonstrates how the underlying ideas behind wavelet analysis can be applied to solve significant problems in audio and image processing, as well in biology and medicine.
Nearly twice as long as the original, this new edition provides
· 104 worked examples and 222 exercises, constituting a veritable book of review material
· Two sections on biorthogonal wavelets
· A mini-course on image compression, including a tutorial on arithmetic compression
· Extensive material on image denoising, featuring a rarely covered technique for removing isolated, randomly positioned clutter
· Concise yet complete coverage of the fundamentals of time-frequency analysis, showcasing its application to audio denoising, and musical theory and synthesis
· An introduction to the multiresolution principle, a new mathematical concept in musical theory
· Expanded suggestions for research projects
· An enhanced list of references
· FAWAV: software designed by the author, which allows readers to duplicate described applications and experiment with other ideas.
To keep the book current, Professor Walker has created a supplementary website. This online repository includes ready-to-download software, and sound and image files, as well as access to many of the most important papers in the field.
Ordinary Differential Equations: An Introduction to the Fundamentals also includes access to an author-maintained website featuring detailed solutions and a wealth of bonus material. Use of a math software package that can do symbolic calculations, graphing, and so forth, such as MapleTM or Mathematica®, is highly recommended, but not required.
The author devotes the first four chapters to proofs of classical theorems on boundary values and boundary integral representations of analytic functions in the unit disc, including generalizations to Dirichlet algebras. The fifth chapter contains the factorization theory of Hp functions, a discussion of some partial extensions of the factorization, and a brief description of the classical approach to the theorems of the first five chapters. The remainder of the book addresses the structure of various Banach spaces and Banach algebras of analytic functions in the unit disc.
Enhanced with 100 challenging exercises, a bibliography, and an index, this text belongs in the libraries of students, professional mathematicians, as well as anyone interested in a rigorous, high-level treatment of this topic.
The book is divided into three parts. The first introduces the framework for the above-mentioned classification, methodically developing a geometric and topological formulation applicable to all physical laws and properties; the second applies this formulation to a detailed study of particle dynamics, electromagnetism, deformable solids, fluid dynamics, heat conduction, and gravitation. The third part further analyses the general structure of the classification diagram for variables and equations of physical theories.
Suitable for a diverse audience of physicists, engineers, and mathematicians, The Mathematical Structure of Classical and Relativistic Physics offers a valuable resource for studying the physical world. Written at a level accessible to graduate and advanced undergraduate students in mathematical physics, the book can be used as a research monograph across various areas of physics, engineering and mathematics, and as a supplemental text for a broad range of upper-level scientific coursework.
The applied techniques include those that arise in the present literature. The supporting mathematical theory includes the general convergence theory. This material should be readily accessible to students with basic knowledge of mathematical analysis, Lebesgue measure and the basics of Hilbert spaces and Banach spaces. Nevertheless, we have made the book free standing in most respects. Most importantly, the terminology is introduced, explained and developed as needed.
The examples presented are taken from multiple vital application areas including finance, aerospace, mathematical biology and fluid mechanics. The text may be used as the basis for several distinct lecture courses or as a reference. For instance, this text will support a general applications course or an FEM course with theory and applications. The presentation of material is empirically-based as more and more is demanded of the reader as we progress through the material. By the end of the text, the level of detail is reminiscent of journal articles. Indeed, it is our intention that this material be used to launch a research career in numerical PDE.
Contents:Modeling and Visualization:Some PreliminariesProblems with Closed Form SolutionNumerical Solutions to Steady-State ProblemsPopulation ModelsTransient Problems in One Spatial DimensionTransient Problems in Two Spatial DimensionsMethods and Theory:Finite Difference MethodFinite Element Method, the TechniquesFinite Element Method, the TheoryCollocation Method
Readership: Graduate students and researchers.
Key Features:There is no text/reference book that covers as broad a list of techniques as completely and as efficientlyWe accomplish this by judiciously selecting preliminary material that is essential
Incorporating many of the techniques of applied mathematics, the book also contains most of the concepts of rigorous analysis usually found in a course in advanced calculus. These techniques and concepts are presented in a setting where their need is clear and their application immediate. Chapters I through IV cover the one-dimensional wave equation, linear second-order partial differential equations in two variables, some properties of elliptic and parabolic equations and separation of variables, and Fourier series. Chapters V through VIII address nonhomogeneous problems, problems in higher dimensions and multiple Fourier series, Sturm-Liouville theory, and general Fourier expansions and analytic functions of a complex variable.
The last four chapters are devoted to the evaluation of integrals by complex variable methods, solutions based on the Fourier and Laplace transforms, and numerical approximation methods. Numerous exercises are included throughout the text, with solutions at the back.
Unlike similar textbooks, this one begins with logic since it is the underlying language of mathematics and the basis of reasoned arguments. The text then discusses deductive mathematical systems and the systems of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers.
It also covers elementary topics in set theory, explores various properties of relations and functions, and proves several theorems using induction. The final chapters introduce the concept of cardinalities of sets and the concepts and proofs of real analysis and group theory. In the appendix, the author includes some basic guidelines to follow when writing proofs.
This new edition includes more than 125 new exercises in sections titled More Challenging Exercises. Also, numerous examples illustrate in detail how to write proofs and show how to solve problems. These examples can serve as models for students to emulate when solving exercises.
Several biographical sketches and historical comments have been included to enrich and enliven the text. Written in a conversational style, yet maintaining the proper level of mathematical rigor, this accessible book teaches students to reason logically, read proofs critically, and write valid mathematical proofs. It prepares them to succeed in more advanced mathematics courses, such as abstract algebra and analysis.
Published nearly forty years after the first edition, this long-awaited Second Edition also:Studies the Fourier transform of functions in the spaces L1, L2, and Lp, 1 p Shows the Hilbert transform to be a bounded operator on L2, as an application of the L2 theory of the Fourier transform in the one-dimensional case Covers fractional integration and some topics related to mean oscillation properties of functions, such as the classes of Hölder continuous functions and the space of functions of bounded mean oscillation Derives a subrepresentation formula, which in higher dimensions plays a role roughly similar to the one played by the fundamental theorem of calculus in one dimension Extends the subrepresentation formula derived for smooth functions to functions with a weak gradient Applies the norm estimates derived for fractional integral operators to obtain local and global first-order Poincaré–Sobolev inequalities, including endpoint cases Proves the existence of a tangent plane to the graph of a Lipschitz function of several variables Includes many new exercises not present in the first edition
This widely used and highly respected text for upper-division undergraduate and first-year graduate students of mathematics, statistics, probability, or engineering is revised for a new generation of students and instructors. The book also serves as a handy reference for professional mathematicians.
New to the Third Edition
New chapter on special topics, including discrete Cauchy–Euler equations; gamma, beta, and digamma functions; Lambert W-function; Euler polynomials; functional equations; and exact discretizations of differential equations New chapter on the application of difference equations to complex problems arising in the mathematical modeling of phenomena in engineering and the natural and social sciences Additional problems in all chapters Expanded bibliography to include recently published texts related to the subject of difference equations
Suitable for self-study or as the main text for courses on difference equations, this book helps readers understand the fundamental concepts and procedures of difference equations. It uses an informal presentation style, avoiding the minutia of detailed proofs and formal explanations.
Topics include Bessel functions of zero order, modified Bessel functions, definite integrals, asymptotic expansions, and Bessel functions of any real order. More than 200 problems throughout the book enable students to test and extend their understanding of the theory and applications of Bessel functions.
Back by popular demand, Real Analysis and Foundations, Third Edition bridges the gap between classic theoretical texts and less rigorous ones, providing a smooth transition from logic and proofs to real analysis. Along with the basic material, the text covers Riemann-Stieltjes integrals, Fourier analysis, metric spaces and applications, and differential equations.
New to the Third Edition
Offering a more streamlined presentation, this edition moves elementary number systems and set theory and logic to appendices and removes the material on wavelet theory, measure theory, differential forms, and the method of characteristics. It also adds a chapter on normed linear spaces and includes more examples and varying levels of exercises.
Extensive Examples and Thorough Explanations Cultivate an In-Depth Understanding
This best-selling book continues to give students a solid foundation in mathematical analysis and its applications. It prepares them for further exploration of measure theory, functional analysis, harmonic analysis, and beyond.
Singular integrals were known to only a few specialists when Stein's book was first published. Over time, however, the book has inspired a whole generation of researchers to apply its methods to a broad range of problems in many disciplines, including engineering, biology, and finance.
Stein has received numerous awards for his research, including the Wolf Prize of Israel, the Steele Prize, and the National Medal of Science. He has published eight books with Princeton, including Real Analysis in 2005.
Topics include separation of the scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates, angle and radial functions, integral representations and relations, and expansions in spherical Bessel function products. Additional subjects include recurrence relations of Whittaker type, asymptotic expansions for large values of c, and vector wave functions. The text concludes with an appendix, references, and tables of numerical values.
Contents:First-Order Differential EquationsMathematical ModelsLinear DEs of Higher OrderSystems of Linear DEsLaplace TransformsAppendices:Solutions to Selected ProblemsLaplace TransformsDerivatives & IntegralsAbbreviationsTeaching Plans
Readership: Undergraduate students and entry level graduate students in science and engineering who need to solve and compose ordinary differential equations.
Key Features:Students will love the practical value of the book in composing differential equations from applications and detailed solution methods demonstrated by a large number of examples including homework assignmentsStudents will learn this subject much more easily by following the examplesKeywords:Differential Equations;Engineering Models;Financial Models;Analytical Methods;Laplace TransformsReviews:
"A winning feature of the text is, obviously, a nice selection of problems, many of which feature applications in natural sciences and engineering. The book can be warmly recommended as a good source of problems both for the lecturer and for the students' independent study."Zentralblatt MATH