This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave equation, and wavelet functions and their polynomials. The book explains the laws of propagation of seismic wavelets and seismic ray paths, as well as the equations of wavelet propagation, the velocity-type seismic wavelet, and the spectrum of the wavelet. It discusses the motion of a mechanical seismograph disturbed by extraneous forces or motions. It also provides information on the differential equation describing the motion of a galvanometer, laboratory studies of wavelet contraction, and characteristics of a wavelet-contractor amplifier. Furthermore, the book explains the experimental studies of the primary seismic disturbance and internal friction.
This monograph is a valuable source of information for physicists, students who want to pursue a career in geophysics or selenophysics, and those who actively working in these fields.
Comprised of five chapters, this book starts with an overview of the constitution of the various parts of the Earth and mentions the densities concerned. This text then discusses the thermal behavior of the Earth as well as examines the principle of isostasy and the readjustments of isostatic equilibrium. Other chapters examine the general effects of horizontal compression of the rigid crust and the fields of positive gravity anomalies. This book discusses as well the effects of active volcanicity, which is one source of disturbances of equilibrium of the Earth. The final chapter deals with the oceanic parts of the crust.
This book is a valuable resource for geologists, geophysicists, physical geographers, and physical geodesists.
At last, many unanswered questions about the earth’s creation can be resolved with confidence. For example, how long did it take? Where did it take place? What about evolution, fossils, dinosaurs and cave men? Well-supported answers are here.
For those who have been challenged to explain the earth’s creation from an LDS viewpoint, this book will be helpful and enlightening. And for those who enjoy contemplating both the discoveries of science and the revelations of God, this book will be extremely stimulating and thought-provoking.
Readers have commented:
Dan from Canada: “This book has enlightened my mind and given me the wonderful opportunity to see the intermeshing between science and our religion.”
Paul from Texas: “Well-supported viewpoint and thought-provoking reading.... I appreciate Brother Skousen’s heavy usage of scriptural references and quotes from trustworthy Church leaders.”
Kristy from Utah: “Answered a lot of questions I had from my geology classes and gave me a deeper appreciation for this awesome planet we live on and the creator of it.”
Kelly from California: “This book explained so much about issues that had previously confused or bothered me.”
Jerome from Georgia: “Life altering, made me a better person.... If you really want to understand the ‘Big Picture’ then this book is a must read.”
Dave from Washington: “One unexpected blessing received from reading this book was an enhanced Temple worship experience.”
Ed from Iowa: “If you are LDS, this will open your eyes to things that are incredible and you will not look at the world we live in in the same way again.”
Devon: “Scholarly material well presented for the layman.”
This eBook includes the original index, illustrations, footnotes, table of contents and page numbering from the printed format.
The book consists of 33 chapters. The first 16 chapters include basic material related to the propagation of elastic waves. Topics covered by these chapters include scalars, vectors, and tensors in cartesian coordinates, stress and strain analysis, equations of elasticity and motion, plane waves, Rayleigh waves, plane-wave theory, and fluid-fluid and solid-solid interfaces.
The second half of the book covers various ray and mode theories, elastic wave dissipation, and the observations and theories of seismic source and seismic noise. It concludes by discussing earthquake seismology and different seismographs, like the pendulum seismometer and the strain seismometer.
The book starts by presenting the basic results from vector analysis, such as the scalar product, gradient, curl, and divergence. It also describes the theorem of Stokes, theorem of Gause and the Green’s theorem. The book also deals with discrete spectral analysis, two-dimensional Fourier theory and plane wave analysis. It also describes the wave theory, including the plane waves and k-f diagram, spherical waves, and cylindrical waves.
This book explores the forward problem and the inward problem of the wave field extrapolation, as well as the modeling by wave field extrapolation. Furthermore, the book explains the migration in the wave number-frequency domain. It also includes the summation approach and finite-difference approach to migration, as well as a comparison between the different approaches to migration. Finally, the book offers the limits of lateral resolution as the last chapter.
This book is organized into six parts encompassing 29 chapters. The first part, entitled Physical Geodesy, presents the theory of the determination of the gravitational field, in the definition of which preference was given to the method of expansion in spherical harmonics recommended by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in establishing the international "Geodetic Reference System 1967". Part II deals with the principal aspects of Ellipsoidal Geodesy, such as the methods of solving the geodetic problems on the reference ellipsoid. Part III considers the main problems associated with Astro-geodetic Triangulation, particularly with the conception of materialization and the necessary measurements as the required adjustment procedures. This part also provides approaches regarding the controlled analysis of angular measurements and the description of some original calculation and measurement methods. Part IV concerns one of the methods of determining the spatial coordinates of the geodetic points in a unitary system, such as the three-dimensional geodesy, which has had more concrete applications since the launching of the Earth's first artificial satellites. Part V describes the methods for determining the terrestrial ellipsoid and the geoid, as well as the conventional methods and the methods of Dynamical Geodesy. Part VI discusses the geodetic methods for the determination of the movements of the Earth's crust, along with an overall examination of the theoretical and practical aspects which in principle constitute the object of such activities.
Geochemistry is essential reading for all earth science students, as well as for researchers and applied scientists who require an introduction to the essential theory of geochemistry, and a survey of its applications in the earth and environmental sciences.
Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/white/geochemistry
The manuscript first ponders on contour integration and conformal transformation, methods of stationary phase and steepest descent, and series integration. Discussions focus on Love waves in heterogeneous isotropic media, Laguerre's differential equation, Hermite's differential equation, method of steepest descent, method of stationary phase, contour integration in the complex plane, and conformal transformation. The text then examines series integration, Bessel functions, Legendre functions, and wave equations. Topics include general considerations of the wave equation, expansion of a spherical wave into plane waves, common features of special functions and special differential equations, applications of Legendre functions, Legendre polynomials, Bessel's differential equation, and properties of Bessel coefficients. The book explores the influence of gravity on wave propagation, matrix calculus, wave propagation in liquid media, integral equations, calculus of variations, and integral transforms.
The text is a valuable source of data for researchers wanting to study the mathematical aspects of seismology.
"Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject... In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features...
"I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism...
I have shared Volcanism with my colleagues to their significant benefit, and I am more convinced of its value for a broad range of Earth and planetary scientists.
Undoubtedly, I will use Volcanism for my upcoming courses in volcanology. I will never hesitate to recommend it to others. Many geoscientists from very different subdisciplines will benefit from adding the book to their personal libraries. Schmincke has done us all a great service by undertaking the grueling task of writing the book – and it is much better that he alone wrote it." Stanley N. Williams, ASU Tempe, AZ (Physics Today, April 2005)
"Schmincke is a German volcanologist with an international reputation, and he has done us all a great favour because he sensibly channelled his fascination with volcanoes into writing this beautifully illustrated book... [he] tackles the entire geological setting of volcanoes within the earth and the processes that form them... And, with more than 400 colour illustrations, including a huge number of really excellent new diagrams, cutaway models and maps, plus a rich glossary and references, this book is accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject." New Scientist (March 2004)
"The science of volcanology has made tremendous progress over the past 40 years, primarily because of technological advances and because each tragic eruption has led researchers to recognize the processes behind such serious hazards. Yet scientists are still learning a great deal because of photographs that either capture those processes in action or show us the critical factors left behind in the rock record.Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject. I found myself wishing that I had had the photo of Nicaragua’s Masaya volcano, which was the subject of my dissertation, but it was Schmincke who was able to include it in his book. In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features. The book’s paper is of such high quality that at times I felt I had turned two pages rather than one.
I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism. I was disappointed that the text did not arrive on my desk until last August, when it was too late for me to choose it for my course in volcanology. I am also disappointed about another fact—the book’s binding is already becoming tattered because of my intense use of it!
Schmincke is a volcanologist who, in 1967, first published papers on sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin, the direction traveled by lava flows millions of years ago, and the structures preserved in explosive ignimbrites, or pumice-flow deposits, that reveal important details of their formation. Since then, his studies in Germany’s Laacher See, the Canary Islands, the Troodos Ophiolite of Cyprus, and many other regions have forged great fundamental advances. Such contributions have been recognized with his receipt of several international awards and clearly give him a strong base for writing the book.
However, as a scientist who has focused on the challenges of monitoring the very diverse activities of volcanoes, I think that the text’s overriding emphasis on the rock record has its cost. The group of scientists who are struggling with their goals to reduce or mitigate the hazards of the eruptions of tomorrow need to learn more about the options of technology, instrumentation, and methodology that are currently available. More than 500 million people live near the more than 1500 known active volcanoes and are constantly facing serious threats of eruptions. An extremely energetic earthquake caused the horrific tsunamis of 2004. However, the tsunamis of 1792, 1815, and 1883, which were caused by the eruptions of Japan’s Unzen volcano and Indonesia’s Tambora and Krakatau volcanoes, each took a similar toll. "
( Stanley N. Williams, PHYSICS TODAY, April 2005)
*Review of GPR theory and applications by leaders in the field
*Up-to-date information and references
*Effective handbook and primary research reference for both experienced practitioners and newcomers
Captivated by the otherworldly lights of the aurora borealis, Birkeland embarked on a lifelong quest to discover their cause. His pursuit took him to some of the most forbidding landscapes on earth, from the remote snowcapped mountains of Norway to the war-torn deserts of Africa. In the face of rebuke by the scientific establishment, sabotage by a jealous rival, and his own battles with depression and paranoia, Birkeland remained steadfast. Although ultimately vindicated, his theories were unheralded—and his hopes for the Nobel Prize scuttled—at the time of his suspicious death in 1917.
The Northern Lights offers a brilliant account of the physics behind the aurora borealis and a rare look inside the mind of one of history's most visionary scientists.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
The book describes preparation of five distinct types of assessments:
Cumulative Impact Assessment (CIA) Preparing Greenhouse Emission Assessments Preparing Risk Assessments and Accident Analyses Social Impact Assessment (SIA) and Environmental Justice The International Environmental Impact Assessment Process Guiding Principles
To date, there is significant variation and disagreement about how such analyses should be prepared. The author introduces best professional practices (BPP) for preparing such EIAs that is intended to meet decision-making and regulatory expectations. He supplies a comprehensive and balanced skill set of tools, techniques, concepts, principles, and practices for preparing these assessments. He also includes directions for developing a comprehensive Environmental Management Systems which can be used to monitor and implement final decisions for such analyses. While the book references the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), most of this guidance is generally applicable to any international EIA process consistent with NEPA.
With thorough coverage of all aspects of assessments, the book presents a theoretical introduction to the subject as well as practical guidance. It delivers state-of-the-art tools, techniques, and approaches for resolving EIA problems.
It’s hard to imagine a book more innovative and groundbreaking than Living with the Earth: Concepts in Environmental Health Science, Third Edition. The first edition won the CHOICE award for Outstanding Academic Book and both previous editions became bestsellers in their own right.
See what’s new and updated coverage includes: Emergency preparedness for environmental health practitioners including a discussion on their roles and operations Population dynamics, various cultural philosophies regarding overpopulation, and underpopulation in the developed nations Mechanisms of environmental disease with emphasis on genetic disease and developmental disorders Alternative to chemical pest control Genetic basis of cancer The growing problems of asthma and air pollutants as well as newly emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases An exploration of the mechanisms of toxicity, with special reference to the immune system and endocrine disruption Hazardous waste treatment, use, and recycling HACCP and assuring food quality, food safety issues, and Food Quality Protection Act Risk assessment and risk management principles A discussion in the change in directions in regulatory compliance Technical illustrations, charts, graphs, and photographs that improve learning and simplify concepts
What’s on the Web: Test bank and study questions Microsoft PowerPoint presentation slides in digital format Study guides with detailed notes, color figures, and tables Printable sample questions and answers for each chapter Search tools for online journals and databases covering useful, up-to-date information
Incorporates traditional concepts with new, emerging, and controversial issues
Always on the forefront of new ideas and new technology, the book includes up-to-date topics and information enhanced by Web features that make the book easy to use for professor and students alike.
Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, Second Edition introduces readers to both Classical and Bayesian approaches to linear and nonlinear problems with particular attention paid to computational, mathematical, and statistical issues related to their application to geophysical problems. The textbook includes Appendices covering essential linear algebra, statistics, and notation in the context of the subject.Includes appendices for review of needed concepts in linear, statistics, and vector calculus.Accessible to students and professionals without a highly specialized mathematical background.
Bridging the regulatory gap, this book identifies relevant EIS regulatory requirements that can be logically interpreted to also apply to EAs. It compiles and synthesizes information scattered throughout NEPA’s regulations, executive orders, and guidance documents, and incorporates case law to provide additional clarification. The authors also draw on the professional experiences and best professional practices (BPP) of NEPA practitioners.
From the fundamentals to more advanced topics, the book presents a consistent methodology to help beginners, students, and professionals manage, analyze, and write legally sufficient EAs. It addresses dilemmas that have traditionally plagued preparation of EAs, provides BPPs, tools, and approaches for resolving problems, and introduces methods for streamlining the EA process.
Building on Eccleston’s previous guide to EAs, Effective Environmental Assessments: How to Manage and Prepare NEPA Assessments (2001), this book reflects the rapid changes in government policy over the past ten years. An indispensable source of practical information, it provides readers with step-by-step direction and best practices for preparing defensible EAs.
The book is intended for working engineers who know that they need to build safe systems, but aren’t sure where to start. To make it easy to get started quickly, it includes numerous real-life engineering examples. The book’s many practical tips and best practices explain not only how to prevent accidents, but also how to build safety into systems at a sensible price. The book also includes numerous case studies from real disasters that describe what went wrong and the lessons learned.
See What’s New in the Second Edition:New chapter on developing government safety oversight programs and regulations, including designing and setting up a new safety regulatory body, developing safety regulatory oversight functions and governance, developing safety regulations, and how to avoid common mistakes in government oversight Significantly expanded chapter on safety management systems, with many practical applications from around the world and information about designing and building robust safety management systems, auditing them, gaining internal support, and creating a safety culture New and expanded case studies and "Notes from Nick’s Files" (examples of practical applications from the author’s extensive experience) Increased international focus on world-leading practices from multiple industries with practical examples, common mistakes to avoid, and new thinking about how to build sustainable safety management systems New material on safety culture, developing leading safety performance indicators, safety maturity model, auditing safety management systems, and setting up a safety knowledge management system
The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added.
Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.
The authors believe that successful management of the risk assessment team is a key factor is quality reports. Leadership first clarifies the roles of each participant and the unique technical factors of their respective disciplines. Teamwork is achieved through an emphasis on common language and procedures.
Belluck and Benjamin explore a variety of techniques for creating accurate and useful reports. An example is Proactive Risk Assessment, which breaks a project into discrete parts to be delivered on an interim basis. This method, based on iterative review, drastically increases the chance of detecting errors while they can still be corrected.
The authors emphasize rigorous standards by which reports are audited, evaluated and critiqued. The goal is to create reports that are accurate, useful and, adaptable on an industry-wide basis.
The mathematics required in order to understand the text is purposely kept to a minimum, so the book is suitable for courses taken in geophysics by all undergraduate students. It will also be of use to postgraduate students who might wish to include geophysics in their studies and to all professional geologists who wish to discover the breadth of the subject in connection with their own work.
has been updated in the light of recent oceanographic research, and improved
as a teaching text on the basis of feedback from past students and other
Notable additions include new sections addressing the topic of
numerical modelling, and more discussion of natural oscillations in the
ocean-atmosphere system (previously confined to the El Niño phenomenon). In
particular, the Chapter on the North Atlantic now includes a discussion of
the North Atlantic Oscillation, as well as of the Great Salinity Anomaly. In
the final Chapter, treatment of water mass formation has been updated to
reflect recent ideas about the processes involved and how they relate to
climatic change over different time-scales, from decades to millennia.
High quality full colour diagrams
Substantial chapter summaries ideal for revision
Answers, hints and notes for questions at back of the book
The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address:
Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment
An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.
Space weather is one of the most significant natural hazards to human life and health. Conditions of the sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems. If conditions in the space environment are adverse, they can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socioeconomic losses.
This book provides an overview of our current knowledge and theoretical understanding of space weather formation and covers all major topics of this phenomena, from the sun to the Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere, thus providing a fully updated review of this rapidly advancing field. The book brings together an outstanding team of internationally recognised contributors to cover topics such as solar wind, the earth's magnetic field, radiation belts, the aurora, spacecraft charging, orbital drag and GPS.
If you want to learn how hydrocarbons are discovered and produced, Tim’s explanations have the added colour of vivid descriptions of the sites discussed and allow you to meet some of the most important characters in the industry, and to gain new insights into this global industry. In addition, the depictions of key events and locations add an element of national politics and travelogue feel.This book is intended for all members of the general public interested in how hydrocarbon resources are discovered, providing a concise account of how oil geologists view the subsurface, and illustrated by the author’s personal experiences in countries around the world. The book will also be of interest to ex-oil industry workers, allow geologists to compare the author’s experiences to their own, and provide non-geologists essential insights into how the oil is won. Written in an informal style, it makes for a relaxing yet informative reading experience.
The second edition of this popular book brings the text up-to-date with additional case studies and diagrams and a greater synthesis of water quality with physical hydrology. The chapters on runoff and evaporation have been updated and the final chapter on hydrology in a changing world has more material on water resource management strategies. Additionally the chapter on streamflow analysis now includes a more in-depth section on modelling runoff. The book begins with a comprehensive coverage of precipitation, evaporation, water stored in the ground and as snow and ice, and runoff. These physical hydrological processes show with respect to the fundamental knowledge about the process, its measurement and estimation and how it ties in with water quality. Following this is a section on analyzing streamflow data, including using computer models and combining hydrology and ecology for in-stream flow assessment. A chapter on water quality shows how to measure and estimate it in a variable environment and finishes with a section on pollution treatment. The final chapter brings the text together to discuss water resource management andreal-life issues that are faced by hydrologists in a constantly changing world.
Fundamentals of Hydrology is a lively and accessible introduction to the study of hydrology at university level. This new edition continues to provide an understanding of hydrological processes, knowledge of the techniques used to assess water resources and an up-to-date overview of water resource management in a changing world. Throughout the text, wide-ranging examples and case studies are used to clearly explain ideas and methods. Short chapter summaries, essay questions, guides to further reading and a glossary are also included.
One of the book’s main focuses is on explaining a potential strategy involving autonomous production cells for space geodetic techniques. The complete software design of a satellite laser ranging system is taken as an example.
Such automated systems are then combined for global interaction using secure communication tunnels for remote access. The network of radio telescopes is used as a reference.
Combined observatories form coordinated multi-agent systems and offer solutions for operational aspects of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) with regard to “Industry 4.0”.
What are the forms and processes characteristic of mountain rivers and how do we know them? Mountain Rivers Revisited, an expanded and updated version of the earlier volume Mountain Rivers, answers these questions and more. Here is the only comprehensive synthesis of current knowledge about mountain rivers available. While continuing to focus on physical process and form in mountain rivers, the text also addresses the influences of tectonics, climate, and land use on rivers, as well as water chemistry, hyporheic exchange, and riparian and aquatic ecology. With its numerous illustrations and references, hydrologists, geomorphologists, civil and environmental engineers, ecologists, resource planners, and their students will find this book an essential resource.
Ellen Wohl received her Ph.D. in geology in 1988 from the University of Arizona. Since then, she has worked primarily on mountain and bedrock rivers in diverse environments.
While the presence of microplastics in ecosystems has been reported in the scientific literature since the 1970’s, many pressing questions regarding their impacts remain unresolved. This short format title draws from the shared scientific and technical material and summarizes the current research and future outlook.Includes a range of topics, from macro- to microplasticsPresents data from source to sink, including occurrence and distribution of microplastics in freshwater bodies, coastal zones, and the open oceanPresents the impacts of microplastics on marine life as well as microplastics as vectors of biological and chemical contaminantsProvides important analysis on solutions and next steps