Digital video cameras are everywhere--even on our phones! But cameras don't make great movies; filmmakers do. Written by a seasoned pro with 40 years of teaching experience, Digital Filmmaking for Beginners is your fully illustrated introduction to all technical aspects of digital filmmaking.
Featuring clear, concise instruction--accompanied by online video demonstrations--this comprehensive guide covers the best methods and techniques to plan and script projects; set up lighting, microphones, and cameras; and shoot, edit, and apply postproduction effects and other finishing touches. Whether you're an amateur film buff or an aspiring professional videographer, this is the source for everything you need to bring your ideas from the page to the screen.
Coverage includes:Best practices to ensure smooth operations in all project phases, from planning to post production Recommendations on selecting and purchasing cameras, filming gear, and the best editing and effects software to fit your budget and needs Advice on planning, shooting, editing, and other technical elements Fully illustrated tutorials on composition, framing, and other visual storytelling techniques Exclusive bonus online content, including finished video demonstrations of key filmmaking techniques and informative articles
There is also a small troubleshooter section in Chapter 3 of this book, with things to check if anything ever goes wrong. We also provide links to external websites to troubleshoot your Chromecast in more depth.
We have input a small key to make it easier to follow depending on your devices.
A: = PC, Mac or Chromebook.
B: = iphone, ipad or Android device.
We hope you find this book extremely useful, and thanks again for purchasing How to use a Chromecast by Kieron “Chromecast Apps” Phillips and Conrad “Chromecast Guide” Jackson.
This article will show you how; it is both a brief introduction to the different devices out their for streaming TV shows and media, and the software/apps you need to get the most out of it. It will cover the pros, cons, and cost of all of it. It covers newer apps and software like Sony Vue and HBO Now.
This guide takes a no-nonsense approach to cutting the cable cord, and tells you what you need to know as quick as possible…so you can get back to watching TV.
The book showcases in pictorial detail a year-by-year account of the loves, lives, trials and tribulations of the Forrester, Logan, Spectra and Marone families and, of course, the world-renowned fashion houses of Forrester and Spectra.
Be taken on a fascinating journey of the last twenty years in special sections that include:
Photos and commentary from the cast with special pages dedicated to the original and still remaining four contract players, Susan Flannery, Katherine Kelly Lang, John McCook and Ronn Moss.
Current, vintage and rare behind-the-scenes photos as well as gallery photography of the cast, crew and staff.
A richly detailed tribute to the late William J. Bell, legendary creator of The Bold and the Beautiful.
Detailed and entertaining sub-sections including Weddings, Remotes, Fashion, Catfights, International and Awards and Honors.
*A concise glossary for electronics, TV, radio and computing
*Ideal for engineers, students and enthusiasts
*Includes a handy appendix of acronyms
This beginning-to-end perspective gives you the necessary knowledge to make the decisions to implement a cost-effective file-based production and distribution system. The cohesive, big-picture viewpoint helps you identify the differences in a tape-based facility, then how to overcome the unique challenges of upgrading your plant. Case studies throughout the book serve as recommendations and examples of use, helping you weigh the pros and cons of various approaches.
* Nonlinear editing -- software, basic technique, cost savings
* Digital video color correction
* CGI -- changing the shot after the shoot
* Digital composition for film
* Universal mastering (film, DVD, TV, Internet)
* Digital distribution and exhibition
Each edition of Video Demystified has sold thousands of copies and answered many questions for electrical engineers across the globe. This fifth edition will keep the engineer up-to-date with next-generation digital video formats - Blu-ray and HD-DVD, development of new audio and video codecs - Dolby Digital Plus, DTS-HD, etc. - along with the all the latest information on HDTV, HDMI and IPTV(TV over the Internet). All broadcast, cable, and satellite standards will be updated to reflect these new codecs and specifications. The book will also aid in the design of devices and infrastructures from analog to digital television transmission - with analog transmission ceasing in early 2009 or before.
*The next generation of digital video - Blu-ray and HD-DVD thoroughly introduced
*All broadcast and satellite standards completely updated
*Essential information for the upcoming transition of television signals from analog to digital
The new platform promises a simplified, content-driven approach to home entertainment, but will a lack of options ultimately doom the Nexus Player’s chances to get a foothold in the market?
Intended as a day-to-day reference for cable engineers, this book illuminates all the technologies involved in building and maintaining a cable system. But it's also a great study guide for candidates for SCTE certification, and its careful explanations will benefit any technician whose work involves connecting to a cable system or building products that consume cable services.
*Written by four of the most highly-esteemed cable engineers in the industry with a wealth of experience in cable, consumer electronics, and telecommunications.
*All new material on digital technologies, new practices for delivering high speed data, home networking, IP-based voice technology, optical dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), new video compression techniques, and integrated voice/video/data transport.
*Covers the latest on emerging digital standards for voice, data, video, and multimedia.
*Presents distribution systems, from drops through fiber optics, an covers everything from basic principles to network architectures.
This book provides the first descriptive and structured presentation of the TV-Anytime norm, which will standardize information formats and communication protocols to create a framework for the development of novel and intelligent services in the audiovisual market. The standard, the dissemination of which has been entrusted to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, ensures manufacturers and service providers that their products will be presented to the widest possible market, without fear of being constrained by the wars of interest typical for emerging technologies. The individual chapters provide detailed descriptions of the new standard’s most important capabilities and contributions, including metadata management, customization and personalization processes, uni- and bidirectional data transfer, and remote receiver programming.Overall, the authors deliver a solid introduction to the standard. To ensure a better understanding of concepts and tools, they present a wide range of simple examples illustrating many different usage scenarios that can be found when describing users, equipment and content. This presentation style mainly targets professionals in the television and broadcasting industry who are interested in acquainting themselves with the standard and the possibilities it offers.
Tracking the changing forms of video art in relation to the revolution in electronic and digital imaging that has taken place during the last 50 years, A History of Video Art orients video art in the wider art historical context, with particular reference to the shift from the structuralism of the late 1960s and early 1970s to the post-modernist concerns of the 1980s and early 1990s. The new edition also explores the implications of the internationalisation of artists' video in the period leading up to the new millennium and its concerns and preoccupations including post-colonialism, the post-medium condition and the impact and influence of the internet.
In From Betamax to Blockbuster, Joshua Greenberg explains how the combination of neighborhood video stores and the VCR created a world in which movies became tangible consumer goods. Greenberg charts a trajectory from early "videophile" communities to the rise of the video store -- complete with theater marquee lights, movie posters, popcorn, and clerks who offered expert advice on which movies to rent. The result was more than a new industry; by placing movies on cassette in the hands (and control) of consumers, video rental and sale led to a renegotiation of the boundary between medium and message, and ultimately a new relationship between audiences and movies. Eventually, Blockbuster's top-down franchise store model crowded local video stores out of the market, but the recent rise of Netflix, iTunes, and other technologies have reopened old questions about what a movie is and how (and where) it ought to be watched. By focusing on the "spaces in between" manufacturers and consumers, Greenberg's account offers a fresh perspective on consumer technology, illustrating how the initial transformation of movies from experience into commodity began not from the top down or the bottom up, but from the middle of the burgeoning industry out.
For each technology, a full explanation is provided of its operation and practical application, supported by over 300 diagrams including schematic diagrams of commercially available consumer equipment. Where relevant, testing and fault finding procedures are outlined together with typical fault symptoms supported by photographs.
The new edition has a number of useful appendices on microcomputer/microcontroller systems, test instruments, serial buses (I2C and RS 232), teletext and error correction techniques.
The book is intended for students of electronics and practicing engineers. In particular, it will useful for students on vocational courses and service engineers as well as enthusiasts.
* The definitive guide to the new technologies transforming the world of television: HDTV, Digital TV, DVD recorders, hard disk recorders, wide-screen CRT, flat screen technologies and others
* A practical approach, including troubleshooting and servicing information
* Covers UK, European and North American systems
Until recently, Bissell was somewhat reluctant to admit to his passion for games. In this, he is not alone. Millions of adults spend hours every week playing video games, and the industry itself now reliably outearns Hollywood. But the wider culture seems to regard video games as, at best, well designed if mindless entertainment.
Extra Lives is an impassioned defense of this assailed and misunderstood art form. Bissell argues that we are in a golden age of gaming—but he also believes games could be even better. He offers a fascinating and often hilarious critique of the ways video games dazzle and, just as often, frustrate. Along the way, we get firsthand portraits of some of the best minds (Jonathan Blow, Clint Hocking, Cliff Bleszinski, Peter Molyneux) at work in video game design today, as well as a shattering and deeply moving final chapter that describes, in searing detail, Bissell’s descent into the world of Grand Theft Auto IV, a game whose themes mirror his own increasingly self-destructive compulsions.
Blending memoir, criticism, and first-rate reportage, Extra Lives is like no other book on the subject ever published. Whether you love video games, loathe video games, or are merely curious about why they are becoming the dominant popular art form of our time, Extra Lives is required reading.
From the Hardcover edition.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
As well as traditional VCRs the scope of Video and Camcorder Servicing and Technology includes the full range of video cameras designed for home use and editing systems, and the latest DVD and hard-disk equipment.
The resulting book is an essential bench reference tool for all service engineers, a guide to the technology for a wide range of professionals, and the most comprehensive college text for City & Guilds / EEB and other courses.
Steve Beeching's guides to servicing video equipment have long been the definitive texts for service engineers and students. This book is the successor to the classic Servicing Video Cassette Recorder Equipment, which has been the leading PAL-based title on video equipment since 1983.
The key to successful servicing of VCRs and camcordersThe first servicing book to cover the new generation of video equipment: DVD and hard disk recording (MPEG2).The practical knowhow of a highly experienced service engineer
This book examines all aspects of the 3DTV chain, from capture to display. It helps the reader learn about the key issues for 3DTV technology. It also provides with a systems level appreciation of 3DTV systems, and an understanding of the fundamental principles behind each part of the chain. At the end of each chapter, the author provides resources where readers can learn more about the technology covered (e.g. more focused text books, key journal papers, and key standards contributions).Provides a fundamental and systematic introduction and description of 3DTV key techniques, which build up the whole 3DTV system from capture to consumer viewing at the home. Addresses the quick moving field of 3D displays which is attracting increasing interest from industry and academia. Concepts in the book will be illustrated using diagrams and example images of processed 3D content. The 3D content will be presented as 2D images in the book. Authors to host website providing pointers to more information on the web, freely available tools which would enable readers to experiment with coding video, simulate its transmission over networks, play it back in 3D, and measure the quality and links to important news and developments in the field.
This is the first book to provide an overview of the technologies, standards, and infrastructure required to support the rollout of commercial real-time 3 Dimension Television/3 Dimension Video (3DTV/3DV) services. It reviews the required standards and technologies that have emerged—or are just emerging—in support of such new services, with a focus on encoding mechanisms formats and the buildout of the transport infrastructure.
While there is a lot of academic interest in various intrinsic aspects of 3DTV, service providers and consumers ultimately tend to take a system-level view. 3DTV stakeholders need to consider the overall architectural system-level view of what it will take to deploy an infrastructure that is able to reliably and cost-effectively deliver a commercial-grade quality bundle of multiple 3DTV content channels to paying customers with high expectations. This text, therefore, takes such a system-level view, revealing how to actually deploy the technology.
Presented in a self-contained, tutorial fashion, the book begins with a review of 3DTV in the marketplace and the opportunities and challenges therein. Recent industry events related to 3D are also discussed. From there, the fundamental visual concepts supporting stereographic perception of 3DTV/3DV are explained, as are encoding approaches. Readers will understand frame mastering and compression for conventional stereo video (CSV) and more advanced methods such as video plus depth (V+D), multi-view video plus depth (MV+D), and layered depth video (LDV).
Next, the elements of an end-to-end 3DTV system are covered from a satellite delivery perspective, with explanations of digital video broadcasting (DVB) and DVB-handheld. Transmission technologies are assessed for terrestrial and IPTV-based architecture; IPv6 is reviewed in detail. Finally, the book presents 3DTV/3DV standardization and related activities, which are critical to any type of broad deployment.
System planners, the broadcast TV industry, satellite operators, Internet service providers, terrestrial telecommunication carriers, content developers, design engineers, venture capitalists, and students and professors are among those stakeholders in these services, and who will rely on this volume to discover the latest 3D advances, market opportunities, and competing technologies.
It's simply undeniable: More and more people prefer watching their favorite movies, television shows, and videos from the comfort of their own sofas and couches. What's also undeniable is the inexperience of most people who choose to install or upgrade their home theaters.
Until now, the knowledge, technique, and experiences of those who've encountered similar conditions to yours could only be accessed through laborious web searches, stacks of magazines, and water cooler conversations. Home Theater Hacks from O'Reilly is the perfect remedy for this group.
A smart collection of insider tips and tricks, Home Theater Hacks covers home theater installation from start to finish, purchase to experience. Just imagine: no frustrating trial-and-error process and better yet, no expensive appointments with installation experts. Home Theater Hacks prevents both by imparting down-and-dirty technique not found anywhere else.
The book begins with a quick glossary of terms so you can speak the lingo when you go shopping, and then dives right into hush-hush, insider tricks. It's all covered where to find the right audio and video components, how to deal with speakers and wiring, understanding cable connectivity, mastering remote controls, how to fully grasp TiVo, and so much more. And to top it off, each of these insider tips is presented in a concise yet delightfully entertaining style. Bringing the Jurassic Park dinosaurs into your living room has never been so easy!
A seasoned veteran with numerous O'Reilly titles under his belt, author Brett McLaughlin leaves no stone unturned in helping you customize your home theater experience to your own personal environment.
Now there’s an up-to-the-minute edition of the #1 guide to digital television. And none too soon, because in the two years since the last edition was published, DTV has undergone dizzying technical and regulatory changes. You’ll find them all covered in Jerry Whitaker’s DTV: The Revolution in Digital Video, Third Edition.This engineering-level guide to the ATSC DTV standard and its impact on the television broadcast industry is loaded with examples, detailed diagrams and schematics. It’s a tutorial for all ATSC and SMPTE standards and FCC regulations guiding DTV licensing and applications. This timely edition explores the implications of datacasting and interactive television...harmonizing DTV with the European DVB system...and the bristling controversy over the ATSC standard’s suitability for urban broadcast. A dedicated Website, updated monthly, ensures that you’ll stay on top of all fast-breaking news and developments in the field.
This long-awaited fourth edition includes new standards and identifies and explains the emerging digital technologies that are revolutionizing the industry, including:
HDTV—and "UltraHD" IP-based production and distribution and Internet delivery (including "over-the-top" TV) Connected/Smart TV, Mobile TV Second Screens and Social TV "Hybrid" broadcasting (over-the-air and online convergence) Podcasting and Mobile Apps Connected Cars
This book will help you:
Understand Flash fundamentals with clear, concise information you can use right awayLearn key concepts and techniques in every chapter, with annotated screenshots and illustrationsDevelop an ongoing project that utilizes material from every chapterPractice new skills and test your understanding with constructive exercisesLearn how to package your work for distribution on the Web and through AIR desktop applicationsDownload sample files and discuss additional Flash features on the companion blog
As part of the Adobe Developer Library, this is the most authoritative guide to Flash CS4 available. Get moving with Flash today!
Chapter 1: Come up with an Idea
Chapter 2: Tools You Need
A Good Computer
Chapter 3: Introduction to Lighting
Make your videos during the day
Shoot from different angles
Play with different settings
Recording in Artificial Light
Chapter 4: Tips on Recording Your Voices
Mic must be close to the subject
Close windows and doors
Record when people are in bed
Chapter 5: Tips to Enhance Your Video
Have a tripod
Stay away from digital zoom
Use wide shots sparingly
Shoot from different angles
Pay attention to the background
Have enough storage
Have spare batteries
Chapter 6: Introduction to Editing
Take multiple shots
Shots should not be too long or too short
Add effects necessarily
Add an intro and ending
Chapter 7: Uploading a Video to YouTube
Chapter 8: Promoting Your Video
Title, description, and tags are important
Use social media
Ask People to share, like, and comment
Ask bloggers to share your video
Encourage people to subscribe to your channel
Make lots of videos
Make a blog post about the video
Hire a YouTube marketer
Chapter 9: Making Money with YouTube
Promote Your Products
Do Affiliate Marketing
Make Money with Ads
Find a Sponsor
Use YouTube to Get Traffic to Your Website
About the Author
It's normal to have doubts on whether your videos are worth showing to other people, let alone if you should upload them to YouTube. However, the truth is that there are no rules as to what makes a good video. If you enjoy watching it, then there is a good chance that others will also find it entertaining.
But, YouTube is not just there so you can upload videos to entertain people. You can also use it to promote your website, promote a certain product, educate people, etc.
Making it even better, the number of YouTube users has grown tremendously in recent years. For you, this is an opportunity to get your videos watched by a lot of people. Statistics show that YouTube gets 1 billion unique users every month.
In this book, you will learn the steps you need to follow when you want to make a YouTube video. I will give you tips on how you can have better pictures as well as sounds. If you will be doing some editing, the book also has tips on that.
You will also find info on promotion, making money with YouTube, lighting, and more.
So without wasting any more time, let's get started. Millions are eagerly waiting to see your video.
Since the 1960s, one of the pervasive visions of "cable" has been of a ubiquitous, flexible, interactive communications system capable of providing news, information, entertainment, diverse local programming, and even social services. That set of utopian hopes became known as the "Blue Sky" vision of cable television, from which the book takes its title.
Thoroughly documented and carefully researched, yet lively, occasionally humorous, and consistently insightful, Blue Skies is the genealogy of our media society.
* New edition more accessible with reduc
Blu-ray Disc Demystified provides the most current information and applications available for this popular high-definition optical disc format. Written by a team of experts with a wide range of experience in DVD and high-definition production, this thorough, skill-building guide details Blu-ray's many features, formats, and applications.
Blu-ray Disc Demystified provides exhaustive coverage of the multitude of production and authoring processes, while explaining how the standard and high-definition DVD specifications dovetail and/or clash with related digital media standards. The authors also provide detailed descriptions of Blu-ray's strengths, as well as frank assessments of its weaknesses and common traps that often ensnare new users. Blu-ray Disc Demystified is the most comprehensive and practical guide available for navigating the numerous challenges, changes, and opportunities associated with Blu-ray technology.
Blu-ray Disc Demystified provides:Detailed overview of Blu-ray technology In-depth coverage of formats, features, and applications The latest news on content protection Tips on using Blu-ray in the home, office, and school The facts behind the myths surrounding Blu-ray Essential information regarding production Interaction paradigms Honest assessments of Blu-ray's pitfalls
If you are interested in audio, video, and home theater technologies, this book will give you the information you need to choose the right components, hook the pieces together, and create a fabulous theater experience right in your own living room. When the first edition of Build Your Own Home Theater was published, decent home theater systems were primarily only affordable for wealthier consumers. Now, several years later, the technology is accessible to millions of homes as products such as wide-screen televisions, digital surround sound audio, DVD Video and Audio Players, and digital satellite systems have become commonplace. Though most people don't have actual home theater set-ups in their living rooms, more and more consumers are trying to combine components they already own with new high-tech components to create an affordable home theater experience. Complete with important home theater Web site addresses and resources, Build Your Own Home Theater, Second Edition is a comprehensive, current, and well-researched text. Beginners to advanced home theater consumers, Videophiles, technicians, engineers, and electronics hobbyists from all walks of life will especially find it invaluable.
*"Dolby" and the double-D symbol are registered trademarks and "Surround Sound EX" is a trademark of Dolby Laboratories. THX and Lucasfilm are © Lucasfilm Ltd. & TM. All rights are reserved. Used under authorization. DTS and DTS-ES are trademarks of Digital Theater Systems, Inc.Covers all of the hot digital technologies and how to tie them together into one amazing home theater experience for budgets from $1,500 to $15,000New edition includes cutting edge technology from Digital Surround Sound to High Definition and Digital Television, DVD, Video Hard-Drives, Digital Satellites, and much more
Satellite TV systems have been installed in a wide variety of locations, using a bewildering range of equipment. That equipment is beginning to need maintenance and repair. To cope with the volume and variety of work, Nick Beer has written the first guide to satellite TV which concentrates on what to look for and what to do when it goes wrong. This book is up to date and crammed with real-life experience, not theoretical data or manufacturer's ideal specs.
Nick Beer has already written the best-selling Servicing Audio and Hi-fi Equipment and is a technical correspondent for many UK and international journals such as Television. He also works as an engineer and teaches satellite servicing to technicians.A practical guide to a new and important area for service engineersCovers indoor and outdoor equipmentWritten by an experienced author, teacher and engineer
Richard Brice has worked as a senior design engineer in several of Europe's top broadcast equipment companies and has his own music production company.
* A uniquely concise and readable guide to the technology of digital television
* New edition includes more information on HDTV (high definition) and ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committe) - the body that drew up the standards for Digital Television in the U.S.
* Written by an engineer for engineers, technicians and technical staff
Interviews with soap opera viewers, actors, writers, producers, directors, the daytime press, and fan club staff members reveal fascinating details about the inside world of fandom and the multitude of outlets for fan expression—clubs, newsletters, electronic bulletin boards, and public events. Numerous examples illustrate the pleasure fans derive from critiquing characters, speculating on plot twists, and swapping memorabilia.
Examining the experiences that shape fan culture, Harrington and Bielby analyze the narrative structure and various aspects of the production of the soaps. Their examination reveals that the "meaning" of soaps is complex, individualized, and not simply a reflection of the narrative content of the stories. The authors show fans who actively contemplate what it means to be a fan, and who adjust their level of involvement accordingly.
The third edition of Closed Circuit Television provides a thorough technical guide for all those involved in the design, specification, installation and maintenance of CCTV systems. Fully dual-standard for PAL and NTSC systems, the book covers the essential equipment and topics of relevance to practitioners, managers and students on vocational and industry training courses. Extended coverage of flat screen devices, digital recording, and a new chapter on networking principles, bring this popular guide up to date with the latest developments in the field.
Joe Cieszynski is a well-known technical writer with a wealth of experience in the security industry. After many years of college lecturing on TV, video and security topics, he currently acts as City & Guilds’ Chief Examiner for security systems and provides independent CCTV system consultancy.
*Demystifies CCTV technology for installers and managers
*Concise, accessible text ideal for hard-pressed practitioners and students
*Fully dual-standard coverage for PAL and NTSC based systems
In this history, Michael Z. Newman casts video as a medium of shifting value and legitimacy in relation to other media and technologies, particularly film and television. Video has been imagined as more or less authentic or artistic than movies or television, as more or less democratic and participatory, as more or less capable of capturing the real. Techno-utopian rhetoric has repeatedly represented video as a revolutionary medium, promising to solve the problems of the past and the present -- often the very problems associated with television and the society shaped by it -- and to deliver a better future. Video has also been seen more negatively, particularly as a threat to movies and their culture. This study considers video as an object of these hopes and fears and builds an approach to thinking about the concept of the medium in terms of cultural status.
This encyclopedic resource offers complete coverage of the latest broadcasting practices and technologies. Written by a team of recognized experts in the field, the SBE Broadcast Engineering Handbook thoroughly explains radio and television transmission systems, DTV transport, information technology systems for broadcast applications, production systems, facility design, broadcast management, and regulatory issues. In addition, valuable, easy-to-use appendices are included with extensive reference data and tables. The SBE Broadcast Engineering Handbook is a hands-on guide to broadcast station design and maintenance.
SBE Broadcast Engineering Handbook covers:
· Regulatory Requirements and Related Issues
· AM, FM, and TV Transmitters, Transmission Lines, and Antenna Systems
· DTV Transmission Systems, Coverage, and Measurement
· MPEG-2 Transport
· Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP)
· Information Technology for Broadcast Plants
· Production Facility Design
· Audio and Video Monitoring Systems
· Master Control and Centralized Facilities
· Asset Management
· Production Intercom Systems
· Production Lighting Systems
· Broadcast Facility Design
· Transmission System Maintenance
· Broadcast Management and Leadership
The third edition of the Newnes Guide to Television & Video Technology is the definitive guide to analogue and digital TV technology. Eugene Trundle explores the fundamentals of Digital TV (satellite, cable and terrestrial) and Digital Video, as well as providing a thorough grounding in analogue systems.
The readable style of this book makes it the first choice for a wide range of readers working in TV manufacturing, broadcasting and retail. It also makes fascinating reading for anyone who wants to discover the technical side of the Digital revolution gain a better understanding of their home video equipment, or simply learn more about how their TV works.
Newnes Guide to Television & Video Technology is essential reading for service engineers and electronic servicing students, and provides an ideal foundation text for the relevant units of City & Guilds 2240, NVQs and the new City & Guilds Progression Awards (6958).
A truly accessible guide to TV technology and the Digital revolution
Essential information for all servicing students and professionals
Includes full coverage of analog systems, and new material on Digital