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In the first chapter the authors offer a formal description of mobility in process calculi, noting the entities that move: links (π-calculus), ambients (ambient calculi) and branes (brane calculi). In the second chapter they study mobility in the framework of natural computing. The authors define several systems of mobile membranes in which the movement inside a spatial structure is provided by rules inspired by endocytosis and exocytosis. They study their computational power in comparison with the classical notion of Turing computability and their efficiency in algorithmically solving hard problems in polynomial time. The final chapter deals with encodings, establishing links between process calculi and membrane computing so that researchers can share techniques between these fields.

The book is suitable for computer scientists working in concurrency and in biologically inspired formalisms, and also for mathematically inclined scientists interested in formalizing moving agents and biological phenomena. The text is supported with examples and exercises, so it can also be used for courses on these topics.

In dedicated chapters, leading experts explain most of the applications of membrane computing reported so far, in biology, computer science, computer graphics and linguistics. The book also contains detailed reviews of the software tools used to simulate P systems.

After explaining the motivation for using invariant sets in the experimental sciences as well as the connections with the nominal approach, admissible sets and Gandy machines (Chapter 1), the authors present in Chapter 2 the basics of invariant sets and show that the principles of constructing FSM have historical roots both in the definition of Tarski `logical notions' and in the Erlangen Program of Klein for the classification of various geometries according to invariants under suitable groups of transformations. Furthermore, the consistency of various choice principles is analyzed in FSM. Chapter 3 examines whether it is possible to obtain valid results by replacing the notion of infinite sets with the notion of invariant sets in the classical ZF results. The authors present techniques for reformulating ZF properties of algebraic structures in FSM. In Chapter 4 they generalize FM set theory by providing a new set of axioms inspired by the theory of amorphous sets, and so defining the extended Fraenkel-Mostowski (EFM) set theory. In Chapter 5 they define FSM semantics for certain process calculi (e.g., fusion calculus), and emphasize the links to the nominal techniques used in computer science. They demonstrate a complete equivalence between the new FSM semantics (defined by using binding operators instead of side conditions for presenting the transition rules) and the known semantics of these process calculi.

The book is useful for researchers and graduate students in computer science and mathematics, particularly those engaged with logic and set theory.

This book offers a unique and authoritative perspective on current research in nanoscale science, engineering and computing. Leading researchers cover the topics of DNA self-assembly in two-dimensional arrays and three-dimensional structures, molecular motors, DNA word design, molecular electronics, gene assembly, surface layer protein assembly, and membrane computing.

The book is suitable for academic and industrial scientists and engineers working in nanoscale science, in particular researchers engaged with the idea of computing at a molecular level.

The 24 invited reviewed papers are written by students and collaborators of Hartmut Ehrig who are established researchers in their fields. Reflecting the scientific interest and work of Hartmut Ehrig, the papers fall into three main parts on graph transformation, algebraic specification and logic, and formal and visual modeling.

The area of graph grammars and graph transformations generalizes formal language theory based on strings and the theory of term rewriting based on trees. As a matter of fact within the area of graph grammars, graph transformation is considered a fundamental programming paradigm where computation includes specification, programming, and implementation.

Over the last 25-odd years graph grammars have developed at a steady pace into a theoretically attractive and well-motivated research field. In particular, they are now based on very solid foundations, which are presented in this volume. Volume 1 of the indispensable Handbook of Graph Grammars and Computing by Graph Transformations includes a state-of-the-art presentation of the foundations of all the basic approaches to rule-based graph specification and transformation: algebraic approach, logic approach, node-based rewriting, (hyper)edge-based rewriting, programmed graph rewriting, and 2-structures. The book has been written in a tutorial/survey style to enhance its usefulness.

Contents:Node Replacement Graph Grammars (J Engelfriet & G Rozenberg)Hyperedge Replacement Graph Grammars (F Drewes et al.)The Expression of Graph Properties and Graph Transformations in Monadic Second-Order Logic (B Courcelle)Algebraic Approaches to Graph Transformation — Part I: Basic Concepts and Double Pushout Approach (A Corradini et al.)Algebraic Approaches to Graph Transformation — Part II: Single Pushout Approach and Comparison with Double Pushout Approach (H Ehrig et al.)2-Structures — A Framework for Decomposition and Transformation of Graphs (A Ehrenfeucht et al.)Programmed Graph Replacement Systems (A Schürr)

Readership: Computer scientists and mathematicians.

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This monograph gives an accessible account of both the biology and the formal analysis of the gene assembly process. It can be used as a textbook for either graduate courses or seminars.

The book presents a unique and authorative state-of-the-art survey on current research in molecular computing: 30 papers by leading researchers in the area are drawn together on the occasion of the 70th birthday of Tom Head, a pioneer in molecular computing. Among the topics addressed are molecular tiling, DNA self-assembly, splicing systems, DNA-based cryptography, DNA word design, gene assembly, and membrane computing.

These successful developments have led to a very heterogeneous landscape of diverse models, and this, in turn, has stimulated research on concepts and approaches that contribute to unifying and structuring the diverse landscape. This state-of-the-art survey presents the most relevant approaches to unifying Petri nets in a systematic and coherent way. The 14 chapters written by leading researchers are organized in topical sections on application-oriented approaches, unifying frameworks, and theoretical approaches.

The 19 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 28 submissions. They deal with membrane computing (P systems theory), an area of copmputer science aiming to abstract computing ideas and models from the structure and the functioning of living cells, as well as from the way the cells are organized in tissues or higher order structures. The volume also contains 3 invited talks in full-paper length.

The 22 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 34 submissions. The volume also contains 3 invited talks in full-paper length.

The 42 revised full papers presented together with four invited papers were carefully selected from a total of 102 submissions. Among the topics addressed are abstract data types, algorithms and data structures, automata and formal languages, categorical and topological approaches, complexity, computational geometry, concurrency, cryptology, distributed computing, logics in computer science, process algebras, symbolic computation, molecular computing, quantum computing, etc.

The 22 revised full papers presented together with 10 invited papers went through two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers in this volume cover all the main directions of research in membrane computing, ranging from theoretical topics in mathematics and computer science to application issues; the invited lectures present fundamental contributions to membrane computing; thus highlighting important directions of current research in this area.

This book presents state-of-the-art results on Petri nets and concurrent object-oriented programming in a coherent and competent way. The 24 thoroughly reviewed and revised papers are organized in three sections. The first consists of long papers, each presenting a detailed approach to integrating Petri nets and object-orientation. Section II includes shorter papers with emphasis on concrete examples to demonstrate the approach. Finally, section III is devoted to papers which significantly build on the Actor model of computation.

The 23 revised full papers presented together with 4 invited papers and the abstracts of 2 keynote lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers address in this volume cover all the main directions of research in membrane computing, ranging from theoretical topics in the mathematics and computer science to application issues. A special attention was paid to the interaction of membrane computing with biology and computer science, focusing both on the biological roots of membrane computing, on applications of membrane computing in biology and medicine, and on possible electronically based and bioinspired implementations.

The contributions are in such central areas as automata theory, algorithms and complexity, and combinatorics of words. But not only that, they take up new areas such as regular sets and biocomputing. While some are survey articles of fundamental topics, most are original research papers.

The 26 revised full papers presented together with three invited contributions and summaries of 2 tutorials and 5 workshops were carefully reviewed and selected from 58 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on integration technology, chemistry and biology, graph transformation concepts, DPO theory for high-level structures, analysis and testing, graph theory and algorithms, application conditions and logic, transformation of special structures, and object-orientation.

A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg

From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.”

One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us?

Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas.

Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become?

Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.

Do you want to get started with creating your own vehicles, maps, landscapes, and tools that you can use in the game and share with the Farming Simulator community? Then this is the resource for you! With the help of Jason van Gumster, you'll get up and running on everything you need to master 3D modeling and simulation—and have fun while doing it! Inside, you'll find out how to create and edit maps, start using the material panel, customize your mods by adding texture, use the correct file-naming conventions, test your mod in single and multiplayer modes, get a grip on using Vehicle XML, and so much more.

There's no denying that Farming Simulator players love modding—and now there's a trusted, friendly resource to help you take your modding skills to the next level and get even more out of your game. Written in plain English and packed with tons of step-by-step explanations, Farming Simulator Modding For Dummies is a great way to learn the ropes of 3D modeling with the tools available to you in the game. In no time, you'll be wowing your fellow gamesters—and yourself—with custom, kick-butt mods. So what are you waiting for?

Includes an easy-to-follow introduction to using the GIANTS 3D modeling tools Explains how to export models to Blender, Maya, 3DS Max, or FBX Provides tips for using the correct image format for textures Details how to use Photoshop and Audacity to create custom mods for Farming SimulatorWhether you're one of the legions of rabid fans of the popular Farming Simulator game or just someone who wants to learn the basics of 3D modeling and animation, you'll find everything you need in this handy guide.

the drama of the front lines.”

-Richard Danzig, former secretary of the navy

The first major bioterror event in the United States-the anthrax attacks in October 2001-was a clarion call for scientists who work with “hot” agents to find ways of protecting civilian populations against biological weapons. In The Demon in the Freezer, his first nonfiction book since The Hot Zone, a #1 New York Times bestseller, Richard Preston takes us into the heart of Usamriid, the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland, once the headquarters of the U.S. biological weapons program and now the epicenter of national biodefense.

Peter Jahrling, the top scientist at Usamriid, a wry virologist who cut his teeth on Ebola, one of the world’s most lethal emerging viruses, has ORCON security clearance that gives him access to top secret information on bioweapons. His most urgent priority is to develop a drug that will take on smallpox-and win. Eradicated from the planet in 1979 in one of the great triumphs of modern science, the smallpox virus now resides, officially, in only two high-security freezers-at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and in Siberia, at a Russian virology institute called Vector. But the demon in the freezer has been set loose. It is almost certain that illegal stocks are in the possession of hostile states, including Iraq and North Korea. Jahrling is haunted by the thought that biologists in secret labs are using genetic engineering to create a new superpox virus, a smallpox resistant to all vaccines.

Usamriid went into a state of Delta Alert on September 11 and activated its emergency response teams when the first anthrax letters were opened in New York and Washington, D.C. Preston reports, in unprecedented detail, on the government’s response to the attacks and takes us into the ongoing FBI investigation. His story is based on interviews with top-level FBI agents and with Dr. Steven Hatfill.

Jahrling is leading a team of scientists doing controversial experiments with live smallpox virus at CDC. Preston takes us into the lab where Jahrling is reawakening smallpox and explains, with cool and devastating precision, what may be at stake if his last bold experiment fails.