Helping you overcome these hurdles, Hydraulic Power System Analysis demonstrates modern computer-aided analytical techniques used to model nonlinear, dynamic fluid power systems. Following an overview of fluid power, the authors examine various relevant fluid properties, energy calculations, and steady state and dynamic analysis along with a review of automatic control theory. Turning to modeling, the next few chapters address valves and motors and then apply dynamic modeling to examples relating to pumps, hydrostatic transmissions, and valves. The book includes a unique chapter showing how to combine flow resistance equations with the differential equations governing dynamic system performance. The final chapter translates electrical circuit theory concepts to noise attenuation in fluid power systems.
Illustrated with many equations, practical computer modeling examples, and exercises, Hydraulic Power System Analysis provides a much-needed modernization of dynamic modeling for fluid power systems using powerful computational tools.
What’s New in This Edition:
Includes more than 150 full-color images which significantly improve the reader’s ability to understand pump drawings and curves
Introduces a new chapter on pump case studies in a format that provides case study background, analysis, solutions, and lessons learned
Presents important new updates and additions to other chapters
Includes a ten-step procedure for determining total pump head
Discusses allowable and preferred operating ranges for centrifugal pumps
Provides charts covering maximum and normally attainable pump efficiencies, performance corrections for slurry pumps, and mechanical seal flush plans
Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition is appropriate for readers with all levels of technical experience, including engineering and pump industry professionals, pump operators and maintenance technicians, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering, and students in engineering technology programs.
Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of present applications and past experience. This book also examines the relevance of design and feed-stock parameters to the operation of a CFB boiler; designs of mechanical components, including cyclones, air distributor grids, and solid recycle systems; and special problems CVB boilers present with construction materials.
Written by experts from around the world, the handbook covers all major classes of hydraulic fluids in detail, delving into chemistry, design, fluid maintenance and selection, and other key concepts. It also offers a rigorous overview of hydraulic fluid technology and evaluates the ecological benefits of water and its use as an important alternative technology. This complete overview discusses pumps and motors, valves, and reservoir design, as well as fluid properties and associated topics. These include air entrainment, modulus, lubrication and wear assessment by bench and pump testing, biodegradability, and fire resistance. Contributors also present particularly important material on biodegradable fluids and the use of water as a hydraulic fluid.
As the foremost resource on the design, selection, and testing of hydraulic systems and fluids used in engineering applications, this book contains new illustrations, data tables, and practical examples, all updated with essential information on the latest methods. To streamline presentation, relevant content from the first edition has been integrated into this new version, where appropriate. The result is a reference that helps readers develop an unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including essential hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants.
This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further informationSummarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applicationsCompares process and reactor designsEvaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints
Within this context, readers will find valuable information that explores refrigeration and heat pump systems using natural refrigerants, polygeneration systems, the energy efficiency of thermal systems, the utilization of low temperature waste heat, and cleaner production.
The book also examines the technical, economic, and environmental reasons of R718 refrigeration/heat pump systems and how they are competitive with traditional systems, serving as a valuable reference for engineers who work in the design and construction of thermal plants and systems, and those who wish to specialize in the use of R718 as a refrigerant in these systems.Describes existing novel R718 turbo compressor and ejector refrigeration/heat pump systems and technologiesProvides procedures calculating and optimizing cycles, system components, and system structuresEstimates the performance characteristics of the thermal systemsExposes the possibilities for wider applications of R718 systems in the field of refrigeration and heat pumps
This comprehensive book is an earnest endeavour to apprise the readers with a thorough understanding of all important basic concepts and methods of fluid mechanics and hydraulic machines. The text is organised into sixteen chapters, out of which the first twelve chapters are more inclined towards imparting the conceptual aspects of fluids mechanics, while the remaining four chapters accentuate more on the details of hydraulic machines. The book is supplemented with solutions manual for instructors containing detailed solutions of all chapter-end unsolved problems. Primarily intended as a text for the undergraduate students of civil, mechanical, chemical and aeronautical engineering, this book will be of immense use to the postgraduate students of hydraulics engineering, water resources engineering, and fluids engineering.
• The book describes all concepts in easy-to-grasp language with diagrammatic representation and practical examples.
• A variety of worked-out examples are included within the text, illustrating the wide applications of fluid mechanics.
• Every chapter comprises summary that presents the main idea and relevant details of the topics discussed.
• Almost all chapters incorporate objective type questions of previous years’ GATE examinations, along with their answers and in-depth explanations.
• Previous years’ IES conventional questions are provided at the end of most of the chapters.
• A set of theoretical questions and numerous unsolved numerical problems are provided at the chapter-end to help the students from practice pointof-view.
• Every chapter consists of a section Suggested Reading comprising a list of publications that the students may refer for more detailed information.
The material added to this new edition will provide insights gathered over 45 years of studying fluid mechanics. Many of these insights, such as universal dimensionless similarity scaling for the laminar boundary layer equations, are available nowhere else. Likewise for the generalized vector field derivatives. Other material, such as the generalized stream function treatment, shows how stream functions may be used in three-dimensional flows. The CFD chapter enables computations of some simple flows and provides entrée to more advanced literature.
*New and generalized treatment of similar laminar boundary layers.
*Generalized treatment of streamfunctions for
three-dimensional flow .
*Generalized treatment of vector field derivatives.
*Expanded coverage of gas dynamics.
*New introduction to computational fluid dynamics.
*New generalized treatment of boundary conditions in fluid mechanics.
*Expanded treatment of viscous flow with more examples.
The most valuable and reader-friendly reference available for engineers concerned with the optimization of liquid transportation through pipelines
This book also:
· Adopts a novel inductive pedagogy where commonly understood examples are introduced early and theory is developed to explain and predict readily recognized phenomena
· Introduces new techniques as needed to address specific problems, in contrast to traditional texts’ use of a deductive approach, where abstract general principles lead to specific examples
· Elucidates readers’ understanding of the "heat transfer takes time" idea—transient analysis applications are introduced first and steady-state methods are shown to be a limiting case of those applications
· Focuses on basic numerical methods rather than analytical methods of solving partial differential equations, largely obsolete in light of modern computer power
· Maximizes readers’ insights to heat transfer modeling by framing theory as an engineering design tool, not as a pure science, as has been done in traditional textbooks
· Integrates practical use of spreadsheets for calculations and provides many tips for their use throughout the text examples
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1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
2. Properties of Fluids
3. Bernoulli's Theorem
4. Newton’s Law of Viscosity
5. Pascal's Law of Fluid Pressure
6. Fluid coupling
9. Hydraulic Turbine
10. Hydraulic Power Plant
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Two physically different dampers (magnetorheological and controlled-friction) are analysed from the perspectives of mechatronics and control. Ride comfort, road holding, road damage and human-body modelling (nonlinear visceral response in particular) are studied.
A multidisciplinary approach is adopted throughout the book. Sound mathematical modelling is balanced by a large and detailed section on experimental implementation, where a variety of automotive applications are described offering a well-rounded view of the application of such systems. The implementation of control algorithms with regard to real-life engineering constraints is emphasised.
The applications described include semi-active suspensions for a saloon car, seat suspensions for vehicles not equipped with a primary suspension, and control of heavy-vehicle dynamic-tyre loads to reduce road damage and improve handling.
Engineers and practitioners working in noise and vibration; automotive engineers working in vehicle design, research and development; biomechanical engineers, physicists and life-scientists interested in human-body responses to vibration; and graduate students in vehicle studies, mechanics of vibration, dynamics and control will find this book of material assistance in their work.
This book is dedicated to condensing and sharing the authors' extensive experience in solving flow measurement problems with design engineers, operating personnel (from top supervisors to the newest testers), academically-based engineers, engineers of the manufacturers of flow meter equipment, worldwide practitioners, theorists, and people just getting into the business.
The authors' many years of experience are brought to bear in a thorough review of fluid flow measurement methods and applicationsAvoids theory and focuses on presentation of practical data for the novice and veteran engineerUseful for a wide range of engineers and technicians (as well as students) in a wide range of industries and applications
There is additional coverage of high-pressure fluid dynamics and meshless approach to provide a broader overview of the application areas where CFD can be used. The book combines an appropriate level of mathematical background, worked examples, computer screen shots, and step-by-step processes, walking students through modeling and computing as well as interpretation of CFD results.
It is ideal for senior level undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical, aerospace, civil, chemical, environmental and marine engineering. It can also help beginner users of commercial CFD software tools (including CFX and FLUENT).
New to this edition:
A more comprehensive coverage of CFD techniques including discretisation via finite element and spectral element as well as finite difference and finite volume methods and multigrid methodCoverage of different approaches to CFD grid generation in order to closely match how CFD meshing is being used in industryAdditional coverage of high-pressure fluid dynamics and meshless approach to provide a broader overview of the application areas where CFD can be used20% new content
This book has applications for professionals and students in many subsets of the mechanical engineering discipline, with carryover into thermal sciences; which include fluid mechanics, combustion and heat transfer; dynamics and vibrations, as well as structural mechanics and materials engineering.An important, long overdue new chapter on Wind Turbines, with a focus on blade aerodynamics, with useful worked examplesIncludes important material on axial flow compressors and pumpsExample questions and answers throughout
The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its first publication, the second edition will be of lasting value not only for students but also for active researchers in astronomy and astrophysics.
In Part 1 the non-linear mass transfer as a result of an intensive interphase mass transfer in the gas (liquid)-solid surface, gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems is considered in the duffusion boundary layer approximation as well as in flat channel taking the longitudinal diffusion into account. The influence of the direction of the intensive interphase mass transfer on heat transfer and multi-component mass transfer is illustrated.
Part 2 discusses non-linear mass transfer in electrochemical systems with high current density using the examples of the anode dissolving of metals in the electrolyte flow and the electro-separation of metals out of concentrated solutions. The theory of the measured electrochemical treatment of metals and alloys, which is a method of wide practical use, has been elaborated on this basis.
In Part 3 the non-linear mass transfer in chemically reacting systems is considered in the cases of: non-linearity of the equations of the chemical reaction's kinetics and intensive interphase mass transfer or thermo-capillary effect due to chemical reactions. On this basis, the mechanisms and the macro-kinetics of the chemical transformations in the gas-liquid systems are discussed.
Part 4 is dedicated to the chemical reaction kinetics in stationary two phase systems at an arbitrary contact time between phases.
In Part 5 the effects of concentration gradients are considered in the approximations of the linear theory of the hydrodynamic stability of almost parallel flows.
In systems with intensive interphase mass transfer, the Marangoni effect could also be observed, beside the effect of non-linear mass transfer. A comparative analysis of both effects is made in this book.
An exciting subject dealt with in the book is the quasi-deterministic mechanics of three-dimensional wave groups in sea storms, and the loads exerted by these wave groups on offshore structures.
The text is intended for researchers and graduate students in ocean engineering, but may also be understood by undergraduates. The more complex concepts are explained with examples or more extensive case studies.
Solid-Liquid Filtration is a crucial step in the production of virtually everything in our daily lives, from metals, plastics and pigments through to foods (and crockery) and medicines. Using a practical and applied approach, Trevor Sparks has created a guide that chemical and process engineers can use to help them:
Understand how filtration processes affect production processes, production costs, product quality, environmental impact and productivityOptimise process development and project execution, with real examples and supporting software forms and toolsDevelop reporting tools to monitor processes, and find ways to get more from processes
This book’s focus is helping process engineers understand their filtration processes better. Its accessible approach and style make it a valuable resource for anyone working in this sector, regardless of prior knowledge or experience.Several examples and scenarios are provided throughout the book in order to help engineers understand the importance of filtration and the effect that it has on the bottom-line.Covers methods for optimizing processes, include process variable, plus laboratory testing, modeling and process troubleshootingAccompanied by optimization software that enables readers to model and plan optimal filtration processes and set ups for their particular circumstance.
The first four chapters are preparations for the following five chapters, where several most important subjects in hydrodynamic lubrication are discussed in detail, based on the author’s own researches. Examples are oil whip (stability of rotating shafts), foil bearings in connection with magnetic tape storages, squeeze film between rigid surfaces and visco-elastic surfaces, theoretical and experimental analyses of temperature rise in bearings, those of turbulent lubricating film using the k-epsilon model.
Incompressible Navier–Stokes equations describe the dynamic motion (flow) of incompressible fluid, the unknowns being the velocity and pressure as functions of location (space) and time variables. A solution to these equations predicts the behavior of the fluid, assuming knowledge of its initial and boundary states. These equations are one of the most important models of mathematical physics: although they have been a subject of vivid research for more than 150 years, there are still many open problems due to the nature of nonlinearity present in the equations. The nonlinear convective term present in the equations leads to phenomena such as eddy flows and turbulence. In particular, the question of solution regularity for three-dimensional problem was appointed by Clay Institute as one of the Millennium Problems, the key problems in modern mathematics. The problem remains challenging and fascinating for mathematicians, and the applications of the Navier–Stokes equations range from aerodynamics (drag and lift forces), to the design of watercraft and hydroelectric power plants, to medical applications such as modeling the flow of blood in the circulatory system.
The topics included in this book include: John Schey and value-added manufacturing; Surface finish and friction in cold-metal rolling; Direct observation of interface for tribology in metal forming; An examination of the coefficient of friction; Studies on micro plasto hydrodynamic lubrication in metal forming; Numerical simulation of sheet metal forming; Geometric and mechanics model of sheet forming; Modelling and optimisation of metal forming processes; The mathematical modelling of hot rolling steel; Identification of rheological and tribological parameters; Oxide behaviour in hot rolling; Friction, lubrication and surface response in wire drawing; and Modelling and control of temper rolling and skin pass rolling.
Researchers have recently identified eight critical research tasks facing the field of computational mechanics. These tasks have come about because it appears possible to reach a new level of mathematical modelling and numerical solution that will lead to a much deeper understanding of nature and to great improvements in engineering design.
The eight tasks are:
The automatic solution of mathematical models
Effective numerical schemes for fluid flows
The development of an effective mesh-free numerical solution method
The development of numerical procedures for multiphysics problems
The development of numerical procedures for multiscale problems
The modelling of uncertainties
The analysis of complete life cycles of systems
Education - teaching sound engineering and scientific judgement
Readers of Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2003 will be able to apply the combined experience of many of the world's leading researchers to their own research needs. Those in academic environments will gain a better insight into the needs and constraints of the industries they are involved with; those in industry will gain a competitive advantage by gaining insight into the cutting edge research being carried out by colleagues in academia.
Bridges the gap between academic researchers and practitioners in industry
Outlines the eight main challenges facing Research and Design in Computational mechanics and offers new insights into the shifting the research agenda
Provides a vision of how strong, basic and exciting education at university can be harmonized with life-long learning to obtain maximum value from the new powerful tools of analysis
Bloodstain Pattern Evidence builds on the fundamental ideas brought about by an understanding of Non-Newtonian dynamics, and illustrates through case work the practical forensic science applications of these principles to the analysis of bloodstain patterns.
* Extensive case examples provide practical application of essential pattern analysis principles
* Extensively illustrated with over 350 photos and line drawings
* Takes a unique and scientific approach to bloodstain pattern analysis by exploring the fundamentals of fluid behavior
The following processes are considered in the light of the method of impinging streams: drying of particles, solid-solid and gas-gas mixing, absorption and desorption of gases from liquids, combustion of gas and coal, calcination of phosphate, creation of emulsions, liquid-liquid extraction, dissolution of solids, ion exchange, dust collection and granulation as well as evaporative cooling of air. Additional aspects considered in the book are: power input in performing the above processes, heat and mass transfer coefficient and its correlation, mixing properties of impinging stream reactors, residence time of the particles in the reactors, scale-up of impinging-stream reactors with respect to pressure, drop, hold-up and mean residence time of the particles as well as the heat transfer.
The aim of the book is to review the state-of-the-art in the field of impinging streams, to present results of theoretical and experimental research, and to stimulate research and industrial application of the method so that reactors employing impinging streams will become a common tool in chemical engineering and other disciplines of engineering. The major conclusion of this work is that almost any process in chemical engineering can be conducted by impinging streams, resulting in higher efficiency and less power input in comparison with conventional methods.
Replacing the Traditional Physical Model Approach
Computational models offer promise in improving the modeling of shallow water flows. As new techniques are considered, the process continues to change and evolve. Modeling Shallow Water Flows Using the Discontinuous Galerkin Method examines a technique that focuses on hyperbolic conservation laws and includes one-dimensional and two-dimensional shallow water flows and pollutant transports.
Combines the Advantages of Finite Volume and Finite Element Methods
This book explores the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, also known as the discontinuous finite element method, in depth. It introduces the DG method and its application to shallow water flows, as well as background information for implementing and applying this method for natural rivers. It considers dam-break problems, shock wave problems, and flows in different regimes (subcritical, supercritical, and transcritical).
Readily Adaptable to the Real World
While the DG method has been widely used in the fields of science and engineering, its use for hydraulics has so far been limited to simple cases. The book compares numerical results with laboratory experiments and field data, and includes a set of tests that can be used for a wide range of applications.Provides step-by-step implementation details Presents the different forms in which the shallow water flow equations can be written Places emphasis on the details and modifications required to apply the scheme to real-world flow problems
This text enables readers to readily understand and develop an efficient computer simulation model that can be used to model flow, contaminant transport, and other aspects in rivers and coastal environments. It is an ideal resource for practicing environmental engineers and researchers in the area of computational hydraulics and fluid dynamics, and graduate students in computational hydraulics.