However, the required service life suffers often from material damage as a result of wear processes such as abrasion and wear fatigue, mostly caused by crack formation and propagation.
This book covers interdisciplinary research between physics, physical chemistry, material sciences and engineering of elastomers within the range from nanometres to millimetres and connects these aspects with the constitutive material properties. The different chapters describe reliable lifetime and durability predictions based on new fracture mechanical testing concepts and advanced material-theoretical methods which are finally implemented in the finite element method for structural simulations.
The use of this approach allows a realistic description of complex geometrical and loading conditions which includes the peculiarities of the mechanical behaviour of elastomeric materials in detail. Furthermore, this approach demonstrates how multi-scale research concepts provide an ambitious interdisciplinary challenge at the interface between engineering and natural sciences.
This book covers the interests of academic researchers, graduate students and professionals working in polymer science, rubber and tire technology and in materials science at the interface of academic and industrial research.
Drawing on the expertise of leading researchers in their fields, Current Topics in Elastomers Research provides the first comprehensive overview of rubber research activities from around the world. Divided into seven sections, this seminal work begins with a general introduction before presenting the chemistry and structure-property relationships of a variety of new materials and composites. The second section covers the most important rubber ingredients along with the current thinking on their mechanism of action.
Two important new characterization techniques, 3D-TEM and AFM, are evaluated in the third section, while the fourth considers the physics and engineering aspects of elastomers, including reinforcement mechanisms, viscoelastic properties, fatigue life, abrasion, adhesion, rheology, mixing and processing, and the effects of time, temperature and fluids. The fifth section pays respect to the tire, a driving impetus for research and one of the major applications of rubber. Finally, the book includes two chapters on eco-friendly technology and recycling, perhaps the most important engineering topic in this age of globalization and environmental responsibility.
Barring the inaccessibility of truly classified information, Current Topics in Elastomers Research is a complete review of current elastomers research and applications, compiling once-guarded knowledge and outlining the future directions of the field.
This book presents an overview of the technological advances that have occurred since the publication of the Editors earlier book High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: The Physical Basis. In this latest book, contributions from internationally recognized professionals and researchers in the field provide expanded treatment of the practical aspects of the subject. High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: Basic Concepts and Technological Practice provides a modern working manual for this specialized technology that is generic to a wide range of applications. The format makes the text suitable for use as a basis for special topic lecture courses at either the undergraduate or graduate level.Provides the fundamental physical concepts of the subjectFocuses on practical applicationsGives a historical survey of the fieldIncludes a detailed account of system design criteriaReviews theoretical models developed to explain the pinhole phenomenaPresents results of a series of experimental investigations on the subject
In order to be able to reflect the development of today's science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, starting with Volume 20, has moved beyond the basic physics of thin films. It now addresses the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Therefore, in order to reflect the modern technology-oriented problems, the title has been slightly modified from Physics of Thin Films to Thin Films.
This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.
assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions as well as further supplementary material available free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website.
The free suite of Autodesk 123D software offers all the tools you need to capture or design three-dimensional objects and characters. This book tells you how to harness that power to print or fabricate just about anything you can imagine.
Want to make something mechanical or structural that's based on precise measurements? 123D Design can help! Ready to create something cool based on a character, an organic shape, or something found in nature? 123D Catch, 123D Meshmixer, and 123D Sculpt+ will assist.
Learn how to use these tools, plus 123D Make--perfect for prototyping designs you'll cut with a CNC mill--to take your creativity to a new level.
An ideal book for Makers, hobbyists, students, artists, and designers (including beginners!), this book opens up the inexpensive world of personal fabrication to everyone.
In 3D CAD with Autodesk 123D, you’ll:Meet the classic "Stanford bunny" and learn to modify it with MeshmixerScan and 3D print anything around youDesign your own 3D-printed guitarFind models in the Sculpt+ community and make a skeleton!Build a birdhouse, prototype a playground, or create a statueLearn everything from basics to troubleshooting skillsGet started making right away
Part one covers the principles of fabric construction as applied to textile design, with chapters on fundamental principles, woven and knitted textile design. Part two discusses surface approaches to textile design, with chapters on such topics as surface design of textiles, printed and embroidered textile design, dyeing and finishing and the use of colour in textile design. Finally, part three focuses on the applications and advances in textile design, including chapters covering colour trend forecasting, sustainable textile design, fashion, interior and 2D to 3D design considerations and new developments in technical and future textiles.
With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Textile design is an essential reference for design professionals in the textile and fashion industries, as well as those who specialise in interior textiles and academics with a research interest in the area.A broad overview of textile design covering fundamental topics such as principles of fibres and fabrics, knitted fabric design, through to the dyeing, finishing and printing aspects of textile designExplores the design aspects of technical textiles and future textilesAn invaluable source of information on textile design and suitable for design professionals in the textile and fashion industries, as well as those in academia
Beginning with the various types of woven three-dimensional fabrics, the text then examines 3-D knitted, braided, and non-woven textiles, and the main applications and uses of three-dimensional textiles.Presents the most recent advances in the production of three-dimensional fibrous structures and how their use has resulted in the creation of novel fabrics and applicationsExamines many types of 3-D textiles, including knitted, braided, and non-woven textiles, and the main uses of three-dimensional textilesCovers their structures, properties, and uses within the textiles industry
With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Specialist yarn, woven and fabric structures is essential reading for all textile researchers, technicians, engineers and technologies, and will also be suitable for academic purposes.Looks at developments that have occurred in the manufacturing of specialist yarn, weave and fabric structuresDiscusses different types of specialist yarn structures, such as hybrid, fancy and compound yarnsOffers insight into multicomponent fabric structures such as 3D nonwovens, flocked, knotted and jacquard woven fabrics
This book gives a comprehensive description of polymeric nanocomposites, both as bulk materials and as thin surface coatings, and their behavior and potential use in tribological applications. It provides the preparation techniques, friction and wear mechanisms, properties of polymeric nanocomposites, characterization, evaluation and selection methodology. It also provides various examples of application of polymeric nanocomposites.
* Provides a complete reference from the preparation to the selection of polymeric nanocomposites
* Explains the theory through examples of real-world applications
* More than 20 international tribology experts contribute to their area of expertise
This book is the first extended look at a new and multifaceted polymer processing technology that has already been discussed in numerous articles. Called Solid-State Shear Pulverization (S3P), this innovative process produces polymeric powders with unique physical properties not found in the output of conventional size-reduction methods.... This technology, which utilizes a pulverizer based on a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder..., has profound implications for both the creation of new polymer blends and recycling of plastic and rubber waste.
Unlike [earlier processes] where polymers are melted prior to pulverization, ...pulverizing mixtures of polymers with the S3P process...does not involve melting. By contrast, S3P maintains polymers in the solid state and avoids the additional heat history that occurs during [other processes], which can be detrimental to the physical properties of pulverized materials. The research and development of the S3P technology...has grown significantly since 1990 from the development of a new plastics recycling process to a much broader polymer processing method that allows intimate mixing of polymers with very different viscosities, sold-state dispersion of additives, including pigments, and continuous production of powder with unique shapes and larger surface areas. Polymeric powders are of growing importance to plastics processors due to the increase use of plastics in various applications, such as rotational molding, powder coatings, and compounding, which require powder as the feedstock.
...[I]t has become clear that this process allows for in-situ compatibilization of dissimilar polymers by applying mechanical energy to cause chemical reactions. This aspect of S3P technology that we describe in this book should [be useful in] developing new polymer blends with the use of pre-made compatibilizing agents. In addition, it has been discovered that S3P efficiently mixes polymer blends with different component viscosities, resulting in the elimination of phase inversion. The S3P process directly produces blends with matrix and dispersed phase morphology like those obtained after phase inversion during a long melt-mixing process. This phenomenon is of practical importance because a long processing time is required by conventional melt-mixing to produce a stable blend morphology. S3P is also advantageous for producing thermoplastic or thermoset powder-coating compounds in a one-step process as opposed to a conventional multi-step operation that involves melt extrusion followed by batch grinding. The major capabilities of this new process can be summarized as follows:
o Continuous powder production from plastics or rubber feedstocks
o Blending of immiscible polymers
o Efficient mixing of polymers with unmatched viscosities
o Environmentally friendly recycling of multicolored, commingled plastics waste
o Sold-state dispersion of heat-sensitive additives
o Engineered plastic/rubber blends
Materials and processes well illustrated
The text is well illustrated with 60 photographs, micrographs, diagrams and others figures. Here is a small sampling of the captions of these figures. o Particle-size distribution for virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Optical photograph of virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Layout for a three-stage rubber pulverizer o Flow chart for powder coating production by conventional process and with new S3P technology o SEM image of pulverized virgin PP at 40X (first in series of SEM images of polymer powders) o Optical micrograph of melt-crystallized thin films of unpulverized virgin PP under polarized light o Log of viscosity vs. log shear rate for virgin HDPE after S3P processing o Gel permeation chromatograms (GPC) of polystyrene subjected to S3P processing
One of the several functions of Solid-State Shear Pulverization technology is recycling mixed plastic waste. This section of twenty full-color photographs and micrographs illustrates different processed materials, as well as the machinery and mixed waste used. Here is a small sampling of the photo and micrograph captions. o Resultant flake feedstock from granulation o S3P-made uniform powder from feedstock o Flake feedstock of post-consumer HDPE/PP blend (90/10 ratio) o Injection-molded test bar (with translucence) made from S3P powder without pelletization o Injection-molded test bar made from S3P powder without pelletization showing uniform color o Several test bars subjected to tensile testing showing exceptionally high elongation at break
Useful reference data in tables
More than 60 tables provide useful data in convenient form. Here is a small sampling of table captions. o Physical properties of virgin PP 8020 GU injection-molded from S3P-made powder (first in series of tables on physical properties of various plastics processed from S3P-made powder) o Sieve analysis of powder resulting from S3P of virgin LDPE 509.48 (one of series of tables on sieve analysis of polymer powders) o Melt-flow rate before and after S3P processing for virgin PS and two PP samples o Key physical properties of injection-molded post-consumer polyolefin blends pulverized by S3P process
Klementina Khait, M.S. Ch.E., Ph.D., is Research Associate Professor and Director of the Polymer Technology Center in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University. Her industrial experience in polymer science and engineering includes work with Borg-Warner Chemicals and Quantum Chemical Corporation. She received her two advanced degrees, in chemical engineering and polymer chemistry, from the Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. Dr. Khait holds several patents and has published more than 50 papers in scientific and technical journals.
Stephen Carr, Ph.D., is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University. His industrial work includes work in polymer science and engineering with General Motors Corp. He received a doctorate in polymer science from Case Western Reserve University. He has been on the Northwestern University faculty since 1969.
Martin H. Mack is Vice President for R&D with the Berstorff Division of Krauss-Maffei Corporation. He holds an engineering degree from the University of Stuttgart. He has served for more than ten years on the Board of Directors of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).
The data is supported by a full explanation of its interpretation, and an introduction to the engineering aspects of permeability in polymers.
The third edition includes expanded explanatory text which makes the book accessible to novices as well as experienced engineers, written by industry insider and author Larry McKeen (DuPont), and 20% new data and major new explanatory text sections to aid in the interpretation and application of the data.A unique collection of permeability data designed to enable quick like-for-like comparisons between different materialsThird edition includes 20% new data and expanded explanatory text, which makes the book accessible to novices as well as experienced engineersEssential reference for materials engineers, design engineers and applications engineers across sectors including packaging, automotive and medical devices
In a remarkable career spanning more than six decades, Philip W Anderson has made many fundamental contributions to physics. As codified in his oft-quoted phrase "More is Different", Anderson has been the most forceful and persuasive proponent of the radical, but now ubiquitous, viewpoint of emergent phenomena: truly fundamental concepts that can and do emerge from studies of Nature at each layer of complexity or energy scale. Anderson''s ideas have also extended deeply into other areas of physics, including the Anderson–Higgs mechanism and the dynamics of pulsars.
PWA90: A Lifetime of Emergence is a volume of original scientific essays and personal reminiscences of Philip W Anderson by experts in the field, that were presented as part of "PWA90: Emergent Frontiers of Condensed Matter" meeting held at Princeton in December 2013 to highlight Anderson''s contributions to physics.Contents: Recollections of a Graduate Student (Khandker A Muttalib)P W Anderson Seen Through the Eyes of a Student (Clare C Yu)Random Walks in Anderson''s Garden: A Journey from Cuprates to Cooper Pair Insulators and Beyond (G Baskaran)Some Reminiscences on Anderson Localization (Elihu Abrahams)Anderson and Condensed Matter Physics (T V Ramakrishnan)Superfluidity and Symmetry Breaking — An Anderson Living Legacy (Frank Wilczek)Phil Anderson and Gauge Symmetry Breaking (Edward Witten)A Short History of the Theory and Experimental Discovery of Superfluidity in 3He (W F Brinkman)Superconductivity in a Terrestrial Liquid: What Would It Be Like? (A J Leggett)40 Years of Quantum Spin Liquid: A Tale of Emergence from Frustration (Patrick A Lee)High Tc Superconductivity and RVB (Mohit Randeria)Paired Insulators and High Temperature Superconductors (T H Geballe and S A Kivelson)Special Properties of High Tc Cuprates, Radically Different from Other Transition Metal Oxides (T M Rice)From Bacteria to Artificial Cells, the Problem of Self-Reproduction (Albert Libchaber)Spin Glasses and Frustration (Scott Kirkpatrick)Frustration and Fluctuations in Systems with Quenched Disorder (D L Stein)Phil Anderson''s Magnetic Ideas in Science (Piers Coleman)
Readership: Students, academics and researchers in condensed matter.
Keywords:P W Anderson;Superfluidity;Anderson–Higgs Mechanism;Pulsars;Condensed Matter Physics;Anderson;Localization;High-Temperature Superconductors;Spin Classes'
The book discusses the state of the art in smart clothing technology and applications. The chapters address usability and human aspects relevant to the manufacture and sale of such products and detail the evolving and increasingly wide-ranging applications in fields such as information technology, healthcare, and entertainment. They also cover technology topics including interface, communication, energy supply, data management, processors, and actuators. Discussions of packaging and interconnection, shape memory alloy, and design and modeling of electronic textile applications round out the coverage.
With technology news blaring headlines such as Smart Clothing Coming Soon to Your Galaxy and Futuristic Fashions Will Fight Our Health Scares, can clothing that communicates with your washer and dryer be far behind? It is not enough to understand the technology, you must also grasp the human factor aspects. Identifying the challenges and potential benefits of smart clothing from both perspectives, this book provides integrated coverage that establishes the need for methods significantly different from traditional ones. Its up-to-date coverage allows you to visualize trends and provides a glimpse into the future.
The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
It covers the mechanical properties of foams and foam microstructure, processing of foams, mechanical testing and analysis (using Finite element analysis). In addition, it uniquely offers a broader perspective on the actual engineering of foams and foam based (or foam including) products by including nine detailed case studies which firmly plant the theory of the book in a real world context, making it ideal for both polymer engineers and chemists and mechanical engineers and product designers.
* Complete coverage of the mechanical and design aspects of polymer foams from an acknowledged international expert: no other book is available with this breadth making this a plastics engineer's first choice for a single volume Handbook
* Polymer foams are ubiquitous in modern life, used everywhere from running shoes to furniture, and this book includes nine extensive case studies covering each key class of application, including biomechanics
* Offers a rigorous mechanical and microstructure perspective, plus a computer based chapter: Essential for engineers and designers alike.
The overall layout of the book is similar to that of the previous two editions however, there are considerable changes in emphasis and several key additions including:
•up-to-date presentation of modern theories of liquid-vapour coexistence and criticality
•areas of considerable present and future interest such as super-cooled liquids and the glass transition
•the area of liquid metals, which has grown into a mature subject area, now presented as part of the chapter ionic liquids
•Provides cutting-edge research in the principles of liquid-state theory
•Includes frequent comparisons of theoretical predictions with experimental and simulation data
•Suitable for researchers and post-graduates in the field of condensed matter science (Physics, Chemistry, Material Science), biophysics as well as those in the oil industry
The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental data. The subjects dealt with include:
- electronic transport theory based on the test-particle and correlation-function concepts;
- scattering by phonons, impurities, surfaces, magnons, dislocations, electron-electron scattering and electron temperature;
- two-phonon scattering, spin-flip scattering, scattering in degenerate and many-band models.
CMOS Processors and Memories is divided into two parts: processors and memories. In the first part we start with high performance, low power processor design, followed by a chapter on multi-core processing. They both represent state-of-the-art concepts in current computing industry. The third chapter deals with asynchronous design that still carries lots of promise for future computing needs. At the end we present a “hardware design space exploration” methodology for implementing and analyzing the hardware for the Bayesian inference framework. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational cost and exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology CMOL. The first part concludes with hybrid CMOS-Nano architectures.
The second, memory part covers state-of-the-art SRAM, DRAM, and flash memories as well as emerging device concepts. Semiconductor memory is a good example of the full custom design that applies various analog and logic circuits to utilize the memory cell’s device physics. Critical physical effects that include tunneling, hot electron injection, charge trapping (Flash memory) are discussed in detail. Emerging memories like FRAM, PRAM and ReRAM that depend on magnetization, electron spin alignment, ferroelectric effect, built-in potential well, quantum effects, and thermal melting are also described.
CMOS Processors and Memories is a must for anyone serious about circuit design for future computing technologies. The book is written by top notch international experts in industry and academia. It can be used in graduate course curriculum.
Herbal remedies have been around for years and many people count on them every day. Some carry a strong belief that there is no need to rely on medications. Among the alternative medicine approaches, essential oils are used for a number of different conditions and offer a variety of benefits.
After a stress filled day, it would be nice to come home and just relax. Some have found that they can get fast relaxation by taking a warm bath using essential oils. A mix of the oils and the aromas can relax one so much that it puts the client to sleep.
Because essential oils are extracted from plant material, they often contain the nutritional essence of the plants themselves. In concentrated form, they can impart huge health benefits, when they are ingested into the body.
Essential Oils will guide you through the various uses and benefits of essential oils, highlighting how to use them to lose weight, relieve pain, maintain your skin, as well as strengthen your hair. The various uses of essential oils is nearly limitless. Come discover what many others have: that there is now a safer, more natural way to protect yourself and your family.
Volume I focuses on physics and mechanics of micro- and opto-electronic structures and systems, i.e., on the science underpinnings of engineering methods and approaches used in microelectronics and photonics. Volume II deals with various practical aspects of reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic systems. Internationally recognized experts and world leaders in particular areas of this branch of applied science and engineering contributed to the book.
The Future of the Mind brings a topic that once belonged solely to the province of science fiction into a startling new reality. This scientific tour de force unveils the astonishing research being done in top laboratories around the world—all based on the latest advancements in neuroscience and physics—including recent experiments in telepathy, mind control, avatars, telekinesis, and recording memories and dreams. The Future of the Mind is an extraordinary, mind-boggling exploration of the frontiers of neuroscience. Dr. Kaku looks toward the day when we may achieve the ability to upload the human brain to a computer, neuron for neuron; project thoughts and emotions around the world on a brain-net; take a “smart pill” to enhance cognition; send our consciousness across the universe; and push the very limits of immortality.
The easy way to take the confusion out of organic chemistry
Organic chemistry has a long-standing reputation as a difficult course. Organic Chemistry I For Dummies takes a simple approach to the topic, allowing you to grasp concepts at your own pace.
This fun, easy-to-understand guide explains the basic principles of organic chemistry in simple terms, providing insight into the language of organic chemists, the major classes of compounds, and top trouble spots. You'll also get the nuts and bolts of tackling organic chemistry problems, from knowing where to start to spotting sneaky tricks that professors like to incorporate.Refreshed example equations New explanations and practical examples that reflect today's teaching methods Fully worked-out organic chemistry problems
Baffled by benzines? Confused by carboxylic acids? Here's the help you need—in plain English!
In this work Einstein intended, as far as possible, to give an exact insight into the theory of relativity to those readers who, from a general and scientific philosophical point of view, are interested in the theory, but who are not conversant with the mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics. The theory of relativity enriched physics and astronomy during the 20th century.(Relativity: The Special and the General Theory by Albert Einstein, 9789380914220)
* A significant and extensive update from experts at The Welding Institute
* A systematic approach to discussing each joining method including: process, advantages and disadvantages, applications, materials, equipment, joint design, and welding parameters
* Includes international suppliers’ directory and glossary of key joining terms
* Includes new techniques such as flash free welding and friction stir welding
* Covers thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, and rubbers.
Despite the preeminence and unrivaled versatility of polypropylene as a thermoplastic material to manufacture, relatively few books have been devoted to its study. Polypropylene: The Definitive User's Guide and Databook not only fills the gap but breaks new ground in doing so.
Polypropylene is the most popular thermoplastic in use today, and still one of the fastest growing. Polypropylene: The Definitive User's Guide and Databook is the complete workbook and reference resource for all those who work with the material. Its comprehensive scope uniquely caters to polymer scientists, plastics engineers, processing technologists, product designers, machinery and mold makers, product managers, end users, researchers and students alike.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
This book describes the history and properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in artificial joints by describing its properties and reviewing the latest clinical results.
* The most up-to-date information on the properties of UHMWPE
* Endorsed by Ticona - the world's leading manufacturer of UHMWPE for medical use
* An enormous 'installed base' of over 1.4 million procedures each year
* UHMWPE has been used by orthopedists for over 40 years, yet its properties and performance in situ are still not well understood
Aimed at a wide audience of engineers, technicians, managers, purchasing agents and users, Multilayer Flexible Packaging provides a thorough introduction to the manufacturing and applications of flexible plastic films, covering:MaterialsHardware and ProcessesMultilayer film designs and applications
The materials coverage includes detailed sections on polyethylene, polypropylene and additives. The dies used to produce multilayer films are explored in the hardware section, and the process engineering of film manufacture explained, with a particular focus on meeting specifications and targets. The section includes unique coverage of the problematic area of bending technology, providing a unique explanation of the issues involved in the blending of viscoelastic non-Newtonian polymeric materials.
About the author
John R. Wagner, Jr. is President of Crescent Associates, Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in plastic films and flexible packaging. He graduated from the University of Notre Dame with a BS and MS in Chemical Engineering.