Taking on prominent thinkers who argue that music is nothing more than an evolutionary accident, Levitin poses that music is fundamental to our species, perhaps even more so than language. Drawing on the latest research and on musical examples ranging from Mozart to Duke Ellington to Van Halen, he reveals:
• How composers produce some of the most pleasurable effects of listening to music by exploiting the way our brains make sense of the world
• Why we are so emotionally attached to the music we listened to as teenagers, whether it was Fleetwood Mac, U2, or Dr. Dre
• That practice, rather than talent, is the driving force behind musical expertise
• How those insidious little jingles (called earworms) get stuck in our head
A Los Angeles Times Book Award finalist, This Is Your Brain on Music will attract readers of Oliver Sacks and David Byrne, as it is an unprecedented, eye-opening investigation into an obsession at the heart of human nature.
This book is an invaluable resource for burgeoning audio engineers. With clear writing and comprehensive illustrations, fundamental concepts of acoustics are explained in easy to understand language. The operating principles of the essential components of a sound system, as well as their use in the design and implementation of the system, are covered in detail. Operational aspects of executing a live performance are also given full treatment.
By providing practical information surrounding the concepts, implementations, and practices central to live sound reinforcement, this book sets the foundation upon which to build and move forward with confidence.
From the author of How the Universe Got Its Spots and A Madman Dreams of Turing Machines, the epic story of the scientific campaign to record the soundtrack of our universe.
Black holes are dark. That is their essence. When black holes collide, they will do so unilluminated. Yet the black hole collision is an event more powerful than any since the origin of the universe. The profusion of energy will emanate as waves in the shape of spacetime: gravitational waves. No telescope will ever record the event; instead, the only evidence would be the sound of spacetime ringing. In 1916, Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves, his top priority after he proposed his theory of curved spacetime. One century later, we are recording the first sounds from space, the soundtrack to accompany astronomy’s silent movie.
In Black Hole Blues and Other Songs from Outer Space, Janna Levin recounts the fascinating story of the obsessions, the aspirations, and the trials of the scientists who embarked on an arduous, fifty-year endeavor to capture these elusive waves. An experimental ambition that began as an amusing thought experiment, a mad idea, became the object of fixation for the original architects—Rai Weiss, Kip Thorne, and Ron Drever. Striving to make the ambition a reality, the original three gradually accumulated an international team of hundreds. As this book was written, two massive instruments of remarkably delicate sensitivity were brought to advanced capability. As the book draws to a close, five decades after the experimental ambition began, the team races to intercept a wisp of a sound with two colossal machines, hoping to succeed in time for the centenary of Einstein’s most radical idea. Janna Levin’s absorbing account of the surprises, disappointments, achievements, and risks in this unfolding story offers a portrait of modern science that is unlike anything we’ve seen before.
From the Hardcover edition.
This is the first in a series of digital audio-engineering books written by Wick van den Belt, who used to be head-lecturer on various audio engineering courses.
Sitting on the beach on a sunny summer day, we enjoy the steady advance and retreat of the waves. In the water, enthusiastic waders jump and shriek with pleasure when a wave hits them. But where do these waves come from? How are they formed and why do they break on the shore? In Waves, Fredric Raichlen traces the evolution of waves, from their generation in the deep ocean to their effects on the coast. He explains, in a way that is readily understandable to nonscientists, both the science of waves themselves and the technology that can be used to protect us against their more extreme forms, including hurricanes and tsunamis.
After offering a basic definition of waves and explaining the mechanics of wind-wave generation, Raichlen describes how waves travel, how they shoal (rise), how they break, and how they transform in other ways. He goes on to describe, among other things, the complicated sun-Earth-moon combinations that create astronomical tides (the high and low tides that occur daily and predictably); the effects of waves on the beach, including rip currents and beach erosion, and on harbors and shipping; and the building of breakwaters to protect harbors and bays. He discusses hurricanes, storm surges, and hurricane-generated waves. He offers a brief history of tsunamis, including Sumatra's in 2004 and Japan's in 2011, and explains the mechanisms that generate them (including earthquakes, landslides, and volcanoes).
Waves can be little ripples that lap peacefully at the shore or monstrous tsunamis that destroy everything in their paths. Describing the science underlying this astonishing variety, Waves offers a different kind of beach reading.
For centuries, mariners have spun tales of gargantuan waves, 100-feet high or taller. Until recently scientists dismissed these stories—waves that high would seem to violate the laws of physics. But in the past few decades, as a startling number of ships vanished and new evidence has emerged, oceanographers realized something scary was brewing in the planet’s waters. They found their proof in February 2000, when a British research vessel was trapped in a vortex of impossibly mammoth waves in the North Sea—including several that approached 100 feet.
As scientists scramble to understand this phenomenon, others view the giant waves as the ultimate challenge. These are extreme surfers who fly around the world trying to ride the ocean’s most destructive monsters. The pioneer of extreme surfing is the legendary Laird Hamilton, who, with a group of friends in Hawaii, figured out how to board suicidally large waves of 70 and 80 feet. Casey follows this unique tribe of people as they seek to conquer the holy grail of their sport, a 100-foot wave.
In this mesmerizing account, the exploits of Hamilton and his fellow surfers are juxtaposed against scientists’ urgent efforts to understand the destructive powers of waves—from the tsunami that wiped out 250,000 people in the Pacific in 2004 to the 1,740-foot-wave that recently leveled part of the Alaskan coast.
Like Jon Krakauer’s Into Thin Air, The Wave brilliantly portrays human beings confronting nature at its most ferocious.
Dr. Olson discusses the nature of sound waves; explains the division of sound into scale patterns and the traditional method of notating them; describes the individual characteristics of all musical instruments currently in use (including the human voice); shows how the ears hear; discusses concert hall and recording studio acoustics, amplification systems, etc; describes the elements of sound reproduction systems from the telephone to the stereo record player; and concludes with a new chapter on the production, development, and potentialities of electronic music.
Under these broad headings, readers will find a close analysis of the way in which a violin produces sound; descriptions of carbon, crystal, dynamic, velocity, and unidirectional microphones; a comparison of the relative absorbency of 22 acoustic materials, building materials, and objects; a description of how music can be produced by a digital computer; and much, much more. Conductors will find suggestions on positioning their orchestras; performers will understand the dynamics of their instruments; recording engineers and acousticians will discover a remarkably comprehensive reference work; and music teachers, students, physicists, and enthusiasts in general will find easy access to a vast wealth of information.
Serving both as a text for students in engineering departments and as a reference for practicing engineers, this book focuses on electroacoustics, analyzing the behavior of transducers with the aid of electro-mechano-acoustical circuits. Assuming knowledge of electrical circuit theory, it starts by guiding readers through the basics of sound fields, the laws governing sound generation, radiation, and propagation, and general terminology. It then moves on to examine:Microphones (electrostatic and electromagnetic), electrodynamic loudspeakers, earphones, and hornsLoudspeaker enclosures, baffles, and waveguidesMiniature applications (e.g., MEMS in I-Pods and cellphones)Sound in enclosures of all sizes, such as school rooms, offices, auditoriums, and living rooms
Numerical examples and summary charts are given throughout the text to make the material easily applicable to practical design. It is a valuable resource for experimenters, acoustical consultants, and to those who anticipate being engineering designers of audio equipment.An update for the digital age of Leo Beranek's classic 1954 book AcousticsProvides detailed acoustic fundamentals, enabling better understanding of complex design parameters, measurement methods, and dataExtensive appendices cover frequency-response shapes for loudspeakers, mathematical formulas, and conversion factors
A unified account of the field rather than a description of parallel methods, the text's main thematic approaches include the self-consistent field and its generalizations, perturbation theory and the use of Feynman diagrams, and the use of Green functions to describe excitations of a many-body system. The primary emphasis is on the theories of atomic nuclei, the electron gas, superconductivity, and liquid helium three. A familiarity with the principles of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics is assumed, but a detailed knowledge of nuclear and solid state physics is unnecessary.
Addressing questions most ocean visitors have had and offering new ones for our consideration, The Science of Ocean Waves explains in accessible language how waves are formed, how they move, how they become huge and destructive, and how they're being studied now for clues that will help us plan for the future.
Devoting chapters to wind, tides, currents, breakers, tsunamis, forecasting, renewable energy, and El Niño—as well as discussing the gentler properties of ocean waves which inspire us and offer opportunities for relaxation and recreation—Zirker explores the physical factors that create waves.
Drawing on some of the recent storms that have devastated entire regions—such as Hurricane Katrina, the tsunami launched by the 2004 Sumatran earthquake, and the great tsunami that crushed the shore of Japan in 2011—Zirker explains the forces that cause these monster waves and reveals the toll they take on human lives.
Enhanced by dozens of illustrations and a comprehensive glossary, The Science of Ocean Waves will fascinate anyone curious about the science behind the headlines.
Praise for J. B. Zirker
"Scientists know their stuff but are rarely good storytellers, whereas good storytellers rarely possess the necessary sweeping command of a scientific discipline. Zirker is that rare animal who can both communicate the most demanding technical detail and make it accessible."— New Scientist-- Chris Almond
This book, which is the first to describe the processing techniques central to underwater OFDM, is arranged into four distinct sections: First, it describes the characteristics of underwater acoustic channels, and stresses the difference from wireless radio channels. Then it goes over the basics of OFDM and channel coding. The second part starts with an overview of the OFDM receiver, and develops various modules for the receiver design in systems with single or multiple transmitters. This is the main body of the book. Extensive experimental data sets are used to verify the receiver performance. In the third part, the authors discuss applications of the OFDM receiver in i) deep water channels, which may contain very long separated multipath clusters, ii) interference-rich environments, where an unintentional interference such as Sonar will be present, and iii) a network with multiple users where both non-cooperative and cooperative underwater communications are developed. Lastly, it describes the development of a positioning system with OFDM waveforms, and the progress on the OFDM modem development. Closely related industries include the development and manufacturing of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and scientific sensory equipment. AUVs and sensors in the future could integrate modems, based on the OFDM technology described in this book.
Contents includes: Underwater acoustic channel characteristics/OFDM basics/Peak-to-average-ratio control/Detection and Doppler estimation (Doppler scale and CFO)/Channel estimation and noise estimation/A block-by-block progressive receiver and performance results/Extensions to multi-input multi-output OFDM/Receiver designs for multiple users/Cooperative underwater OFDM (Physical layer network coding and dynamic coded cooperation)/Localization with OFDM waveforms/Modem developments
A valuable resource for Graduate and postgraduate students on electrical engineering or physics courses; electrical engineers, underwater acousticians, communications engineers
This is an ideal reference for professionals in the public andprivate power service sectors such as engineers, lawyers, systemsspecialists, economists, financial analysts, policy analysts, andapplied mathematicians.
The coverage of the book includes 13 topics relevant to classical mechanics, such as integration of one-dimensional equations of motion; the Hamiltonian equations of motion; and adiabatic invariants.
The book will be of great use to physics students studying classical mechanics.
The next few years will see a major revolution in the technologyused to deliver television services as the world moves from analogto digital television. Presently, all existing textbooks dealingwith analog television standards (NTSC and PAL) are becomingobsolete as the prevalence of digital technology continues tobecome more widespread. Now, Digital Television: Technology andStandards fills the need for a single, authoritative textbook thatcovers all aspects of digital television technology.
Divided into three main sections, Digital Televisionexplores:
Video: MPEG-2, which is at the heart of all digital videobroadcasting services
Audio: MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding and Dolby AC-3, which will beused internationally in digital video broadcasting systems
Systems: MPEG, modulation transmission, forward error correction,datacasting, conditional access, and digital storage media commandand control
Complete with tables, illustrations, and figures, this valuabletextbook includes problems and laboratories at the end of eachchapter and also offers a number of exercises that allow studentsto implement the various techniques discussed using MATLAB. Theauthors' coverage of implementation and theory makes this apractical reference for professionals, as well as an indispensabletextbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate-level students inelectrical engineering and computer science programs.
This book is designed to provide contemporary readers with anunderstanding of the emerging high-speed signal integrity issuesthat are creating roadblocks in digital design. Written by theforemost experts on the subject, it leverages concepts andtechniques from non-related fields such as applied physics andmicrowave engineering and applies them to high-speed digitaldesign—creating the optimal combination between theory andpractical applications.
Following an introduction to the importance of signal integrity,chapter coverage includes:Electromagnetic fundamentals for signal integrityTransmission line fundamentalsCrosstalkNon-ideal conductor models, including surface roughness andfrequency-dependent inductanceFrequency-dependent properties of dielectricsDifferential signalingMathematical requirements of physical channelsS-parameters for digital engineersNon-ideal return paths and via resonanceI/O circuits and modelsEqualizationModeling and budgeting of timing jitter and noiseSystem analysis using response surface modeling
Each chapter includes many figures and numerous examples to helpreaders relate the concepts to everyday design and concludes withproblems for readers to test their understanding of the material.Advanced Signal Integrity for High-Speed Digital Designs issuitable as a textbook for graduate-level courses on signalintegrity, for programs taught in industry for professionalengineers, and as a reference for the high-speed digitaldesigner.
In this simple, descriptive treatment of Tesla's work:
- We start with the analysis of Tesla's experiment in his US patent 787412, providing explanations for his lower bounds, requirements, and superluminal speeds. Modes of operation of Tesla transformer are analyzed, and the true nature of the so-called Tesla-wave explained, considering what renders it to be the most significant technological discovery to date.
- We recognize that the very discovery of radio is a witness to the physical existence of invisible, exclusively 3-dimensional worlds, and spherical potential waves in a fully three-dimensional imaginary space are a fundamental phenomenon and physical reality.
- We progress to discuss implications and applications, and claim that properly constructed radio waves do not travel through our visible domain, allowing for efficient wireless energy transfer irrespective of distance.
- Finally, concentrated in one of the last of the 12 chapters, we present a concise mathematical treatment based on Maxwell's equations in characterizing the Tesla effect.
Redefining the thinking outside-the-box and challenging the state of the art in modern physics, I submit this innovation to your careful scrutiny. This descriptive work is accessible to any reader, including physics and mathematics scholars skilled in the art. The combined experience in the above treatment yields a novel, simple, yet comprehensive view of the spatial construction of the universe, above and beyond the everyday three-dimensional reality experienced by physical senses.
No sensationalist descriptions involving time travel, weapons of global destruction, Soviet military research, mind alteration, age reversal, UFOs, aliens, and a myriad of other manufactured and unrelated topics, are contained in this text. No strings, tensors, elementary particles, or any of the traditional special relativity effects are associated with Tesla waves, and are not mentioned in this text. The most significant problem in theoretical interpretation of Tesla's ideas to date - was the avoidance of the most obvious solution.
Read this flagship book, and discover that the universe is so small that we are all intimately connected through a countably infinite set of pathways of ever decreasing length, and that it is yet so large, that it escapes our senses.
Universe is a lattice of countably infinitely many, mutually embedded, distinct, experientially equivalent, fully-fledged three-dimensional worlds, with all corresponding lengths ratio of Pi/2. Illustrated in C^3 , universe is simply a sphere of radius zero.
Key Features:Acts as a timely introduction for researchers, graduatestudents and engineers who want to design and deploy subbandadaptive filters in their research and applications.Bridges the gaps between two distinct domains: adaptive filtertheory and multirate signal processing.Uses a practical approach through MATLAB®-based sourceprograms on the accompanying CD.Includes more than 100 M-files, allowing readers to modify thecode for different algorithms and applications and to gain moreinsight into the theory and concepts of subband adaptivefilters.
Subband Adaptive Filtering is aimed primarily atpracticing engineers, as well as senior undergraduate and graduatestudents. It will also be of interest to researchers, technicalmanagers, and computer scientists.
Key features include:
* Numerous problems at the end of each chapter to aid developmentand understanding
* Examples and case studies provided throughout the book in a widerange of applications bring the text to life and place the theoryinto context
* A set of 60+ MATLAB software m-files allowing the reader toquickly design and apply any of the nonlinear signal processingalgorithms described in the book to an application of interest isavailable on the accompanying FTP site.
Here, you can enjoy Dr. Emoto's captivating water-crystal photographs and text in this unique collection. The possible benefits you may experience include decreased joint and back pain; improved function of the nervous, circulatory, lymphatic, and immune systems; and the release of negative emotions such as anxiety, self-pity, and depression. The combination of images and words in Water Crystal Healing concentrates consciousness as never before, providing a unique experience for healing.
The primary objective of this volume is to provide a documentation of recent advances in the area of geomaterial interfaces. The volume consists of subject groupings which cover ice-structure, soil-structure and steel-concrete interfaces, mechanics of rock and concrete joints and interfaces in discrete systems.
Organized into 13 chapters, this edition starts with an overview of the basic principles of electromagnetism. This text then presents a detailed discussion of Laplace's equation and a treatment of multiple effects, since such material is of considerable significance in the development of radiation theory. Other chapters consider the electromagnetic field equations, which are developed in the time-dependent form. This book discusses as well the subjects of wave propagation in space as well as in material media. The final chapter presents an introduction to relativistic electrodynamics.
This book is a valuable resource for physicists, engineers, and readers who are interested in the applications of electrodynamics in modern physics.
Features New to the Second Edition:First elasticity text to offer a chapter on non-homogenous, or graded, material behaviorNew appendix on review of undergraduate mechanics of materials theory to make the text more self-contained355 end of chapter exercises – 30% NEW to this edition
This book gives a survey of astrophysics at the advanced undergraduate level, providing a physics-centred analysis of a broad range of astronomical systems. It originates from a two-semester course sequence at Rutgers University that is meant to appeal not only to astrophysics students but also more broadly to physics and engineering students. The organisation is driven more by physics than by astronomy; in other words, topics are first developed in physics and then applied to astronomical systems that can be investigated, rather than the other way around.
The first half of the book focuses on gravity. The theme in this part of the book, as well as throughout astrophysics, is using motion to investigate mass. The goal of Chapters 2-11 is to develop a progressively richer understanding of gravity as it applies to objects ranging from planets and moons to galaxies and the universe as a whole. The second half uses other aspects of physics to address one of the big questions. While “Why are we here?” lies beyond the realm of physics, a closely related question is within our reach: “How did we get here?” The goal of Chapters 12-20 is to understand the physics behind the remarkable story of how the Universe, Earth and life were formed. This book assumes familiarity with vector calculus and introductory physics (mechanics, electromagnetism, gas physics and atomic physics); however, all of the physics topics are reviewed as they come up (and vital aspects of vector calculus are reviewed in the Appendix).
This book presents an overview of the technological advances that have occurred since the publication of the Editors earlier book High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: The Physical Basis. In this latest book, contributions from internationally recognized professionals and researchers in the field provide expanded treatment of the practical aspects of the subject. High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: Basic Concepts and Technological Practice provides a modern working manual for this specialized technology that is generic to a wide range of applications. The format makes the text suitable for use as a basis for special topic lecture courses at either the undergraduate or graduate level.Provides the fundamental physical concepts of the subjectFocuses on practical applicationsGives a historical survey of the fieldIncludes a detailed account of system design criteriaReviews theoretical models developed to explain the pinhole phenomenaPresents results of a series of experimental investigations on the subject
In order to be able to reflect the development of today's science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, starting with Volume 20, has moved beyond the basic physics of thin films. It now addresses the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Therefore, in order to reflect the modern technology-oriented problems, the title has been slightly modified from Physics of Thin Films to Thin Films.
This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.
Dr Michael Ainslie is eminently qualified to write this unique book. He has worked on sonar performance modeling problems since 1983. He has written many peer reviewed research articles and conference papers related to sonar performance modeling, making contributions in the fields of sound propagation and detection theory.
A key objective of these volumes, which present a vector treatment of the principles of mechanics, is to help the student gain confidence in transforming problems into appropriate mathematical language that may be manipulated to give useful physical conclusions or specific numerical results. In the first volume, the elements of vector calculus and the matrix algebra are reviewed in appendices. Unusual mathematical topics, such as singularity functions and some elements of tensor analysis, are introduced within the text. A logical and systematic building of well-known kinematic concepts, theorems, and formulas, illustrated by examples and problems, is presented offering insights into both fundamentals and applications. Problems amplify the material and pave the way for advanced study of topics in mechanical design analysis, advanced kinematics of mechanisms and analytical dynamics, mechanical vibrations and controls, and continuum mechanics of solids and fluids.
Volume I of Principles of Engineering Mechanics provides the basis for a stimulating and rewarding one-term course for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students specializing in mechanics, engineering science, engineering physics, applied mathematics, materials science, and mechanical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Professionals working in related fields of applied mathematics will find it a practical review and a quick reference for questions involving basic kinematics.
This book will also attempt to address this issue through a framework that may allow us to answer at least partially, the following two important questions. First, how do we gain insights into understanding the intelligence behind the valuable information that data mining offers? More specifically, how do we interpret and evaluate the quality of information resulting from an EDA that is typically oriented around statistical techniques. Overall, Information-Statistical Data Mining: Warehouse Integration with Examples of Oracle Basics is written to introduce basic concepts, advanced research techniques, and practical solutions of data warehousing and data mining for hosting large data sets and EDA. This book is unique because it is one of the few in the forefront that attempts to bridge statistics and information theory through a concept of patterns.
Information-Statistical Data Mining: Warehouse Integration with Examples of Oracle Basics is designed for a professional audience composed of researchers and practitioners in industry. This book is also suitable as a secondary text for graduate-level students in computer science and engineering.
assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions as well as further supplementary material available free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website.
This book is composed of seven chapters, and begins with an introduction to the general concepts of time dependent flow, including induced current, the techniques of linearization, calculating variational transit time, and obtaining equivalent circuits. The following chapters present the classical linear analysis, which includes the space-charge effects, with several applications. These chapters also explore the existence of a maximum stable current in a space-charge limited diode. The discussion then shifts to the basics of high velocity, klystron, gap with nonuniform field distributions, and the application of the multicavity klystron. This text further covers the analysis and examples of crossed-field gaps. The final chapters deal with the fundamentals of velocity and current distributions obtained from common electron emitters, with some attempt to show how the multivelocity streams evolve into single-velocity equivalents needed for the methods of earlier chapters. Results of applying the Lagrangian starting analysis to semiconductor diode regions, necessarily from a new equation of motion, are also provided.
This book is intended for graduate courses, seminars, and research studies.
This second edition contains an additional chapter on earthstation design and gives extensive focus to space based weaponsystems, satellite interference and future trends in satellitetechnology. Extra information has also been provided on all of thefirst edition’s topics to enhance the existing coverage.Fully updated new edition with latest technologicaldevelopmentsCovers the full range of important applications such remotesensing, weather forecasting, navigational, scientific and militaryapplicationsAmply illustrated with figures and photographs, this book alsocontains problems with solutions, which is of benefit students atundergraduate and graduate levelsAn indispensible book for professionals and students in thefield of satellite technologyCompanion website provides a complete and updated compendium onsatellites and satellite launch vehicles
The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
The overall layout of the book is similar to that of the previous two editions however, there are considerable changes in emphasis and several key additions including:
•up-to-date presentation of modern theories of liquid-vapour coexistence and criticality
•areas of considerable present and future interest such as super-cooled liquids and the glass transition
•the area of liquid metals, which has grown into a mature subject area, now presented as part of the chapter ionic liquids
•Provides cutting-edge research in the principles of liquid-state theory
•Includes frequent comparisons of theoretical predictions with experimental and simulation data
•Suitable for researchers and post-graduates in the field of condensed matter science (Physics, Chemistry, Material Science), biophysics as well as those in the oil industry