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* represents diverse theoretical perspectives;
* includes solid empirical evidence testing the validity of these perspectives; and
* shows the application of these perspectives to school situations, as well as situations involving other kinds of organizations.
International representation is emphasized, with chapters from almost every major leader in the field of styles. Each chapter author has contributed serious theory and/or published empirical data--work that is primarily commercial or that implements the theories of others.
The book's central premise is that cognitive, learning, and thinking styles are not abilities but rather preferences in the use of abilities. Traditionally, many psychologists and educators have believed that people's successes and failures are attributable mainly to individual differences in abilities. However, for the past few decades research on the roles of thinking, learning, and cognitive styles in performance within both academic and nonacademic settings has indicated that they account for individual differences in performance that go well beyond abilities. New theories better differentiate styles from abilities and make more contact with other psychological literatures; recent research, in many cases, is more careful and conclusive than are some of the older studies.
Cognitive, learning, and thinking styles are of interest to educators because they predict academic performance in ways that go beyond abilities, and because taking styles into account can help teachers to improve both instruction and assessment and to show sensitivity to cultural and individual diversity among learners. They are also of interest in business, where instruments to assess styles are valuable in selecting and placing personnel. The state-of-the-art research and theory in this volume will be of particular interest to scholars and graduate students in cognitive and educational psychology, managers, and others concerned with intellectual styles as applied in educational, industrial, and corporate settings.
Presenting information on what to expect during each stage of pregnancy, birth, and postpartum recovery, Heart and Hands has been the most trusted guide for midwives and expecting parents for more than two decades. This completely revised edition includes new photographs and illustrations, updated resources for parents, and a current list of midwifery schools. Information will be added throughout to reflect the latest research on the physiology of pregnancy, birth, and postpartum. Combining time-honored teachings with the most current obstetric techniques, this essential reference empowers birthing helpers and parents to create a truly woman-centered birth experience.
This book is the first devoted to investigating what the most current psychological research can tell us about stupidity in everyday life. The contributors to the volume, renowned scholars in various areas of human intelligence, present fascinating examples of people messing up their lives, and they offer insights into the reasons for such behavior. From a variety of perspectives, the contributors discuss:
• The nature and theory of stupidity
• How stupidity contributes to stupid behavior
• Whether stupidity is measurable
While many millions of dollars are spent each year on intelligence research and testing to determine who has the ability to succeed, next to nothing is spent to determine who will make use of their intelligence and not squander it by behaving stupidly. Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid focuses on the neglected side of this discussion, reviewing the full range of theory and research on stupid behavior and analyzing what it tells us about how people can avoid stupidity and its devastating consequences.
With more than 4 million babies born in the United States each year, too many women experience birth as nothing more than a routine or painful event. In her much-praised film Orgasmic Birth, acclaimed filmmaker Debra Pascali-Bonaro showed that in fact childbirth is a natural process to be enjoyed and cherished. Now she joins forces with renowned author and activist Elizabeth Davis to offer an enlightening program to help women attain the most empowering and satisfying birth experience possible. While an orgasmic birth can, for some, induce feelings of intense, ecstatic pleasure, it is ultimately about taking control of one's own body and making the most informed decisions to have a safe, memorable, and joyful birth day.
Whether women choose to give birth at home, in a hospital, or in a birthing center, Orgasmic Birth provides all the necessary tools and guidance to design the birth plan that's best for them. Featuring inspiring stories from mothers and their partners and filled with practical advice and solutions, this one-of-a-kind resource is the next frontier of natural, intimate childbirth.
Educators will find ideas on how to improve their teaching and assessment of student performance. Student development specialists will be interested in the book because intellectual styles, as evidenced by recent studies, play a critical role in many aspects of student development including cognitive, affective, psychosocial, and career development. Psychologists will gain an understanding of an important facet of the field at the interface between cognition and personality. Managers in business will find the book relevant to such issues as effective supervision and staff training and development. The Nature of Intellectual Styles is intended for anyone--particularly researchers and students in the fields of education, psychology, and business management--who is interested in understanding intellectual styles and their effects on daily life.
“The world’s problems are complex, messy, and seemingly intractable, but history tells us that human creativity finds solutions to even the most daunting problems. This book collects perspectives on creative development from many of the most respected scholars and educators working in creativity and innovation today, helping chart a path forward for creativity in the 21st century.” – Jonathan Plucker, Julian C. Stanley Endowed Professor of Talent Development, Johns Hopkins University
“A volume taking on macro-opportunities and macroproblems by editors Ambrose and Sternberg is a treat for readers who want to think ‘big’ and think ‘forward.’ Kick back for an imaginative journey that reaches back to early global insights but propels us solidly into the 21st century and beyond.” – Ann Robinson, Past President, National Association for Gifted Children
The chapter authors were asked to focus on their own approach to mathematical thinking, but also to address a common core of issues such as the nature of mathematical thinking, how it is similar to and different from other kinds of thinking, what makes some people or some groups better than others in this subject area, and how mathematical thinking can be assessed and taught. Their work is directed to a diverse audience -- psychologists interested in the nature of mathematical thinking and abilities, computer scientists who want to simulate mathematical thinking, educators involved in teaching and testing mathematical thinking, philosophers who need to understand the qualitative aspects of logical thinking, anthropologists and others interested in how and why mathematical thinking seems to differ in quality across cultures, and laypeople and others who have to think mathematically and want to understand how they are going to accomplish that feat.
In the course of laying out the ACCEL concept and how such a model might be achieved, Sternberg offers many insights into the realities of higher education as it is practiced today and suggests ways that we could move in a better direction, one that would produce graduates who make the world a better place in which to live. Sternberg's compelling narrative and convincing argument address all aspects of universities, such as admissions, financial aid, instruction and assessment, retention and graduation, student life, diversity, finances, athletics, governance, and marketing. This book is essential reading for educators and laypeople who are interested in learning how our universities work and how they could work better.
“What is creative is new and often brings about positive change. But what is new is also strange, and what is strange can be scary, even threatening—which is why ‘they’ don’t want to hear it. But they are unwise not to listen, for the creative person with original ideas is the one who, with support, will advance and improve the milieu to the benefit of all.” —from Defying the Crowd
For cognitive, development/lifespan, and educational psychologists, and scholars studying the family and its influences, this volume will help:
*students learn about family effects;
*researchers update themselves in this active area of investigation;
*therapists understand problems in intellectual functioning in their clients and in treating these clients successfully; and
*educators gain a better grasp on how the students they teach are products not only of their genes and environments, in general, but of their family environments, in particular.
The contributors are well known for their work on intelligence and education. Each chapter includes an accessible explanation of the author's theory of intelligence, and discusses the implications of that theory both for instruction and for assessment. The book is international in scope, reflecting both American and European perspectives.
Anyone interested in knowing how modern theories of intelligence can be applied to education will want to read this book--particularly teachers and other education specialists, as well as developmental psychologists, cognitive psychologists, and philosophers with an interest in applying psychological theory to classroom practice. It will serve well as a text for courses on educational psychology, intelligence, cognition and instruction, and foundations of teaching.
“This impressive volume, edited by two of the world’s leading thinkers on these topics, includes the perspectives of many of our best thinkers on issues of talent development and giftedness, and they offer an array of provocative perspectives on how we can better address our culture’s and our economy’s tremendous need for talent in the 21st century.” – Jonathan Plucker, Julian C. Stanley Endowed Professor of Talent Development, Johns Hopkins University
“Turbulence in the subtitle is apt. The text, Giftedness and Talent in the 21st Century, is filled with strongly voiced perspectives from international authors who focus on how to conceptualize education as a creative and holistic enterprise within the context of globalization.” – Ann Robinson, Past President, National Association for Gifted Children
The goal of this volume is to discuss how the environment influences the development and the maintenance of cognitive abilities. It is a successor to the editors' 1997 volume, Intelligence, Heredity, and Environment, and a companion to their new volume, Family Environment and Intellectual Functioning: A Life-Span Perspective. Taken together, the two-volume set comprises the most comprehensive existing work on the relation between the environment and cognitive abilities.
Psychologists, parents, social workers, educators, and employers are all likely to find this book of interest.
Not surprisingly, social and behavioral scientists have weighed in on the subject of on-the-job learning, and one message of their research is quite clear. This message is that much of the knowledge people use to succeed on the job is acquired implicitly--without intention to learn or awareness of having learned. The common language of the workplace reflects an awareness of this fact as people speak of learning "by doing" or "by osmosis" and of professional "instinct" or "intuition." Psychologists, more careful if not clearer in their choice of words, refer to learning without intention or awareness as "implicit learning" and refer to the knowledge that results from this learning as "tacit knowledge."
Tacit Knowledge in Professional Practice explores implicit learning and tacit knowledge as they manifest themselves in the practice of six knowledge-intensive professions, and considers the implications of a tacit-knowledge approach for increasing the instructional and developmental impact of work experiences. This volume brings together distinguished practitioners and researchers in each of the six disciplines to discuss their own research and/or professional experience and to engage each other's views. It addresses professional practice in its totality -- from the technical to the interpersonal to the crassly commercial -- not simply a few aspects of practice that lend themselves to controlled study. Finally, this edited volume seeks to go beyond the enumeration of critical experiences to an understanding of the psychological mechanisms that underlie learning from experience in professional disciplines and, in so doing, to lay a foundation for innovations in professional education and training.
The volume addresses three main themes:
*analysis of how educational theory and research may be used to improve student learning and achievement in mathematics, science, and reading;
*examination of how educational theory and research has been used to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate the effects of challenges of large-scale reform; and
*exploration of how different models of intelligence and creativity have informed educational practice.
Viewed as a collective effort to translate theory and research into educational practice, the interventions and programs described by the contributors to this volume represent nearly 200 years of work. As a compendium of successful strategies, this book will help others identify ways to make their own research more useful to their practice communities. As an investigation of persistent, seemingly intractable problems encountered when attempting to connect theory and research to the everyday work of teachers and students in classrooms, the analyses presented in this volume demonstrate where additional work is needed. By examining critical, persistent challenges encountered when attempting to connect educational theory and research to the everyday work of teachers in classrooms and schools, this book will help improve the practical value of educational research and help chart the course for future research.
Translating Theory and Research into Educational Practice is intended as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses across the discipline of education and should be particularly relevant for classes dealing with educational research, educational policy, and teaching and learning. The book is equally relevant for various communities interested in improving connections between research and practice, including educational researchers, educational psychologists, psychologists, teachers, other educational professionals such as state school officers, district officials, and policy makers. The authors' comprehensive descriptions and critical reflections will provide readers with valuable insights about the practical demands, theoretical complexities, and political realties associated with efforts to translate theory and research into effective educational practice.
Thinking and Problem-Solving provides insight into questions such as: how do people solve complex problems in mathematics and everyday life? How do we generate new ideas? How do we piece together clues to solve a mystery, categorize novel events, and teach others to do the same?Provides a comprehensive literature reviewCovers both historical and contemporary approachesOrganized for ease of use and referenceChapters authored by leading scholars
* development of children's conceptions of intelligence
* skill acquisition as a bridge between intelligence and motivation
* information-processing abilities underlying intelligence
* costs of expertise and their relation to intelligence
* the nature of abstract thought
The selection first takes a look at the issues in cognitive psychology and instruction, reading, and writing. Discussions focus on the processes of knowledge acquisition, cognitive prescriptions for teaching, cognitive components of reading, instruction in reading, distinctive nature of higher order mental activity in written composition, and knowledge-transforming procedures within the general context of higher order skills. The publication also offers information on second language and mathematics.
The text ponders on science, social studies, and art. Topics include psychological research related to curriculum design, science curriculum reform, curriculum and instructional components of social studies and social sciences, evidence for individual styles in young children, educational considerations, and concept of style. The text then examines music and reasoning.
The selection is a valuable source of data for readers and cognitive psychologists pursuing research on the relationship of cognition and instruction.The most recent developments in cognitive psychologyUp-to-date literature reviewsChapter on training reasoningActive, renowned contributing authors
The 24 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 46 submissions. The papers present original research results in all aspects of algorithm engineering including implementation, experimental testing, fine-tuning of discrete algorithms, development of repositories of software, methodological issues such as standards for empirical research on algorithms and data structures, and issues in the process of converting user requirements into efficient algorithmic solutions and implementations.
* pulls together diverse theoretical and methodological approaches to the origin, structure, function, and development of intuitive conceptions;
* explores a diversity of academic disciplines--paying equal attention not only to mathematics and science, the fields in which intuitive concepts have been studied most extensively, but also to the social sciences, arts, and humanities;
* explicitly links theory and research to educational implications and classroom applications; and
* focuses not only on students' intuitive conceptions but also on teachers' intuitive beliefs about learning and teaching.
Although the viewpoints of the contributors are diverse, they share the belief that educational practices have much to gain by systematic studies of the intuitive learner and teacher. This volume offers state-of-the-art, research-based information and support for psychologists, teacher educators, educational administrators, teachers, prospective teachers, and others who seek to develop educational practices that are cognizant of (and responsive to) the intuitive conceptions of students and teachers.
Intended for psychologists in all areas, including clinical, consulting, educational, cognitive, school, developmental, and industrial-organizational, this book will also be of interest to educators, sociologists, anthropologists, and those interested in the nature of intelligence.
Graduate Research helps readers navigate the multidimensional and interdisciplinary world of scientific research and it is an invaluable resource for graduate researchers as well as those in advising or mentoring roles.Discusses a broad range of topics including time management, library and literature work, and grant supportIncludes a new chapter on career planning and development with advice on careers in academia, government, and the private sectorContains chapters that promote the development of a varied set of communication skillsGreatly expanded treatment of graduate study and research in international settings