In this book, the authors discuss the various aspects of GNSS antennas, including fundamentals of GNSS, design approaches for the GNSS terminal and satellite antennas, performance enhancement techniques and effects of user’s presence and surrounding environment on these antennas. In addition, the book will provide the reader with an insight into the most important aspects of the GNSS antenna technology and lay the foundations for future advancements. It also includes a number of real case studies describing the ways in which antenna design can be adapted to conform to the design constraints of practical user devices, and also the management of potential adverse interactions between the antenna and its platform.
Key Features:Covers the fundamentals and practical implementations of antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Describes technological advancements for GPS, Glonass, Galileo and Compass Aims to address future issues such as multipath interference, in building operation, RF interference in mobile Includes a number of real case studies to illustrate practical implementation of GNSS
This book will be an invaluable guide for antenna designers, system engineers, researchers for GNSS systems and postgraduate students (antennas, satellite communication technology). R&D engineers in mobile handset manufacturers, spectrum engineers will also find this book of interest.
After introducing scanning probe microscopy, including sensor technology and tip characterization, chapters on use in various industrial applications are presented. Industrial applications span topographic and dynamical surface studies of thin-film semiconductors, polymers, paper, ceramics, and magnetic and biological materials.
The chapters have been written by leading researchers and application scientists from all over the world and from various industries to provide a broader perspective.
The team of international authors delves beyond mere structure-making and places the emphasis firmly on imparting functionality to soft nanomaterials with a focus on devices and applications. Alongside reviewing the current level of knowledge, they also put forward novel ideas to foster research and development in such expanding fields as nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. As such, the book covers DNA-induced nanoparticle assembly, nanostructured substrates for circulating tumor cell capturing, and organic nano field effect transistors, as well as advanced dynamic gels and self-healing electronic nanodevices.
With its interdisciplinary approach this book gives readers a complete picture of nanotechnology with soft matter.
The highly-anticipated paperback edition of The Elements is finally available.
An eye-opening, original collection of gorgeous, never-before-seen photographic representations of the 118 elements in the periodic table.
The elements are what we, and everything around us, are made of. But how many elements has anyone actually seen in pure, uncombined form? The Elements provides this rare opportunity. Based on seven years of research and photography, the pictures in this book make up the most complete, and visually arresting, representation available to the naked eye of every atom in the universe. Organized in order of appearance on the periodic table, each element is represented by a spread that includes a stunning, full-page, full-color photograph that most closely represents it in its purest form. For example, at -183°C, oxygen turns from a colorless gas to a beautiful pale blue liquid.
Also included are fascinating facts, figures, and stories of the elements as well as data on the properties of each, including atomic weight, density, melting and boiling point, valence, electronegativity, and the year and location in which it was discovered. Several additional photographs show each element in slightly altered forms or as used in various practical ways. The element's position on the periodic table is pinpointed on a mini rendering of the table and an illustrated scale of the element's boiling and/or melting points appears on each page along with a density scale that runs along the bottom.
Packed with interesting information, this combination of solid science and stunning artistic photographs is the perfect gift book for every sentient creature in the universe.
Includes a tear-out poster of Theodore Gray's iconic Photographic Periodic Table!
Optimize your understanding of the essential supply chain management practices used by the best firms to gain competitive advantage. Written in an easy-to-follow style, Supply Chain Management DeMYSTiFieD is filled with best practices and proven techniques for success.
This practical guide covers supply chain collaboration, planning, strategic sourcing, manufacturing, production, logistics, risk management, and performance metrics. Corporate social responsibility is also addressed. Detailed examples and concise explanations make it easy to understand the material, and end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam help reinforce key concepts.
It's a no-brainer! You'll learn about:Creating a customer-focused strategy Buyer-supplier negotiations New product development Just in time (JIT), Lean manufacturing, and Six Sigma Transportation Global supply chains
Simple enough for a beginner, but challenging enough for an advanced student, Supply Chain Management DeMYSTiFieD helps you master this essential business and quality management topic.
Over the course of time, the modern world has become dependent on unprecedented flows of materials. Now even the most efficient production processes and the highest practical rates of recycling may not be enough to result in dematerialization rates that would be high enough to negate the rising demand for materials generated by continuing population growth and rising standards of living. This book explores the costs of this dependence and the potential for substantial dematerialization of modern economies.
Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization considers the principal materials used throughout history, from wood and stone, through to metals, alloys, plastics and silicon, describing their extraction and production as well as their dominant applications. The evolving productivities of material extraction, processing, synthesis, finishing and distribution, and the energy costs and environmental impact of rising material consumption are examined in detail. The book concludes with an outlook for the future, discussing the prospects for dematerialization and potential constrains on materials.
This interdisciplinary text provides useful perspectives for readers with backgrounds including resource economics, environmental studies, energy analysis, mineral geology, industrial organization, manufacturing and material science.
New chapters include: high-temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, nanomaterials, and dental materials, anodic protection. Also featured are chapters dealing with standards for corrosion testing, microbiological corrosion, and electrochemical noise.
``Well Cementing'' is envisioned as an upper-level university book, as well as a reference for practicing engineers and scientists. The first section of the book illustrates how the quality of the hydraulic seal provided by the cement sheath can affect well performance. The second section concentrates on the design phase of a cementing treatment, and various aspects of cement job execution are covered in the third section. The fourth section addresses cement job evaluation. The text is supported by many tables and figures, an extensive bibliography and an index. There are also chapters devoted to subjects which are currently of particular interest to the industry, including the prevention of annular gas migration, foamed cements, and cementing horizontal wellbores. The chemistry associated with well cementing is presented in detail.
Most of the contributors to this volume are employees of Dowell Schlumberger, one of the leading companies in this field.
The Essentials For Dummies Series
Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.
Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts – with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage.
The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subject gained through the author’s previous writings (particularly Extractive Metallurgy of Copper in four editions) and extensive experience. Due to the multiple metals involved and because each metal originates in several types of ore – e.g. tropical ores and arctic ores this necessitates a multi-contributor work drawing from multiple networks and both engineering and science.Synthesizes detailed review of the fundamental chemistry and physics of extractive metallurgy with practical lessons from industrial consultancies at the leading international plantsDiscusses Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals for the first time in one bookReviews extraction of multiple metals from the same tropical or arctic oreIndustrial, international and multidisciplinary focus on current standards of production supports best practice use of industrial resources
Engineering Materials 1, Fourth Edition is perfect as a stand-alone text for a one-semester course in engineering materials or a first text with its companion Engineering Materials 2: An Introduction to Microstructures and Processing, in a two-semester course or sequence.Many new design case studies and design-based examplesRevised and expanded treatments of stress–strain, fatigue, creep, and corrosionAdditional worked examples—to consolidate, develop, and challengeCompendia of results for elastic beams, plastic moments, and stress intensity factorsMany new photographs and links to Google Earth, websites, and video clipsAccompanying companion site with access to instructors’ resources, including a suite of interactive materials science tutorials, a solutions manual, and an image bank of figures from the book
This new edition retains its design-led focus and strong emphasis on visual communication while expanding its treatment of crystallography and phase diagrams and transformations to fully meet the needs of instructors teaching a first-year course in materials. The book is fully linked with the leading materials software package used in over 600 academic institutions worldwide as well as numerous government and commercial engineering departments.Winner of a 2014 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors AssociationDesign-led approach motivates and engages students in the study of materials science and engineering through real-life case studies and illustrative applicationsHighly visual full color graphics facilitate understanding of materials concepts and propertiesChapters on materials selection and design are integrated with chapters on materials fundamentals, enabling students to see how specific fundamentals can be important to the design processAvailable solutions manual, lecture slides, online image bank and materials selection charts for use in class handouts or lecture presentationsLinks with the Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES EduPack), the powerful materials selection software
Now in its Seventh Edition, this renowned book is a standard reference for the mineral processing industry. Chapters deal with each of the major processing techniques, and coverage includes the latest technical developments in the processing of increasingly complex refractory ores, new equipment and process routes. This new edition has been prepared by the prestigious J K Minerals Research Centre of Australia, which contributes its world-class expertise and ensures that this will continue to be the book of choice for professionals and students in this field.
This latest edition highlights the developments and the challenges facing the mineral processor, particularly with regard to the environmental problems posed in improving the efficiency of the existing processes and also in dealing with the waste created. The work is fully indexed and referenced.
· The classic mineral processing text, revised and updated by a prestigious new team
· Provides a clear exposition of the principles and practice of mineral processing, with examples taken from practice
· Covers the latest technological developments and highlights the challenges facing the mineral processor
· New sections on environmental problems, improving the efficiency of existing processes and dealing with waste.
Straightforward Guidance for Developing and Fulfilling Product-Specific Criteria
Written by an industry insider with more than 30 years of experience, the Paint Technology Handbook provides a practical and straightforward guide for the design of coatings systems. The text highlights the most practical analytical methods and their applications for material selection as well as manufacturing processes.
· The components and properties of paints, including resins, pigments, extenders, solvents, and additives
· The chemical composition, physical properties, function, wear characteristics, and other properties used for material selection
· Color standards, metamerism, and color matching
Processes and Techniques for Operating Optimal, Cost-Efficient Paint and Surface Finishing Systems
Encompassing processes and equipment used for manufacturing the paints themselves as well as application systems, this book reviews the essential techniques and equipment for deposition and finishing systems.
· A survey of liquid paint application technologies, including spray and electrodeposition techniques
· Transfer efficiency, automated control, and maintenance for all application techniques
· Curing, testing methods for finished materials, and quality control techniques
The Paint Technology Handbook emphasizes the importance of understanding paint materials, manufacturing techniques, testing, deposition techniques, and equipment in order to meet product-specific needs.
New in the Third Edition:
Computer-aided calculation of phase diagrams Recent developments in metallic glasses The Scheil method of calculating a CCT diagram from a TTT diagram Expanded treatment of the nucleation and growth of polygonal ferrite and bainite New case studies covering copper precipitation hardening of very low carbon bainitic steel and very fine carbide-free bainite Detailed treatment of strain-induced martensite provides a theoretical background to transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels
Unique Presentation Links Theory to Application
Adding new case studies, detailed examples, and exercises drawn from current applications, the third edition keeps the previous editions’ popular easy-to -follow style and excellent mix of basic and advanced information, making it ideal for those new to the field. The book’s unique presentation links basic understanding of theory with application in a gradually progressive yet exciting manner. Based on the author’s teaching notes, the book takes a pedagogical approach and provides examples for applications and problems that can be readily used for exercises.
PowerPoint© illustrations available with qualifying course adoptions
Extensively revised for this fourth edition, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design is recognized as one of the leading materials selection texts, and provides a unique and genuinely innovative resource.
Features new to this edition:Material property charts now in full color throughoutSignificant revisions of chapters on engineering materials, processes and process selection, and selection of material and shape while retaining the book's hallmark structure and subject contentFully revised chapters on hybrid materials and materials and the environmentAppendix on data and information for engineering materials fully updatedRevised and expanded end-of-chapter exercises and additional worked examples
Materials are introduced through their properties; materials selection charts (also available on line) capture the important features of all materials, allowing rapid retrieval of information and application of selection techniques. Merit indices, combined with charts, allow optimization of the materials selection process. Sources of material property data are reviewed and approaches to their use are given. Material processing and its influence on the design are discussed. New chapters on environmental issues, industrial engineering and materials design are included, as are new worked examples, exercise materials and a separate, online Instructor's Manual. New case studies have been developed to further illustrate procedures and to add to the practical implementation of the text.The new edition of the leading materials selection text, now with full color material property chartsIncludes significant revisions of chapters on engineering materials, processes and process selection, and selection of material and shape while retaining the book's hallmark structure and subject contentFully revised chapters on hybrid materials and materials and the environmentAppendix on data and information for engineering materials fully updatedRevised and expanded end-of-chapter exercises and additional worked examples
This book will be particularly useful to both students and working designers. Students are introduced to the role of materials in manufacturing and design, with the help of familiar language and concepts. Working designers can use the book as a reference source for materials and manufacturing.
* The best guide ever published on the on the role of materials, past and present, in product development, by noted materials authority Mike Ashby and professional designer Kara Johnson--now with even better photos and drawings on the Design Process
* Significant new section on the use of re-cycled materials in products, and the importance of sustainable design for manufactured goods and services
* Enhanced materials profiles, with addition of new materials types like nanomaterials, advanced plastics and bio-based materials
Modelica, the new object-based software/hardware modeling language that is quickly gaining popularity around the world, offers an almost universal approach to high-level computational modeling and simulation. It handles a broad range of application domains, for example mechanics, electrical systems, control, and thermodynamics, and facilitates general notation as well as powerful abstractions and efficient implementations. Using the versatile Modelica language and its associated technology, this text presents an object-oriented, component-based approach that makes it possible for readers to quickly master the basics of computer-supported equation-based object-oriented (EOO) mathematical modeling and simulation.
Throughout the text, Modelica is used to illustrate the various aspects of modeling and simulation. At the same time, a number of key concepts underlying the Modelica language are explained with the use of modeling and simulation examples. This book:
Examines basic concepts such as systems, models, and simulations
Guides readers through the Modelica language with the aid of several step-by-step examples
Introduces the Modelica class concept and its use in graphical and textual modeling
Explores modeling methodology for continuous, discrete, and hybrid systems
Presents an overview of the Modelica Standard Library and key Modelica model libraries
Readers will find plenty of examples of models that simulate distinct application domains as well as examples that combine several domains. All the examples and exercises in the text are available via DrModelica. This electronic self-teaching program, freely available on the text's companion website, guides readers from simple, introductory examples and exercises to more advanced ones.
Written by the Director of the Open Source Modelica Consortium, Introduction to Modeling and Simulation of Technical and Physical Systems with Modelica is recommended for engineers and students interested in computer-aided design, modeling, simulation, and analysis of technical and natural systems. By building on basic concepts, the text is ideal for students who want to learn modeling, simulation, and object orientation.
In order to be able to reflect the development of today's science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, starting with Volume 20, has moved beyond the basic physics of thin films. It now addresses the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Therefore, in order to reflect the modern technology-oriented problems, the title has been slightly modified from Physics of Thin Films to Thin Films.
This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.
Drawing on the expertise of leading researchers in their fields, Current Topics in Elastomers Research provides the first comprehensive overview of rubber research activities from around the world. Divided into seven sections, this seminal work begins with a general introduction before presenting the chemistry and structure-property relationships of a variety of new materials and composites. The second section covers the most important rubber ingredients along with the current thinking on their mechanism of action.
Two important new characterization techniques, 3D-TEM and AFM, are evaluated in the third section, while the fourth considers the physics and engineering aspects of elastomers, including reinforcement mechanisms, viscoelastic properties, fatigue life, abrasion, adhesion, rheology, mixing and processing, and the effects of time, temperature and fluids. The fifth section pays respect to the tire, a driving impetus for research and one of the major applications of rubber. Finally, the book includes two chapters on eco-friendly technology and recycling, perhaps the most important engineering topic in this age of globalization and environmental responsibility.
Barring the inaccessibility of truly classified information, Current Topics in Elastomers Research is a complete review of current elastomers research and applications, compiling once-guarded knowledge and outlining the future directions of the field.
The first book to consider this topic, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science examines the fundamentals of click chemistry, its application to the precise design and synthesis of macromolecules, and its numerous applications in materials science and biotechnology. The book surveys the current research, discusses emerging trends and future applications, and provides an important nucleation point for research.
Edited by one of the top 100 young innovators with the greatest potential to have an impact on technology in the 21st century according to Technology Review and with contributions from pioneers in the field, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science provides an ideal reference for anyone wanting to learn more about click reactions.
Now, new third generation Al-Li alloys with significantly reduced lithium content and other improvements are promising a revival for Al-Li applications in modern aircraft and aerospace vehicles. Over the last few years, these newer Al-Li alloys have attracted increasing global interest for widespread applications in the aerospace industry largely because of soaring fuel costs and the development of a new generation of civil and military aircraft. This contributed book, featuring many of the top researchers in the field, is the first up-to-date international reference for Al-Li material research, alloy development, structural design and aerospace systems engineering.Provides a complete treatment of the new generation of low-density AL-Li alloys, including microstructure, mechanical behavoir, processing and applicationsCovers the history of earlier generation AL-Li alloys, their basic problems, why they were never widely used, and why the new third generation Al-Li alloys could eventually replace not only traditional aluminum alloys but more expensive composite materialsContains two full chapters devoted to applications in the aircraft and aerospace fields, where the lighter, stronger Al-Li alloys mean better performing, more fuel-efficient aircraft
The second edition yet. Each chapter presents its subject matter consistently, based on the classification of thermodynamic systems, properties, and derivations that illustrate important relationships among variables for finding the conditions for equilibrium. Each chapter also contains a summary of important concepts and relationships as well as examples and sample problems that apply appropriate strategies for solving real-world problems.
The up-to-date and complete coverage ofthermodynamic data, laws, definitions, strategies, and tools in Thermodynamics in Materials Science, Second Edition provides students and practicing engineers a valuable guide for producing and applying maps of equilibrium states to everyday applications in materials sciences.
The eighth edition of this classic text has been updated to provide a balanced coverage of properties, characterization, phase transformations, crystal structure, and corrosion not available in other texts, and includes updated illustrations along with extensive new real-world examples and homework problems.Renowned coverage of metals and alloys from one of the world's leading metallurgy educatorsCovers new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentationProvides the most thorough coverage of characterization, mechanical properties, surface engineering and corrosion of any textbook in its fieldIncludes new worked examples with real-world applications, case studies, extensive homework exercises, and a full online solutions manual and image bank
After introducing the history of rubber industry and the general properties of rubber, the book discusses the properties, classification, concentration, stabilization, modification, application, transport, and storage of latex. It presents as well the methods of production, composition, physical properties, and chemical reactions of dry rubber. The book then focuses on the production and classification of different synthetic rubbers, such as styrene-butadiene, isoprene, butadiene, ethylene-propylene, and chloroprene. It also discusses the production, properties, and applications of elastomers, vulcanization chemicals, fillers, stabilizers, plasticizers, blowing agents, and textile reinforcing materials used in formulating rubber compounds.
This book will be of great value not only to those who are in the rubber industry, but also to students of polymer science and rubber technology.
This renowned text has provided many thousands of students with an easily accessible introduction to the wide ranging subject area of materials engineering and manufacturing processes for over forty years. It avoids the excessive jargon and mathematical complexity so often found in textbooks for this subject, retaining the practical down-to-earth approach for which the book is noted. The increased emphasis on the selection of materials reflects the increased emphasis on this aspect of materials engineering now seen within current vocational and university courses.
In addition to meeting the requirements of vocational and undergraduate engineering syllabuses, this text will also provide a valuable desktop reference for professional engineers working in product design who require a quick source of information on materials and manufacturing processes.
The book is essential reading for engineers and designers of engines, as well as lecturers and graduate students in the fields of automotive engineering, machine design and materials science looking for a concise, expert analysis of automotive materials.Provides a detailed introduction to the nature of materials used in automotive enginesEssential reading for engineers, designers, lecturers and students in automotive engineeringWritten by a renowned expert in the field
Chapters in part one explore the properties and processing of natural rubber, including the biosynthesis of natural rubber in different rubber-producing species, chemical modification of natural rubber for improved performance, and the effect of strain-induced crystallization on the physical properties of natural rubber. Further chapters highlight hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked natural rubber and computer simulation of network formation in natural rubber. Part two focusses on applications of natural rubber, including eco-friendly bio-composites using natural rubber matrices and reinforcements, soft bio-composites from natural rubber and marine products, natural rubber for the tire industry, the application of epoxidized natural rubber in pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), and the use of natural rubber for vibration isolation and earthquake protection of structures. Finally, chapters in part three consider environmental and safety issues associated with natural rubber, including improving the sustainable development of natural rubber, the recycling of natural and synthetic isoprene rubbers and of sulfur cross-linked natural rubber, and recent research on natural rubber latex allergy.
Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber is a comprehensive resource for academics, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other professionals in the rubber industry, as well as those industries, including automotive, civil, and medical engineering, using natural rubber products.An updated review with systematic and comprehensive coverage of natural rubbersCovers a broad range of topics, including the chemistry, processing, sustainability, and applications of natural rubbersCoverage of the best international research, including key experts from Asia, the United States, South America, and Europe
The basic objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview of the properties of the hard and soft magnetic materials relevant to applications and of thoroughly discussing the modern methodologies for employed in the measurement of these properties. The balance of these topics results in a complete text on the topic, which will be invaluable to researchers, students and practitioners in industry. It will be of significant interest not only to scientists working in the fields of power engineering and materials science but also to specialists in measurement who be able to easily find all the information they need.Comprehensive overview of the properties of the hard and soft magnetic materialsProvides applications and discusses thoroughly the modern methodologies for employed in the measurement of these propertiesProvides the latest up-to-date works on the measurement of magnetic materials
Packed with contributions from the world’s leading experts, this volume brings in authoritative information from a number of sciences, including chemistry, physics, nanotechnology and metallurgy. The book presents a myriad of applications, ranging from electronics to medicine and optics. A comprehensive overview chapter provides historical perspectives of the element and each chapter describes potential further uses, including applications currently being developed.
Gold Applications in Use Today Include:
Part one provides an introduction to quantum information processing using diamond, as well as its principles and fabrication techniques. Part two outlines experimental demonstrations of quantum information processing using diamond, and the emerging applications of diamond for quantum information science. It contains chapters on quantum key distribution, quantum microscopy, the hybridization of quantum systems, and building quantum optical devices. Part three outlines promising directions and future trends in diamond technologies for quantum information processing and sensing.
Quantum Information Processing with Diamond is a key reference for R&D managers in industrial sectors such as conventional electronics, communication engineering, computer science, biotechnology, quantum optics, quantum mechanics, quantum computing, quantum cryptology, and nanotechnology, as well as academics in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering.Brings together the topics of diamond and quantum information processingLooks at applications such as quantum computing, neural circuits, and in vivo monitoring of processes at the molecular scale
Beginning with the various types of woven three-dimensional fabrics, the text then examines 3-D knitted, braided, and non-woven textiles, and the main applications and uses of three-dimensional textiles.Presents the most recent advances in the production of three-dimensional fibrous structures and how their use has resulted in the creation of novel fabrics and applicationsExamines many types of 3-D textiles, including knitted, braided, and non-woven textiles, and the main uses of three-dimensional textilesCovers their structures, properties, and uses within the textiles industry
Part one provides a detailed overview of switchable and responsive materials and surfaces, exploring thermo-responsive polymers, environmentally responsive polyelectrolytes and zwitterionic polymers, as well as peptide-based and photonic sensitive switchable materials. Further chapters include a detailed overview of the preparation and analysis of switchable polymer brushes and copolymers for biomedical application. Part two explores the biological interactions and biomedical applications of switchable surfaces, where expert analysis is provided on the interaction of switchable surfaces with proteins and cells. The interaction of stimuli-sensitive polymers for tissue engineering and drug delivery with biosurfaces is critiqued, whilst the editor provides a skillful study into the application of responsive polymers in implantable medical devices and biosensors.A comprehensive overview of switchable and responsive materials and surfacesIncludes in depth analysis of thermo-responsive polymers, photonic sensitive materials and peptide-based surfacesDetailed exploration of biological interactions of responsive and switchable surfaces, covering stimuli-sensitive polymers for drug delivery, surfaces with proteins/cells and application of polymers in medical devices
This book gives a comprehensive description of polymeric nanocomposites, both as bulk materials and as thin surface coatings, and their behavior and potential use in tribological applications. It provides the preparation techniques, friction and wear mechanisms, properties of polymeric nanocomposites, characterization, evaluation and selection methodology. It also provides various examples of application of polymeric nanocomposites.
* Provides a complete reference from the preparation to the selection of polymeric nanocomposites
* Explains the theory through examples of real-world applications
* More than 20 international tribology experts contribute to their area of expertise
This book is the first extended look at a new and multifaceted polymer processing technology that has already been discussed in numerous articles. Called Solid-State Shear Pulverization (S3P), this innovative process produces polymeric powders with unique physical properties not found in the output of conventional size-reduction methods.... This technology, which utilizes a pulverizer based on a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder..., has profound implications for both the creation of new polymer blends and recycling of plastic and rubber waste.
Unlike [earlier processes] where polymers are melted prior to pulverization, ...pulverizing mixtures of polymers with the S3P process...does not involve melting. By contrast, S3P maintains polymers in the solid state and avoids the additional heat history that occurs during [other processes], which can be detrimental to the physical properties of pulverized materials. The research and development of the S3P technology...has grown significantly since 1990 from the development of a new plastics recycling process to a much broader polymer processing method that allows intimate mixing of polymers with very different viscosities, sold-state dispersion of additives, including pigments, and continuous production of powder with unique shapes and larger surface areas. Polymeric powders are of growing importance to plastics processors due to the increase use of plastics in various applications, such as rotational molding, powder coatings, and compounding, which require powder as the feedstock.
...[I]t has become clear that this process allows for in-situ compatibilization of dissimilar polymers by applying mechanical energy to cause chemical reactions. This aspect of S3P technology that we describe in this book should [be useful in] developing new polymer blends with the use of pre-made compatibilizing agents. In addition, it has been discovered that S3P efficiently mixes polymer blends with different component viscosities, resulting in the elimination of phase inversion. The S3P process directly produces blends with matrix and dispersed phase morphology like those obtained after phase inversion during a long melt-mixing process. This phenomenon is of practical importance because a long processing time is required by conventional melt-mixing to produce a stable blend morphology. S3P is also advantageous for producing thermoplastic or thermoset powder-coating compounds in a one-step process as opposed to a conventional multi-step operation that involves melt extrusion followed by batch grinding. The major capabilities of this new process can be summarized as follows:
o Continuous powder production from plastics or rubber feedstocks
o Blending of immiscible polymers
o Efficient mixing of polymers with unmatched viscosities
o Environmentally friendly recycling of multicolored, commingled plastics waste
o Sold-state dispersion of heat-sensitive additives
o Engineered plastic/rubber blends
Materials and processes well illustrated
The text is well illustrated with 60 photographs, micrographs, diagrams and others figures. Here is a small sampling of the captions of these figures. o Particle-size distribution for virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Optical photograph of virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Layout for a three-stage rubber pulverizer o Flow chart for powder coating production by conventional process and with new S3P technology o SEM image of pulverized virgin PP at 40X (first in series of SEM images of polymer powders) o Optical micrograph of melt-crystallized thin films of unpulverized virgin PP under polarized light o Log of viscosity vs. log shear rate for virgin HDPE after S3P processing o Gel permeation chromatograms (GPC) of polystyrene subjected to S3P processing
One of the several functions of Solid-State Shear Pulverization technology is recycling mixed plastic waste. This section of twenty full-color photographs and micrographs illustrates different processed materials, as well as the machinery and mixed waste used. Here is a small sampling of the photo and micrograph captions. o Resultant flake feedstock from granulation o S3P-made uniform powder from feedstock o Flake feedstock of post-consumer HDPE/PP blend (90/10 ratio) o Injection-molded test bar (with translucence) made from S3P powder without pelletization o Injection-molded test bar made from S3P powder without pelletization showing uniform color o Several test bars subjected to tensile testing showing exceptionally high elongation at break
Useful reference data in tables
More than 60 tables provide useful data in convenient form. Here is a small sampling of table captions. o Physical properties of virgin PP 8020 GU injection-molded from S3P-made powder (first in series of tables on physical properties of various plastics processed from S3P-made powder) o Sieve analysis of powder resulting from S3P of virgin LDPE 509.48 (one of series of tables on sieve analysis of polymer powders) o Melt-flow rate before and after S3P processing for virgin PS and two PP samples o Key physical properties of injection-molded post-consumer polyolefin blends pulverized by S3P process
Klementina Khait, M.S. Ch.E., Ph.D., is Research Associate Professor and Director of the Polymer Technology Center in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University. Her industrial experience in polymer science and engineering includes work with Borg-Warner Chemicals and Quantum Chemical Corporation. She received her two advanced degrees, in chemical engineering and polymer chemistry, from the Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. Dr. Khait holds several patents and has published more than 50 papers in scientific and technical journals.
Stephen Carr, Ph.D., is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University. His industrial work includes work in polymer science and engineering with General Motors Corp. He received a doctorate in polymer science from Case Western Reserve University. He has been on the Northwestern University faculty since 1969.
Martin H. Mack is Vice President for R&D with the Berstorff Division of Krauss-Maffei Corporation. He holds an engineering degree from the University of Stuttgart. He has served for more than ten years on the Board of Directors of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).