These Proceedings contain invited lectures presented at the third Interna tional Conference on "Irreversible Processes and Dissipative Structures" in Kiihlungsborn (German Democratic Republic) in March, 1985. These con ferences, the first of which was held in Rostock in 1977 and the second in Berlin in 1982, are devoted to the study of irreversible processes far from thermal equilibrium and to the phenomena of selforganization. The meet ing in Kiihlungsborn brought together some 160 mathematicians, physicists, chemists and biologists from 10 countries, who are all interested in the inter disciplinary field of synergetics. The main topics of the conference were basic concepts of selforganization and evolution, such as entropy, instabilities, nucleation, dissipative struc tures, chaos and turbulence. The contributions cover methods from ther modynamics, the theory of dynamic systems, stochastic and statistic theory, the method of Green's functions, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, etc. Several problems are studied in more detail, e.g., the kinetics of nucleation especially in finite systems, the dynamics of interfaces, reaction-diffusion sys tems, chemical and biochemical pattern formation and information process ing. Further, several contributions are devoted to the development of the concepts of chaos and turbulence. The editors hope that the contributions collected in this volume will pro vide some new information about the field of selforganization, which is in full development now.
The thermodynamic properties of seawater have recently been redefined as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater—2010 (TEOS-10 for short), and here we summarize the changes to oceanographic practices that are needed to take advantage of this new international standard. A key feature of TEOS-10 is that the thermodynamic quantities are functions of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which incorporates the effects of spatial differences in seawater composition. TEOS-10 also treats the “heat content” of seawater in a more consistent and natural fashion through the introduction of a new temperature variable, Conservative Temperature, which replaces potential temperature. Since TEOS-10 includes fundamental equations of state also for ice and for humid air, thermodynamically consistent and complete relationships now exist between all the thermodynamic properties of fresh water, seawater, ice and humid air.
This is a book about the physical processes in reacting complex molecules, particularly biomolecules. In the past decade scientists from different fields such as medicine, biology, chemistry and physics have collected a huge amount of data about the structure, dynamics and functioning of biomolecules. Great progress has been achieved in exploring the structure of complex molecules. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dynamics and functioning of biological macromolecules. In particular this refers to enzymes, which are the basic molecular machines working in living systems. This book contributes to the exploration of the physical mechanisms of these processes, focusing on critical aspects such as the role of nonlinear excitations and of stochastic effects. An extensive range of original results has been obtained in the last few years by the authors, and these results are presented together with a comprehensive survey of the state of the art in the field.
Based on a fifty-year study conducted by the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, this book brings together a comprehensive summary of their observations and findings. Written by well-known experts, this revealing book concentrates on long-term changes in the Baltic Sea?which can be extrapolated to shed light on the environmental problems of other shelf seas, brackish seas, and large estuaries?thereby contributing to our understanding of water exchange processes, eutrophication, and climatic impacts at the forefront of international concern.