Mostly we all know Chanakya by name. Chanakya who was born around 3rd BC in Bharat (now Hindustan), astute, shrewd and ruthless political master. Equally selfless and patriotic teacher who politically united the small states post invasion of Greeks and reclaimed the boundaries of Bharat stretching from Puruvarsha (Persia, now Iran), Gansthan (now Afghanistan) to far east of Magadh (Bihar state of India). We know Chanakya for his Niti-shashtras, for his voluminous work on economy, maxims of wisdom and intelligence. But we do not know much about minute details with which he governed the country at that time. We do not know, during his time of around 3rd BCE, at how much advance stage the economy, public life, administration, industries, defence mechanisms, taxations, public-private partnerships, foreign policy, judicial systems, banking and accounting systems ….. were there in India. It seems, they all were in more than perfect stage compared to present scenario factoring advancement in science and technology etc. We will look at each of them one by one.
In this book, “Chanakya Niti on Corruption”, we will take a look at corruption. What Chanakya thinks about sources of corruption, ways of finding about corruption, judgements and punishments of corruptions etc.
Chanakya knows very well that just like it is impossible to know when and how much water a fish drinks, it is utmost difficult to know how much money government officials steal away while in charge of it. Knowing human nature which succumbs to greed, fear, lust, anger or any such tamas gunas, and indulges in acts of corruption to accumulate wealth in the country or outside. Chanakya keeps eye on conduct and life style of not only ministers, but all levels of the government officials too.
Chanakya takes multi pronged approach to tackle and eradicate corruption. He knows that by establishing one department to tackle corruption problems are not going to be solved, instead will increase many fold later when that department itself becomes corrupt eventually. He relies on spying, continuous intelligence gathering, harsh punishments leading to deaths, rewards who bring to notice acts of corruptions by officials etc, promotions and rewards to who do their job righteously. Not only that, 3rd century BC, do you imagine there were clear cut rules and guidelines how to write account books, !. At that time, he knew that what impact it creates on overall economy and nation building, if sanctioned amount for projects are not utilised actually? Chanakya knows corruption is contiguous, and he tackles such problems too with well laid out and practical laws to follow at that time. Looking at the crux of the guidelines what Chanakya outlines, it seems that essence of those laws are applicable still today with more verbatim or expansion of words to suite and cover present scenarios. But, the essence remains same. He knew that in corruption free country, trade and business, entrepreneurship and industries flourishes and so overall wealth, health and security of the nation.
I hope reading this book "Chanakya Niti on Corruption", will open up a window to explore further on how an Indian political guru administered this nation 3rd century BCE.
Attorney and journalist Amy Bach spent eight years investigating the widespread courtroom failures that each day upend lives across America. What she found was an assembly-line approach to justice: a system that rewards mediocre advocacy, bypasses due process, and shortchanges both defendants and victims to keep the court calendar moving.
Here is the public defender who pleads most of his clients guilty with scant knowledge about their circumstances; the judge who sets outrageous bail for negligible crimes; the prosecutor who habitually declines to pursue significant cases; the court that works together to achieve a wrongful conviction. Going beyond the usual explanations of bad apples and meager funding, Ordinary Injustice reveals a clubby legal culture of compromise, and shows the tragic consequences that result when communities mistake the rules that lawyers play by for the rule of law. It is time, Bach argues, to institute a new method of checks and balances that will make injustice visible—the first and necessary step to reform.
The book begins by defining the roles played by each of the key team members working with the life care planner. It provides planners with insights critical to successful interactions with medical and health-related professionals as well as the team members they are most likely to encounter as they work to build a successful and accurate life care plan. Next, the book offers up-to-date information on the disabilities most frequently encountered by the life care planner. The contributors also address issues typically left out of similar texts which have been made critical by Daubert v. Merrell Dow in the forensic setting — issues related to ethics, standards, research and credentials.Build a Client-Centered Life Care Plan
Includes the Updated Standards of Practice from the International Academy of Life Care Planners (IALCP)
Supplies Valuable Step-by-Step Charts and Checklists
Completely Revised and Expanded with Five New Chapters
When you’ve been hurt in an accident, dealing with insurance companies and lawyers can feel exhausting. But armed with the right information, you can handle a claim yourself—and save many thousands of dollars in the process.
How to Win Your Personal Injury Claim shows you how to handle almost any accident situation and guides you through the insurance claim process, step by step. Learn how to:
protect your rights after an accident
determine what your claim is worth
deal with uncooperative doctors and insurance companies
counter the special tactics insurance companies use
prepare a claim for compensation
negotiate a full and fair settlement
stay on top of your case if you hire a lawyer
This completely updated edition of How to Win Your Personal Injury Claim provides your state’s most recent laws, including small claims court limits and lawsuit filing deadlines.
In the first book to explore the new landscape of cannabis in the United States, investigative journalists Alyson Martin and Nushin Rashidian present a deeply researched, insightful story of how recent developments tie into cannabis’s complex history and thorny politics. Reporting from nearly every state with a medical cannabis law, Martin and Rashidian enliven their book with in-depth interviews with patients, growers, doctors, entrepreneurs, politicians, activists, and regulators. They whisk readers from the federal cannabis farm at the University of Mississippi to the headquarters of the ACLU to Oregon’s "World Famous Cannabis Café." They present an expert analysis of how recent milestones toward legalization will affect the war on drugs both domestically and internationally. The result is an unprecedented and lucid account of how legalization is manifesting itself in the lives of millions.
A New Leaf offers an essential guide for anyone who wants to understand the far-ranging implications of this rapidly changing drug landscape.
Dealing with insurance companies and lawyers when filing a personal injury claim can feel like another accident is in the offing. But you can handle a claim yourself -- and save hundreds or thousands of dollars in the process.
How to Win Your Personal Injury Claim shows you how to handle almost every accident situation, and guides you through the insurance claim process, step by step. Learn how to:
protect your rights after an accident
determine what your claim is worth
handle a property-damage claim
deal with uncooperative doctors, lawyers, and insurance companies
counter the tactics insurance companies use
prepare a claim for compensation
negotiate a full and fair settlement
stay on top of your case if you hire a lawyer
This edition of How to Win Your Personal Injury Claim provides your state's most recent laws, small-claims court limits and Department of Insurance contact information. Plus, you'll find a new chart explaining your state's in-car text and cell phone laws.
The first book to present empirical research on ethical decision making in a variety of practice contexts, including corporate litigation, securities, immigration, and divorce law, Lawyers in Practice fills a substantial gap in the existing literature. Following an introduction emphasizing the increasing importance of understanding context in the legal profession, contributions focus on ethical dilemmas ranging from relatively narrow ethical issues to broader problems of professionalism, including the prosecutor’s obligation to disclose evidence, the management of conflicts of interest, and loyalty to clients and the court. Each chapter details the resolution of a dilemma from the practitioner’s point of view that is, in turn, set within a particular community of practice. Timely and practical, this book should be required reading for law students as well as students and scholars of law and society.
Employees filed more than 95,000 discrimination, harassment and retaliation claims against their employers in 2008, with the biggest jump occurring in age discrimination and retaliation claims. In these tough economic times, it's evident that more employees are considering taking their grievances to court.
Enter The Essential Guide to Workplace Harassment & Discrimination, the essential reference for human resources professionals, managers and supervisors who are responsible for addressing and preventing harassment and discrimination problems in the workplace. Taking into consideration the practical realities of applying the law in everyday situations, this guide answers common questions that you're likely to encounter regularly.
Though you'll read thorough explanations, in plain English, of the important legal principles that professionals must understand in order to deal with discrimination in the workplace, you'll also get samples, quizzes and scenarios that will help you to apply these principles in real-world situations. Find guidance on:
. what harassment is and how to stop it
. when and how discrimination occurs
. how to draft and communicate effective policies
. how to conduct training
. how to handle employee complaints and investigate claims thoroughly
. how to protect the company with proper documentation
. what to expect if an employee files a charge or lawsuit
The Essential Guide to Workplace Harassment & Discrimination is packed with legal strategies and information for busy managers, giving you the tools to protect your employees -- and the company -- from workplace harassment and discrimination.
- Download forms for book on nolo.com
Dennis Smith, author of Report from Engine Co. 82, traveled across the country talking to dozens of America’s firefighters to put together this powerful collection of their own descriptions of their most dramatic and intense experiences on the job. Their stories, compiled here, are timeless testimonies to the human capacity for heroism and nobility.
Focusing on the most courageous firefighters, from those who have been decorated for heroism to those who have been seriously injured, Firefighters presents the extraordinarily rich and rugged voices of men and women who fight urban building fires, who battle sweeping forest fires, who perform emergency rescues, and who face extreme danger and risk as part of their everyday lives. Sometimes brave, sometimes funny, sometimes bittersweet or filled with anger, these voices combine to make Firefighters both a riveting adventure drama and a moving chronicle of American heroism at its finest.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Early chapters urge the evaluation of legal, medical, and ethical standards, especially the Standard of Care. Part II focuses on assessing and proving compensatory and punitive damages, Part III sets out guidelines for intelligence gathering, medical research, choosing expert witnesses, and preparing for trial.
Students of law, medicine, and public health, as well as lawyers and health care professionals, will find in Medical Malpractice a valuable text or reference book. "Problems" in twelve of the thirteen chapters illustrate the range of issues that can arise in malpractice suits. An appendix lists leading cases that have shaped medical malpractice law.
This third edition has been comprehensively revised, expanding the information in the previous edition on the long-standing challenge of implementing effective, responsible, and acceptable practices in ethical police work. The author’s unique perspective provides insights not found elsewhere and presents them in an informative, fact-filled, and encouraging way. The text is based on the premise that ethical crisis has always existed in law enforcement and stresses that policing is and always has been a “morally dangerous occupation.” The moral dangers of policing are discussed in detail and emphasize how crucial ethical standards are for police officers. Four critical and primary questions addressed in the text are: Is law enforcement a profession? Can law enforcement officers be professional? What forms of behavior are the major law enforcement ethical violations? Can police ethical violations be controlled? Several chapters also thoroughly review the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics and include very up-to-date examples of notable violations by individual officers and police departments. Additional topics include major police corruption issues, including corrupt practices and corruption control; abuse of authority; and getting effective control of unethical behavior. The goal of this timely new edition is to provide officers, law enforcement managers, and city administrators with only the most current information, tools, and skills in identifying and dealing with unethical police behavior. It is valuable to both new and seasoned officers in a significant effort to make policing a true profession that is real and not rhetoric.
The rules for claiming Social Security have changed. Find out if you still qualify to “file and suspend” benefits or to choose between your own benefits and spousal benefits before these strategies disappear. Learn this and more with Social Security, Medicare & Government Pensions—completely updated for 2017.
Social Security benefits. Figure out how to get retirement, disability, dependents and survivors benefits, or Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Decide whether it’s best to claim benefits early, at full retirement age, or not until you turn 70—and how to time your claims so you and your spouse get the best benefits.
Medicare & Medicaid. Learn how to qualify for and enroll in both programs, including Medicare Part D drug coverage.
Medigap insurance & Medicare Advantage plans. Understand what new Medigap policies are available (and old ones that aren’t), compare Medigap and Medicare Advantage plans, and choose what’s best for you.
Government pensions & veterans benefits. Discover when and how to claim the benefits you have earned. Whether you’re looking for yourself or helping a parent, you’ll find valuable information here, including how to file many essential forms online.
Supplying the advice of a recognized expert in global healthcare, the book provides a detailed and empathic understanding of patient needs and expectations. It covers the full range of best and worst case scenarios that can occur when clients travel to obtain health services. Using a conversational tone, it includes coverage of international travel logistics, where to find answers to immigration concerns, confidentiality/privacy issues, and unanticipated care in transit in the event of complications or missed connections.
The book delivers a fast-moving presentation of useful information and teaches readers how to decode the language, what to look for in terms of safety and quality, how to decode hospital facilitator agent agreements, and how to anticipate clients’ needs and expectations. It also includes access to a regularly updated website with helpful worksheets and reference material so you will be prepared to handle any scenario that might present itself when your clients travel.
This is a pragmatic, hands-on, up-to-date guide to determining right and wrong in the business world. Joseph Weiss integrates a stakeholder perspective with an issues-oriented approach so students look at how a business’s actions affect not just share price and profit but the well-being of employees, customers, suppliers, the local community, the larger society, other nations, and the environment.
Weiss uses a wealth of contemporary examples, including twenty-three customized cases that immerse students directly in recent business ethics dilemmas and ask them to consider how they would resolve them. The recent economic collapse raised ethical issues that have yet to be resolved—there could not be a better time for a fully updated edition of Weiss’s classic, accessible blend of theory and practice.
New to the Sixth Edition!
New Cases! Fourteen of the twenty-three cases in this book are brand new to this edition. They touch on issues such as cyberbullying, fracking, neuromarketing, and for-profit education and involve institutions like Goldman Sachs, Google, Kaiser Permanente, Walmart, Ford, and Facebook.
Updated Throughout! The text has been updated with the latest research, including new national ethics survey data, perspectives on generational differences, and global and international issues. Each chapter includes recent business press stories touching on ethical issues.
New Feature! Several chapters now feature a unique Point/Counterpoint exercise that challenges students to argue both sides of a contemporary issue, such as too-big-to-fail institutions, the Boston bomber Rolling Stone cover, student loan debt, online file sharing, and questions raised by social media.
Moving seamlessly across genres and disciplines, Dayan considers legal practices and spiritual beliefs from medieval England, the North American colonies, and the Caribbean that have survived in our legal discourse, and she explores the civil deaths of felons and slaves through lawful repression. Tracing the legacy of slavery in the United States in the structures of the contemporary American prison system and in the administrative detention of ghostly supermax facilities, she also demonstrates how contemporary jurisprudence regarding cruel and unusual punishment prepared the way for abuses in Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo.
Using conventional historical and legal sources to answer unconventional questions, The Law Is a White Dog illuminates stark truths about civil society's ability to marginalize, exclude, and dehumanize.
Through an objective examination of marijuana and alcohol, and the laws and social practices that steer people toward the latter, the authors pose a simple yet rarely considered question: Why do we punish adults who make the rational, safer choice to use marijuana instead of alcohol? For those unfamiliar with marijuana, Marijuana Is Safer provides an introduction to the cannabis plant and its effects on the user, and debunks some of the government's most frequently cited marijuana myths.
More importantly, for the millions of Americans who want to advance the cause of marijuana policy reform--or simply want to defend their own personal, safer choice--this book provides the talking points and detailed information needed to make persuasive arguments to friends, family, coworkers, elected officials and, of course, future voters.
In January 1982, an elderly white widow was found brutally murdered in the small town of Greenwood, South Carolina. Police immediately arrested Edward Lee Elmore, a semiliterate, mentally retarded black man with no previous felony record. His only connection to the victim was having cleaned her gutters and windows, but barely ninety days after the victim’s body was found, he was tried, convicted, and sentenced to death.
Elmore had been on death row for eleven years when a young attorney named Diana Holt first learned of his case. After attending the University of Texas School of Law, Holt was eager to help the disenfranchised and voiceless; she herself had been a childhood victim of abuse. It required little scrutiny for Holt to discern that Elmore’s case—plagued by incompetent court-appointed defense attorneys, a virulent prosecution, and both misplaced and contaminated evidence—reeked of injustice. It was the cause of a lifetime for the spirited, hardworking lawyer. Holt would spend more than a decade fighting on Elmore’s behalf.
With the exemplary moral commitment and tenacious investigation that have distinguished his reporting career, Bonner follows Holt’s battle to save Elmore’s life and shows us how his case is a textbook example of what can go wrong in the American justice system. He reviews police work, evidence gathering, jury selection, work of court-appointed lawyers, latitude of judges, iniquities in the law, prison informants, and the appeals process. Throughout, the actions and motivations of both unlikely heroes and shameful villains in our justice system are vividly revealed.
Moving, suspenseful, and enlightening, Anatomy of Injustice is a vital contribution to our nation’s ongoing, increasingly important debate about inequality and the death penalty.
From the Hardcover edition.
Healthcare Information Systems, Second Edition approaches these challenges and opportunitites as pieces of a complex puzzle. It not only brings you up-to-date on the technology involved, but also explains how that technology interrelates and affects healthcare organizations. The book gives you complete coverage of all aspects of information technology as it relates to the healthcare industry.
In Healthcare Information Systems you will find:
An overview of healthcare systems
Tips on disaster planning and system security
Improving quality, reducing risks, and understanding costs
An in-depth look into the HIPAA regulations
EMR and the data warehouse
Information on managing the healthcare community
A look at the changing organization
Views on telemedicine, the Internet, and emerging technologies
Ideas on using IT to deal with increasing government regulation
In addition, the new edition has expanded coverage of HIPAA, wireless networks and communications, telemedicine, and the increasing role of the Internet in all facets of healthcare. Healthcare Information Systems presents workable solutions to the real problems you will face both today and tomorrow.
Maintaining the high standards of the previous edition of this bestseller, the current editors have fully revamped this reference to match the education and reference needs of today’s LNC. Adding a wealth of new information, the book has been split into two volumes: Legal Nurse Consulting Principles, designed for students, and Legal Nurse Consulting Practices, a solid professional reference that practicing LNCs will consult again and again.
Legal Nurse Consulting Practices provides the professional LNC with a wealth of new content covering processes and legal considerations in a number of areas. It explores forensics work and administrative healthcare law including insurance regulations and fraud. It discusses keys aspects of Medicare, approaches to creating a life care plan, the legal aspects of advanced practice nursing, and key concepts related to pediatrics and neonatal care. The book also describes the competencies and necessary background needed for certification and provides advice on how to advance within the profession.
An authoritative reference for practitioners:
Includes samples of effective and ineffective cross-examinations
Explores evidentiary issues
Provides guidelines for setting up an LNC practice
Examines the role of LNCs in various fields
Reviews the healthcare claims process
Discusses case evaluation for a variety of special needs patients
Contains review questions at the end of each chapter to refresh practicing LNCs
Those wishing guidance on the basics of LNC should check out the companion volume, Legal Nurse Consulting Principles. These volumes are also available as a set.
Martha Nussbaum argues that we should be wary of these emotions because they are associated in troubling ways with a desire to hide from our humanity, embodying an unrealistic and sometimes pathological wish to be invulnerable. Nussbaum argues that the thought-content of disgust embodies "magical ideas of contamination, and impossible aspirations to purity that are just not in line with human life as we know it." She argues that disgust should never be the basis for criminalizing an act, or play either the aggravating or the mitigating role in criminal law it currently does. She writes that we should be similarly suspicious of what she calls "primitive shame," a shame "at the very fact of human imperfection," and she is harshly critical of the role that such shame plays in certain punishments.
Drawing on an extraordinarily rich variety of philosophical, psychological, and historical references--from Aristotle and Freud to Nazi ideas about purity--and on legal examples as diverse as the trials of Oscar Wilde and the Martha Stewart insider trading case, this is a major work of legal and moral philosophy.
Drawing on numerous commonsense examples, in addition to his extensive knowledge of Chicago-school economics, David D. Friedman offers a spirited defense of the economic view of law. He clarifies the relationship between law and economics in clear prose that is friendly to students, lawyers, and lay readers without sacrificing the intellectual heft of the ideas presented. Friedman is the ideal spokesman for an approach to law that is controversial not because it overturns the conclusions of traditional legal scholars--it can be used to advocate a surprising variety of political positions, including both sides of such contentious issues as capital punishment--but rather because it alters the very nature of their arguments. For example, rather than viewing landlord-tenant law as a matter of favoring landlords over tenants or tenants over landlords, an economic analysis makes clear that a bad law injures both groups in the long run. And unlike traditional legal doctrines, economics offers a unified approach, one that applies the same fundamental ideas to understand and evaluate legal rules in contract, property, crime, tort, and every other category of law, whether in modern day America or other times and places--and systems of non-legal rules, such as social norms, as well.
This book will undoubtedly raise the discourse on the increasingly important topic of the economics of law, giving both supporters and critics of the economic perspective a place to organize their ideas.
Investigating Infant Deaths draws on the expertise of a forensic nurse and member of the CDC core team for the Sudden Unexpected Infant Death Investigation Reporting Form to provide medicolegal death investigators and law enforcement personnel with investigative techniques applicable to sudden unexpected infant deaths. Beginning with a general state-of-the-field, the author defines the role of the investigator and explains the benefits of “double-teaming” an investigation. The book emphasizes the importance of timing and gives crucial tips for examining the incident scene and performing an initial post-mortem external exam. Specific instruction regarding the “art” of interviewing the grieving parents and how to follow up with families gives investigators an important edge when autopsy findings are slim. Additional chapters cover how to use a doll re-enactment and how to review medical records, social service records, and criminal histories. It also illustrates how to set up task forces including State Child Fatality Teams and an Investigative Child Death Review at the local level. Case studies are used throughout the book to give investigators real-life examples of the techniques at work.
Presenting a workable approach that may facilitate a re-evaluation of current protocols, Investigating Infant Deaths provides the tools for continued improvement that will ensure all infant deaths are investigated thoroughly and thereby help prevent future premature infant deaths from occurring.
“We need a new idea of how to govern. The current system is broken. Law is supposed to be a framework for humans to make choices, not the replacement for free choice.” So notes Philip K. Howard in the new Afterword to his explosive manifesto The Death of Common Sense. Here Howard offers nothing less than a fresh, lucid, practical operating system for modern democracy. America is drowning—in law, lawsuits, and nearly endless red tape. Before acting or making a decision, we often abandon our best instincts. We pause, we worry, we equivocate, and then we divert our energy into trying to protect ourselves. Filled with one too many examples of bureaucratic overreach, The Death of Common Sense demonstrates how we—and our country—can at last get back on track.
But by chance America’s Bitter Pill ends up being much more—because as Brill was completing this book, he had to undergo urgent open-heart surgery. Thus, this also becomes the story of how one patient who thinks he knows everything about healthcare “policy” rethinks it from a hospital gurney—and combines that insight with his brilliant reporting. The result: a surprising new vision of how we can fix American healthcare so that it stops draining the bank accounts of our families and our businesses, and the federal treasury.
Praise for America’s Bitter Pill
“A tour de force . . . a comprehensive and suitably furious guide to the political landscape of American healthcare . . . persuasive, shocking.”—The New York Times
“An energetic, picaresque, narrative explanation of much of what has happened in the last seven years of health policy . . . [Brill] has pulled off something extraordinary.”—The New York Times Book Review
“A thunderous indictment of what Brill refers to as the ‘toxicity of our profiteer-dominated healthcare system.’ ”—Los Angeles Times
“A sweeping and spirited new book [that] chronicles the surprisingly juicy tale of reform.”—The Daily Beast
“One of the most important books of our time.”—Walter Isaacson
“Superb . . . Brill has achieved the seemingly impossible—written an exciting book about the American health system.”—The New York Review of Books
From the Hardcover edition.
HIPAA is the federal statute that requires healthcare providers to safeguard patient identities, medical records and protected health information (“PHI”). It further requires organizations that handle PHI to regularly review the administrative, physical and technical safeguards they have in place.
Basically, HIPAA took established confidentiality healthcare practices of physicians and healthcare providers to protect patients’ information and made it law.
Risk assessments are a key requirement of complying with HIPAA. Covered entities must complete a HIPAA risk assessment to determine their risks, and protect their PHI from breaches and unauthorized access to protected information. There are many components of risk assessments, which can often seem burdensome on healthcare providers.
Let Lori-Ann Rickard and Lauren Sullivan guide you and your company as you tackle the risk assessments required by HIPAA.
Breaking the Cycles of Hatred represents a unique blend of political and legal theory, one that focuses on the double-edged role of memory in fueling cycles of hatred and maintaining justice and personal integrity. Its centerpiece comprises three penetrating essays by Minow. She argues that innovative legal institutions and practices, such as truth commissions and civil damage actions against groups that sponsor hate, often work better than more conventional criminal proceedings and sanctions. Minow also calls for more sustained attention to the underlying dynamics of violence, the connections between intergroup and intrafamily violence, and the wide range of possible responses to violence beyond criminalization.
A vibrant set of freestanding responses from experts in political theory, psychology, history, and law examines past and potential avenues for breaking cycles of violence and for deepening our capacity to avoid becoming what we hate. The topics include hate crimes and hate-crimes legislation, child sexual abuse and the statute of limitations, and the American kidnapping and internment of Japanese Latin Americans during World War II. Commissioned by Nancy Rosenblum, the essays are by Ross E. Cheit, Marc Galanter, Fredrick C. Harris, Judith Lewis Herman, Carey Jaros, Frederick M. Lawrence, Austin Sarat, Ayelet Shachar, Eric K. Yamamoto, and Iris Marion Young.
In this second of two major volumes on the intersection of constitutional and religious issues in the United States, Kent Greenawalt focuses on the Constitution's Establishment Clause, which forbids government from favoring one religion over another, or religion over secularism. The author begins with a history of the clause, its underlying principles, and the Supreme Court's main decisions on establishment, and proceeds to consider specific controversies. Taking a contextual approach, Greenawalt argues that the state's treatment of religion cannot be reduced to a single formula.
Calling throughout for acknowledgment of the way religion gives meaning to people's lives, Religion and the Constitution aims to accommodate the maximum expression of religious conviction that is consistent with a commitment to fairness and the public welfare.
Although the book ranges over a variety of traditional topics in federal jurisdiction, the focus is steady on federal judicial administration conceived of as an interdisciplinary approach emphasizing system rather than doctrine, statistics rather than impressions, and caseload rather than cases. Like the earlier edition, this book promises to be a landmark in the empirical study of judicial administration.
Contrary to the frequency claims of excessive leniency on the part of judges that are often asserted by journalists and shapers of opinions, Rossi and Berk find strong correspondence between the median sentences deemed appropriate by the public and the sentences prescribed by the guidelines. Although the authors conclude that the Commission was able to match prescribed punishments closely to the American consensus for most crimes, in one category -- drug trafficking offenses -- the guidelines were much harsher in dealing with offenders.
The national survey used a factorial survey as its design strategy, allowing for analysis of a large variety of federal crimes and variations in the social characteristics of convicted felons. A wealth of detail, along with ample graphic and tabular illustrations, extends the book's application to issues of consensus and variations in punitiveness by region and socioeconomic characteristics of respondents.