The selection first elaborates on the biosynthesis of thiamine and riboflavin and metabolism of vitamin B6. Topics include absorption and transport of vitamin B6, catabolism of vitamin B6, mechanism of riboflavin synthetase from yeast, enzymatic synthesis of thiamine, biogenesis of thiazole, and interconversion of various forms of vitamin B6. The book also ponders on the biosynthesis of pantothenic acid and coenzyme A and metabolism of biotin, analogues, folic acid, pteridine derivatives, and cobalamins. Discussions focus on the uses of radioactive cobalamins in metabolic studies, absorption of cobalamins, pteroylpolyglutamates, and biosynthesis of folate compounds, interconversions, and degradations. The manuscript examines the metabolism and metabolic function of trace elements, including iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, fluorine, and iodine.
The selection is a vital source of data for researchers interested in the metabolism of vitamins and trace elements.
After briefly dealing with general characteristics, evolution and classification of Arthropoda, the book discusses arthropod nutrition and the nutrients needed for their growth and development. It describes the unique features of the digestive system, as well as secretion, resorption, and production of digestive juices of arthropods and crustaceans. Other chapters deal with the aspects and dynamics of arthropods' carbohydrate, lipid, and nitrogen metabolism. The book also describes the mechanism of osmotic regulation in aquatic arthropods and the role of amino acids in this function in insect hemolyph. The concluding chapters discuss some of the metabolic changes as related to tissue growth and an increase in body size in arthropods.
This book is an invaluable resource for zoologists and biochemists.
The book opens with discussions on the biochemistry of morphogenesis. Bacterial germination and sporulation; seed germination; egg development of sea urchins; sporulation of cellular slime mold; and amphibian differentiation are described.
The volume looks at the comparative aspects of metabolic control, biochemical basis of chemical needs, biochemistry of insect metamorphosis, and hormones in invertebrates. The text also highlights the presence of protein hormones in vertebrates. The differences between neurohypophyseal and melanocorticotropic hormones are identified. The book ends with discussions on the comparative biochemistry of digestive mechanisms and detoxication. Digestion in special physiological and systematic groups of vertebrates, carnivorous plants, and invertebrates; detoxication and adoption of terrestrial habitat; and the developmental aspects of detoxication are discussed.
The book is a good source of data for readers wanting to explore the complex composition of organisms and cells.
The selection first ponders on pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and citric acid cycle. Numerical analyses of the various reaction sequences are presented. The text also takes a look at fatty acid metabolism. Discussions focus on fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis, elongation and desaturation of fatty acids, and control of fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
The book is a valuable reference for researchers interested in pyruvate and fatty acid metabolism.
The first section examines the general characteristics, ionic patterns, feeding, nutrition, digestion, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, fertilization and development, and pharmacology of Echinodermata. The echinoderms make up one of the principal branches of the animal kingdom and one of the most distinctive. The second part focuses on various aspects of nematodes and Acanthocephala, including their classification, skeletal structure, nutrition, and culture methods. The carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, lipid and nitrogenous composition, osmotic and ionic regulation, growth and development, pigments, and pharmacological activity of nematodes and Acanthocephala are also discussed in this volume.
This book is an invaluable resource for zoologists and biochemists.
The selection first offers information on expressions of the pentose phosphate cycle, including description, criteria for the presence of the pentose phosphate cycle, chordates, segmented worms, mollusks, echinoderms, roundworms, flatworms, algae, and higher plants. The text then ponders on chitin and mucosubstances, as well as the distribution and biochemistry of chitin, molecular structure and function of chitin, and chitin in relation to mucosubstances.
The publication reviews the cellular aspects of active transport and hormones and behavior. Topics include relations between inorganic ions, sugar, amino acids, fatty acids, and bioelectric potentials; aspects of the regulation of the intracellular pool of free amino acids; hormones and permeability characteristics of living cellular membranes; and chemical nature of the structure responsible for the permeability characteristics of living membranes. The recording and measurement of behavior, role of hormones in the patterning of behavior, and hormones influencing behavior and the behavior most subject to hormonal influence and control are also discussed.
The selection is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the processes, methodologies, approaches involved in biochemistry.
This volume contains 11 chapters that discuss the integument, hemolymph, blood respiratory pigments, hemolymph coagulation excretion, pigments, chemistry, toxicology, and pharmacology of Arthropoda. The respiration, energy metabolism, and chemical ecology of Crustacea as well as the oxidative metabolism of Insecta are also covered.
The selection first elaborates on functional organization contributing to carbohydrate economy and control of synthesis and breakdown of glycogen, starch, and cellulose. Discussions focus on breakdown of glycogen in mammalian systems, role of glycogen in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, glycogen and starch metabolism in bacteria and plants, carbohydrate digestion, and integration of digestion and absorption. The book also ponders on regulation and mechanisms of enzymes and hexose-monophosphate oxidation, including functions and regulation of pentose-phosphate cycle glucose transport and role of subsequent steps in regulating the rate of glycolysis.
The book takes a look at the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans, aldonic and uronic acids, and carbohydrate and oxidative metabolism in neural systems. Concerns include control of carbohydrate metabolism, adaptive changes in relation to carbohydrate metabolism, uronic and aldonic acid metabolism in plants and microorganisms, and mechanism of alternation of monosaccharide units.
The selection is a vital source of data for researchers interested in carbohydrate metabolism.
This volume contains 14 chapters and begins with a discussion of the molluscan framework. This is followed by separate chapters on shell structure and formation, respiratory proteins, and nitrogen metabolism in molluscs. Subsequent chapters deal with molluscan byssus fibers, chemical embryology, pigments, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and distribution, endocrinology, anisosmotic and isosmotic cellular regulation, pharmacology, and biochemical ecology.
This book discusses the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of enzyme catalysis, hydrolytic enzymes displaying “active center characteristics, chelation and stereochemical considerations in enzyme catalysis, and biological oxidation mechanisms. The recommendations of the Enzyme Commission of the International Union of Biochemistry and classified list of enzymes are also covered. This publication likewise elaborates the spectral characteristics of the cobamide coenzymes and mode of binding of biotin. Other topics include the classification of carboxyl esterases, structure and reactivity of phosphorylated metabolites, and mechanism of action of chymotrypsin.
This volume is a good reference for biochemists and specialists concerned with enzymes.
Composed of contributions of various authors, the book first discusses free energy and the biosynthesis of phosphates. The thermodynamics of phosphoryl and phosphate transfer reactions; enzymatic synthesis of phosphates; and phosphoryl transfer sequences in metabolism are considered. The selection also looks at the utilization of free energy in the biosynthesis of saccharides, proteins, and peptides; ammonia metabolism; and biosynthesis of urea. The book also describes muscular contraction. The structure of myofibril; protein components of myofibril; localization of myofibrillar components; contraction of adenosine triphosphate; and adenosine triphosphatases of muscles are discussed. Other mechanisms that produce movements are also noted. The text ends with discussions on experiments on active transport, balance of electrocytes and water, mechanisms of osmoregulation, bioluminescence, and nerve conduction and electrical discharge.
The book is a good source of data for readers interested in studying free energy.
The selection first offers information on the introduction to comparative biochemistry and thermodynamics of living systems. Discussions focus on comparative point of views in biology and biochemistry, classical thermodynamics, reaction rates in chemical and biological systems, and thermodynamics of open systems. The text then ponders on comparative mechanisms for fatty acid oxidation; phosphoric acid anhydrides and other energy-rich compounds; and onium compounds and their biological significance.
The publication examines phototropism and phototaxis and distribution and evolution of visual systems. Topics include phototropism in plants, analysis of phototropic reaction, nature of photoreceptors, role of auxin in phototropism of plants, visual systems of vertebrates, and habitat relations. The book also tackles aerobic and anaerobic reactions of inorganic substances and comparative biochemistry of glycolysis.
The selection is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the sources of free energy.
This book is devoted to certain aspects of organic and physical chemistry, aspects considered pertinent to the interpretation of biochemical techniques, and chemistry of biological compounds and mechanisms. The topics discussed include the methods and scope of quantum biochemistry, long range dipole-dipole transfer, and characteristics of the charge-transfer absorption band. The dye-sensitized photoconductivity, facilitation of solute diffusion by catalytic carriers, and coupling of primary and secondary translocation are also covered in this publication.
This volume is valuable to biochemists and researchers concerned with biogenetics.
This book provides a sound treatment of the important biological high polymers, emphasizing their shape and physical properties. A number of substances peculiar to plants, certain isoprenoids, flavonoids, tannins, lignins, and plant hormones are also covered. This publication likewise discusses the fate of thiamine in living organisms, biologically active isoalloxazines, and auxins with a heterocyclic ring system. Other topics include the yolk-formation hormone of the corpora allata, biochemical aspect of the antibiotics, and miscellaneous antibiotics derivable from amino acids.
This volume is a good source for biochemists and specialists conducting work on water-soluble vitamins, hormones, and antibiotics.
This book discusses the correlations between structure and visible spectrum, theoretical interpretation of the visible absorption spectra, and spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll. The quantitative aspects of hemoglobin breakdown, monocyclic and bicyclic carbon systems, and substances related to retinol are also elaborated. This publication likewise covers the naturally occurring quinones, phenolic compounds derived by linear condensation of two-carbon units, and single-carbon incorporation into ring systems.
This volume is useful to biochemists and specialists researching on pyrrole pigments, isoprenoid compounds, and phenolic plant constituents.
The selection first offers information on the structure and distribution of amino acids and the distribution and metabolism of inorganic nitrogen compounds. Discussions focus on proteinogenous amino acids, nonproteinogenous amino acids, general aspects of inorganic nitrogen metabolism, and distribution and metabolism of nitrate, nitrite, and molecular nitrogen, ammonia, and hydrazine. The text then tackles citric acid cycle and other cycles and comparative biochemistry of collagen.
The publication examines photosynthesis and halides. Topics include transfer of energy along the photosynthetic chain, carbon dioxide reduction, photosynthesis and phosphorylation, quantum yields and the efficiency of light energy conversion, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
The selection is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the constituents of life.
This book discusses the types of phototropic response, action spectra in the further ultraviolet, and structure and light-absorbing properties of the photoreceptor cells. The preliminary remarks on visual pigment structure, synopsis of extracted systems, oxidation of proteins, and effects of ultraviolet radiation and photoreactivation are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the chemical nature of photoreactivable damage, reversibility of potentiated flowering response, and primary reactions in algae and higher plants.
This volume is beneficial to biochemists and specialists researching on ionizing radiations.
Composed of contributions of authors, the book first gives emphasis to the comparative features of fatty acid occurrence and distribution. The formation of fatty acids and lipids in living organisms; naturally occurring fatty acids and lipids; relationship between types and distribution of fatty acids and their biological origin are considered.
The text also looks at the structure and distribution of sterols, steroid metabolism of lipids, and the distribution and metabolism of phospholipids. The book focuses as well on the structure and occurrence of natural monosaccharides and oligosaccharides. The occurrence of commoner monosaccharides and oligosaccharides; the compositions, reactions, and characteristics of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids; and chromatographic examinations of biological materials for free sugars are considered. The text also looks at the structure, metabolism, and distribution of terpenoids and quinones.
The book is a vital source of information for readers wanting to study the processes, methodologies, and mechanisms involved in the biological transformation of matter.
The first section examines three large classes of Porifera, namely, Calcarea, Demospongiae, and Hexactinellida. It describes the skeletal structure, pigments, nutrition, digestion, composition, intermediary metabolism, and hibernation of Porifera. The second section covers the classification, pigments, feeding response, digestion, nutrition, ecology, pharmacology, and intermediary metabolism of Coelenterata. The last section is devoted to the classification, nutrition, digestion, respiratory and intermediary metabolism, growth, development, and culture methods, as well as the chemical aspects of ecology of Platyhelminthes.
This book is an invaluable resource for zoologists and biochemists.
The opening chapter describes the comparative anatomy, phylogeny, and classification of Annelida, Echiura, and Sipuncula. The book goes on discussing the biological aspects of these phyla, including nutrition and digestion; respiration and energy metabolism; oxygen transport; and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. This volume also covers these organisms' composition of guanidine compounds and phosphagens, lipids, inorganic components, and pigments. Other chapters deal with the growth and development, luminescence, endocrines, and pharmacologic properties of Annelida, Echiura, and Sipuncula.
This book is an invaluable resource for zoologists and biochemists.
Composed of various literature, the book first looks at the optical asymmetry of metabolites. The natural occurrence of D-amino acids and L-sugars; significance of purity; optical asymmetry and protein structure; and the relationship of optical asymmetry and cancer are discussed. The text also discusses structural studies on cellulose, starch, and glycogen; biochemistry of lignin formation; structure and localization of nucleic acids; and intraspecific and interspecific variations of protein molecules. The book considers the metabolism of aromatic amino acids, structural and chemical properties of keratin-forming tissues, sclerotization, and blood coagulation. The text further discusses metamorphosis and biochemical adaptation in amphibians. The importance of intrinsic tissue sensitivity in tadpoles; comparative morphological alterations; and the increase in serum albumin and serum protein are considered. The book focuses as well on the structure, distribution, and metabolism of porphyrins, pteridines, and carotenoids.
The selection is a good source of data for researchers wanting to study the distribution, biogenesis, and metabolism of cells and organisms.
This book discusses the general structure of monosaccharides, detection and estimation of aldonic acids, intramolecular rearrangement of N-glycosides, and preparation of sugar phosphates. The deacetylation of glycoside acetates, naturally occurring oligosaccharides of human milk, and molecular weight of polysaccharides are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the biogenesis and fate of pectic substances in plant tissues, complex polysaccharides of gram-positive bacteria, galactosaminoglycan of Aspergillus parasiticus, and chemical structure of heparin sulfate.
This volume is a good source for biochemists and researchers conducting work on carbohydrates.
The book is arranged according to phyla in order to present chemical information of zoological significance; also, for chemists to see immediately the aspects of biochemical diversity that have greatest potential interest. The chapters are divided into two major sections, Section I (Primitive Deuterostomians) and Section II (Vertebrates). The sections are introduced by a discussion of the biology and systematic of the major phylum. The chapters under these sections tackle the different aspects of the biochemistry of the phylum.
This volume is primarily addressed to both chemists and zoologists.
The book contains nine chapters and begins with a discussion of adaptation and natural selection. This is followed by separate chapters on the basic concepts of comparative biochemistry; the biochemical continuum and ecological integration; and the chemical properties of organisms related to physical and chemical properties of the environment. Subsequent chapters deal with isosmotic intracellular regulation; physiological radiations of biochemical systems; and metabolic relations in the production of the cocoon by the silkworm.
#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER
Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. She was a poor black tobacco farmer whose cells—taken without her knowledge in 1951—became one of the most important tools in medicine, vital for developing the polio vaccine, cloning, gene mapping, and more. Henrietta's cells have been bought and sold by the billions, yet she remains virtually unknown, and her family can't afford health insurance. This phenomenal New York Times bestseller tells a riveting story of the collision between ethics, race, and medicine; of scientific discovery and faith healing; and of a daughter consumed with questions about the mother she never knew.
In the current debate about creationism and intelligent design, there is an element of the controversy that is rarely mentioned-the evidence. Yet the proof of evolution by natural selection is vast, varied, and magnificent. In this succinct and accessible summary of the facts supporting the theory of natural selection, Jerry A. Coyne dispels common misunderstandings and fears about evolution and clearly confirms the scientific truth that supports this amazing process of change. Weaving together the many threads of modern work in genetics, paleontology, geology, molecular biology, and anatomy that demonstrate the "indelible stamp" of the processes first proposed by Darwin, Why Evolution Is True does not aim to prove creationism wrong. Rather, by using irrefutable evidence, it sets out to prove evolution right.
"Intelligent Design" is being taught in our schools; educators are being asked to "teach the controversy" behind evolutionary theory. There is no controversy. Dawkins sifts through rich layers of scientific evidence—from living examples of natural selection to clues in the fossil record; from natural clocks that mark the vast epochs wherein evolution ran its course to the intricacies of developing embryos; from plate tectonics to molecular genetics—to make the airtight case that "we find ourselves perched on one tiny twig in the midst of a blossoming and flourishing tree of life and it is no accident, but the direct consequence of evolution by non-random selection." His unjaded passion for the natural world turns what might have been a negative argument, exposing the absurdities of the creationist position, into a positive offering to the reader: nothing less than a master’s vision of life, in all its splendor.
In The Disappearing Spoon, bestselling author Sam Kean unlocked the mysteries of the periodic table. In THE VIOLINIST'S THUMB, he explores the wonders of the magical building block of life: DNA.
There are genes to explain crazy cat ladies, why other people have no fingerprints, and why some people survive nuclear bombs. Genes illuminate everything from JFK's bronze skin (it wasn't a tan) to Einstein's genius. They prove that Neanderthals and humans bred thousands of years more recently than any of us would feel comfortable thinking. They can even allow some people, because of the exceptional flexibility of their thumbs and fingers, to become truly singular violinists.
Kean's vibrant storytelling once again makes science entertaining, explaining human history and whimsy while showing how DNA will influence our species' future.
It took Charles Darwin more than twenty years to publish this book, in part because he realized that it would ignite a firestorm of controversy. On the Origin of Species first appeared in 1859, and it remains a continuing source of conflict to this day. Even among those who reject its ideas, however, the work's impact is undeniable. In science, philosophy, and theology, this is a book that changed the world.
In addition to its status as the focus of a dramatic turning point in scientific thought, On the Origin of Species stands as a remarkably readable study. Carefully reasoned and well-documented in its arguments, the work offers coherent views of natural selection, adaptation, the struggle for existence, survival of the fittest, and other concepts that form the foundation of modern evolutionary theory. This volume is a reprint of the critically acclaimed first edition.
“Rich in dexterous innuendo, laugh-out-loud humor and illuminating fact. It’s compulsively readable.” —Los Angeles Times Book Review In ?Bonk, ?the best-selling author of Stiff turns her outrageous curiosity and insight on the most alluring scientific subject of all: sex. Can a person think herself to orgasm? Why doesn't Viagra help women-or, for that matter, pandas? Can a dead man get an erection? Is vaginal orgasm a myth? Mary Roach shows us how and why sexual arousal and orgasm-two of the most complex, delightful, and amazing scientific phenomena on earth-can be so hard to achieve and what science is doing to make the bedroom a more satisfying place.
Named one of the top books of 2009 by the Times Literary Supplement (London), this controversial and compelling book from Dr. Stephen C. Meyer presents a convincing new case for intelligent design (ID), based on revolutionary discoveries in science and DNA. Along the way, Meyer argues that Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution as expounded in The Origin of Species did not, in fact, refute ID. If you enjoyed Francis Collins’s The Language of God, you’ll find much to ponder—about evolution, DNA, and intelligent design—in Signature in the Cell.
The Earth teems with life: in its oceans, forests, skies and cities. Yet there’s a black hole at the heart of biology. We do not know why complex life is the way it is, or, for that matter, how life first began. In The Vital Question, award-winning author and biochemist Nick Lane radically reframes evolutionary history, putting forward a solution to conundrums that have puzzled generations of scientists.
For two and a half billion years, from the very origins of life, single-celled organisms such as bacteria evolved without changing their basic form. Then, on just one occasion in four billion years, they made the jump to complexity. All complex life, from mushrooms to man, shares puzzling features, such as sex, which are unknown in bacteria. How and why did this radical transformation happen?
The answer, Lane argues, lies in energy: all life on Earth lives off a voltage with the strength of a lightning bolt. Building on the pillars of evolutionary theory, Lane’s hypothesis draws on cutting-edge research into the link between energy and cell biology, in order to deliver a compelling account of evolution from the very origins of life to the emergence of multicellular organisms, while offering deep insights into our own lives and deaths.
Both rigorous and enchanting, The Vital Question provides a solution to life’s vital question: why are we as we are, and indeed, why are we here at all?
The Tenth Edition of Australian CAMPBELL BIOLOGY helps launch students to success in biology through its clear and engaging narrative, superior pedagogy, and innovative use of art and photos to promote student learning. It continues to engage students with its dynamic coverage of the essential elements of this critical discipline. This Tenth Edition, with an increased focus on evolution, ensures students receive the most up-to-date, accurate and relevant information.
Tracing one scientist's journey toward understanding the crucial importance of the microbiome, this revolutionary book will take readers to the forefront of trail-blazing research while revealing the damage that overuse of antibiotics is doing to our health: contributing to the rise of obesity, asthma, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. In Missing Microbes, Dr. Martin Blaser invites us into the wilds of the human microbiome where for hundreds of thousands of years bacterial and human cells have existed in a peaceful symbiosis that is responsible for the health and equilibrium of our body. Now, this invisible eden is being irrevocably damaged by some of our most revered medical advances—antibiotics—threatening the extinction of our irreplaceable microbes with terrible health consequences. Taking us into both the lab and deep into the fields where these troubling effects can be witnessed firsthand, Blaser not only provides cutting edge evidence for the adverse effects of antibiotics, he tells us what we can do to avoid even more catastrophic health problems in the future.
Dr. Kenneth Kamler has spent years observing exactly what happens. A vice president of the legendary Explorers Club, he has climbed, dived, sledded, floated, and trekked through some of the most treacherous and remote regions in the world. A consultant for NASA, Yale University, and the National Geographic Society, he has explored undersea caves, crossed the frozen Antarctic wastelands, and stitched a boy's hand back together while kneeling in knee-deep Amazonian mud. He was the only doctor on Everest during the tragic expedition documented in Jon Krakauer's Into Thin Air and helped treat its survivors. Kamler has devoted his life to investigating how our bodies respond to "environmental insults"-a nice way of saying the things that can kill us-and watched while some succumbed to them and others, sometimes miraculously, overcome them.
Words like "extreme" and "survival" have lost some of their value from overuse and media hype. By showing us what happens when life itself is at stake, and the body's capacities put to their greatest test, this book reminds us what they truly mean. Divided into six sections-jungle, open sea, desert, underwater, high altitude, and outer space-Surviving the Extremes uses first-hand testimony and documented accounts to illustrate what happens in environments where our instinctive survival strategies must become fully engaged. These stories reveal how infinitely complex are the workings of the human body-and also how heartbreakingly fragile. At the heart of this book is a quest for the source of our will to survive and the haunting question of why some can, and others cannot, summon its awesome and nearly mystical power at their moment of greatest need.
Surgeon, explorer, and masterful storyteller, Kamler takes us to the farthest reaches of the earth as well as into the uncharted territory within the human brain. Surviving the Extremes is a scientific nail-biter no reader will forget.
* Hundreds of questions and many review tests
* Key concepts and terms defined and explained
Master key concepts. Answer challenging questions. Prepare for exams. Learn at your own pace.
Are viruses living? How does photosynthesis occur? Is cloning a form of sexual or asexual reproduction? What is Anton van Leeuwenhoek known for? With Biology: A Self-Teaching Guide, Second Edition, you'll discover the answers to these questions and many more.
Steven Garber explains all the major biological concepts and terms in this newly revised edition, including the origin of life, evolution, cell biology, reproduction, physiology, and botany. The step-by-step, clearly structured format of Biology makes it fully accessible to all levels of students, providing an easily understood, comprehensive treatment of all aspects of life science.
Like all Self-Teaching Guides, Biology allows you to build gradually on what you have learned-at your own pace. Questions and self-tests reinforce the information in each chapter and allow you to skip ahead or focus on specific areas of concern. Packed with useful, up-to-date information, this clear, concise volume is a valuable learning tool and reference source for anyone who needs to master the science of life.
Early studies of the human brain used a simple method: wait for misfortune to strike -- strokes, seizures, infectious diseases, horrendous accidents -- and see how victims coped. In many cases their survival was miraculous, if puzzling. Observers were amazed by the transformations that took place when different parts of the brain were destroyed, altering victims' personalities. Parents suddenly couldn't recognize their own children. Pillars of the community became pathological liars. Some people couldn't speak but could still sing.
In The Tale of the Dueling Neurosurgeons, Sam Kean travels through time with stories of neurological curiosities: phantom limbs, Siamese twin brains, viruses that eat patients' memories, blind people who see through their tongues. He weaves these narratives together with prose that makes the pages fly by, to create a story of discovery that reaches back to the 1500s and the high-profile jousting accident that inspired this book's title.* With the lucid, masterful explanations and razor-sharp wit his fans have come to expect, Kean explores the brain's secret passageways and recounts the forgotten tales of the ordinary people whose struggles, resilience, and deep humanity made neuroscience possible.
*"The Tale of the Dueling Neurosurgeons" refers to the case of French king Henri II, who in 1559 was lanced through the skull during a joust, resulting in one of the most significant cases in neuroscience history. For hundreds of years scientists have gained important lessons from traumatic accidents and illnesses, and such misfortunes still represent their greatest resource for discovery.
Few other books have created such a lasting storm of controversy as The Origin of Species. Darwin’s theory that species derive from other species by a gradual evolutionary process and that the average level of each species is heightened by the “survival of the fittest” stirred up popular debate to fever pitch. Its acceptance revolutionized the course of science.
As Sir Julian Huxley, the noted biologist, points out in his illuminating introduction, the importance of Darwin’s contribution to modern scientific knowledge is almost impossible to evaluate: “a truly great book, one which can still be read with profit by professional biologist.”
Includes an Introduction by Sir Julian Huxley
In First Contact, Marc Kaufman provides a gripping tour of the magnificent new science of astrobiology that is closing in on the discovery of extraterrestrial life. In recent decades, scientists generally held that the genesis of life was unique to Earth: It was too delicate a process, and the conditions needed to support it too fragile, for it to exist anywhere else. But we are now on the verge of the biggest discovery since Copernicus and Galileo told us that Earth is not at the center of the universe. New scientific breakthroughs have revolutionized our assumptions about the building blocks of life and where it may be found. Scientists have hunted down and identified exoplanets, those mysterious balls in the universe that orbit distant suns not too different from our own. They have discovered extremophiles, the extraordinary microbes that thrive in environments of intense heat or cold that may mimic the inhospitable conditions of other planets. They have landed rovers on Mars and detected its methane, a possible signature of past life. And they have created sophisticated equipment to sweep the sky for distant radio signals and to explore the deep icebound lakes of Antarctica. Each of these developments has brought forth a new generation of out-of-the-box researchers, adventurers, and thinkers who are each part Carl Sagan, part Indiana Jones, part Watson and Crick—and part forensic specialists on CSI: Mars.
In this masterful book, Kaufman takes us to the frontiers of astrobiology’s quest for extraterrestrial life and shows how this quest is inextricably linked with the quest to understand life on Earth. He takes us deep under the glaciers of Antarctica, into the mouth of an Alaskan volcano, and beneath the Earth into the unbearable heat of a South African mine, and leads us to the world’s driest desert. For thousands of years, humans have wondered about who and what might be living beyond the confines of our planet. First Contact transports us into the cosmos to bring those musings back to Earth and recast our humanity.
Need to get a handle on molecular and cell biology? This easy-to-understand guide explains the structure and function of the cell and how recombinant DNA technology is changing the face of science and medicine. You discover how fundamental principles and concepts relate to everyday life. Plus, you get plenty of study tips to improve your grades and score higher on exams!Explore the world of the cell — take a tour inside the structure and function of cells and see how viruses attack and destroy them
Understand the stuff of life (molecules) — get up to speed on the structure of atoms, types of bonds, carbohydrates, proteins, DNA, RNA, and lipids
Watch as cells function and reproduce — see how cells communicate, obtain matter and energy, and copy themselves for growth, repair, and reproduction
Make sense of genetics — learn how parental cells organize their DNA during sexual reproduction and how scientists can predict inheritance patterns
Decode a cell's underlying programming — examine how DNA is read by cells, how it determines the traits of organisms, and how it's regulated by the cell
Harness the power of DNA — discover how scientists use molecular biology to explore genomes and solve current world problems
Open the book and find:Easy-to-follow explanations of key topics
The life of a cell — what it needs to survive and reproduce
Why molecules are so vital to cells
Rules that govern cell behavior
Laws of thermodynamics and cellular work
The principles of Mendelian genetics
Useful Web sites
Important events in the development of DNA technology
Ten great ways to improve your biology grade
Interweaving physics, astronomy, chemistry, geology, and biology, this sweeping account tells Earth’s complete story, from the synthesis of chemical elements in stars, to the formation of the Solar System, to the evolution of a habitable climate on Earth, to the origin of life and humankind. The book also addresses the search for other habitable worlds in the Milky Way and contemplates whether Earth will remain habitable as our influence on global climate grows. It concludes by considering the ways in which humankind can sustain Earth’s habitability and perhaps even participate in further planetary evolution.
Like no other book, How to Build a Habitable Planet provides an understanding of Earth in its broadest context, as well as a greater appreciation of its possibly rare ability to sustain life over geologic time.
Leading schools that have ordered, recommended for reading, or adopted this book for course use:Arizona State University Brooklyn College CUNY Columbia University Cornell University ETH Zurich Georgia Institute of Technology Harvard University Johns Hopkins University Luther College Northwestern University Ohio State University Oxford Brookes University Pan American University Rutgers University State University of New York at Binghamton Texas A&M University Trinity College Dublin University of Bristol University of California-Los Angeles University of Cambridge University Of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Glasgow University of Leicester University of Maine, Farmington University of Michigan University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of North Georgia University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Oxford University of Portsmouth University of Southampton University of Ulster University of Victoria University of Wyoming Western Kentucky University Yale University
As wolf populations have rebounded, scientific studies of them have also flourished. But there hasn't been a systematic, comprehensive overview of wolf biology since 1970. In Wolves, many of the world's leading wolf experts provide state-of-the-art coverage of just about everything you could want to know about these fascinating creatures. Individual chapters cover wolf social ecology, behavior, communication, feeding habits and hunting techniques, population dynamics, physiology and pathology, molecular genetics, evolution and taxonomy, interactions with nonhuman animals such as bears and coyotes, reintroduction, interactions with humans, and conservation and recovery efforts. The book discusses both gray and red wolves in detail and includes information about wolves around the world, from the United States and Canada to Italy, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Israel, India, and Mongolia. Wolves is also extensively illustrated with black and white photos, line drawings, maps, and fifty color plates.
Unrivalled in scope and comprehensiveness, Wolves will become the definitive resource on these extraordinary animals for scientists and amateurs alike.
“An excellent compilation of current knowledge, with contributions from all the main players in wolf research. . . . It is designed for a wide readership, and certainly the language and style will appeal to both scientists and lucophiles alike. . . . This is an excellent summary of current knowledge and will remain the standard reference work for a long time to come.”—Stephen Harris, New Scientist
“This is the place to find almost any fact you want about wolves.”—Stephen Mills, BBC Wildlife Magazine
Why do people believe bunk? And what causes them to embrace such pseudoscientific beliefs and practices? Noted skeptic Massimo Pigliucci sets out to separate the fact from the fantasy in this entertaining exploration of the nature of science, the borderlands of fringe science, and—borrowing a famous phrase from philosopher Jeremy Bentham—the nonsense on stilts. Presenting case studies on a number of controversial topics, Pigliucci cuts through the ambiguity surrounding science to look more closely at how science is conducted, how it is disseminated, how it is interpreted, and what it means to our society. The result is in many ways a “taxonomy of bunk” that explores the intersection of science and culture at large.
No one—not the public intellectuals in the culture wars between defenders and detractors of science nor the believers of pseudoscience themselves—is spared Pigliucci’s incisive analysis. In the end, Nonsense on Stilts is a timely reminder of the need to maintain a line between expertise and assumption. Broad in scope and implication, it is also ultimately a captivating guide for the intelligent citizen who wishes to make up her own mind while navigating the perilous debates that will affect the future of our planet.
IMAGINE A WORLD WHERE parasites are masters of chemical warfare and camouflage, able to cloak themselves with their hosts' own molecules.
IMAGINE A WORLD WHERE parasites steer the course of evolution, where the majority of species are parasites.
WELCOME TO EARTH.
For centuries, parasites have lived in nightmares, horror stories, and in the darkest shadows of science. Yet these creatures are among the world's most successful and sophisticated organisms. In Parasite Rex, Carl Zimmer deftly balances the scientific and the disgusting as he takes readers on a fantastic voyage. Traveling from the steamy jungles of Costa Rica to the fetid parasite haven of southern Sudan, Zimmer graphically brings to life how parasites can change DNA, rewire the brain, make men more distrustful and women more outgoing, and turn hosts into the living dead.
This thorough, gracefully written book brings parasites out into the open and uncovers what they can teach us about the most fundamental survival tactics in the universe.
From the man who Oliver Sacks hailed as “one of the best scientist/writers of our time,” a collection of sharply observed, uproariously funny essays on the biology of human culture and behavior.
In the tradition of Stephen Jay Gould and Oliver Sacks, Robert Sapolsky offers a sparkling and erudite collection of essays about science, the world, and our relation to both. “The Trouble with Testosterone” explores the influence of that notorious hormone on male aggression. “Curious George’s Pharmacy” reexamines recent exciting claims that wild primates know how to medicate themselves with forest plants. “Junk Food Monkeys” relates the adventures of a troop of baboons who stumble upon a tourist garbage dump. And “Circling the Blanket for God” examines the neurobiological roots underlying religious belief.
Drawing on his career as an evolutionary biologist and neurobiologist, Robert Sapolsky writes about the natural world vividly and insightfully. With candor, humor, and rich observations, these essays marry cutting-edge science with humanity, illuminating the interconnectedness of the world’s inhabitants with skill and flair.
Legends don't come close to capturing the incredible story of the coyote In the face of centuries of campaigns of annihilation employing gases, helicopters, and engineered epidemics, coyotes didn't just survive, they thrived, expanding across the continent from Alaska to New York. In the war between humans and coyotes, coyotes have won, hands-down. Coyote America is the illuminating five-million-year biography of this extraordinary animal, from its origins to its apotheosis. It is one of the great epics of our time.
The common ancestry of all humanity
The role of genes in sickness and health
Debates over the use of genetic technology
Written in an engaging, narrative manner, this concise introduction is an ideal starting point for anyone who wants to know more about genes, DNA, and the genetic ties that bind us all.
The Most Dangerous Animal asks what it is about human nature that makes it possible for human beings to regularly slaughter their own kind. It tells the story of why all human beings have the potential to be hideously cruel and destructive to one another. Why are we our own worst enemy? The book shows us that war has been with us---in one form or another---since prehistoric times, and looking at the behavior of our close relatives, the chimpanzees, it argues that a penchant for group violence has been bred into us over millions of years of biological evolution. The Most Dangerous Animal takes the reader on a journey through evolution, history, anthropology, and psychology, showing how and why the human mind has a dual nature: on the one hand, we are ferocious, dangerous animals who regularly commit terrible atrocities against our own kind, on the other, we have a deep aversion to killing, a horror of taking human life. Meticulously researched and far-reaching in scope and with examples taken from ancient and modern history, The Most Dangerous Animal delivers a sobering lesson for an increasingly dangerous world.
This is the story of how your life shapes your brain, and how your brain shapes your life.
(A companion to the six-part PBS series. Color illustrations throughout.)
The most disruptive force on the planet resides in DNA. Biotech companies and academic researchers are just beginning to unlock the potential of piecing together life from scratch. Champions of synthetic biology believe that turning genetic code into Lego-like blocks to build never-before-seen organisms could solve the thorniest challenges in medicine, energy, and environmental protection. But as the hackers who cracked open the potential of the personal computer and the Internet proved, the most revolutionary discoveries often emerge from out-of-the-way places, forged by brilliant outsiders with few resources besides boundless energy and great ideas.
In Biopunk, Marcus Wohlsen chronicles a growing community of DIY scientists working outside the walls of corporations and universities who are committed to democratizing DNA the way the Internet did information. The "biohacking" movement, now in its early, heady days, aims to unleash an outbreak of genetically modified innovation by making the tools and techniques of biotechnology accessible to everyone. Borrowing their idealism from the worlds of open-source software, artisinal food, Internet startups, and the Peace Corps, biopunks are devoted advocates for open-sourcing the basic code of life. They believe in the power of individuals with access to DNA to solve the world's biggest problems.
You'll meet a new breed of hackers who aren't afraid to get their hands wet, from entrepreneurs who aim to bring DNA-based medical tools to the poorest of the poor to a curious tinkerer who believes a tub of yogurt and a jellyfish gene could protect the world's food supply. These biohackers include:
-A duo who started a cancer drug company in their kitchen
-A team who built an open-source DNA copy machine
-A woman who developed a genetic test in her apartment for a deadly disease that had stricken her family
Along with the potential of citizen science to bring about disruptive change, Wohlsen explores the risks of DIY bioterrorism, the possibility of genetic engineering experiments gone awry, and whether the ability to design life from scratch on a laptop might come sooner than we think.
Birds are astonishingly intelligent creatures. According to revolutionary new research, some birds rival primates and even humans in their remarkable forms of intelligence. In The Genius of Birds, acclaimed author Jennifer Ackerman explores their newly discovered brilliance and how it came about.
As she travels around the world to the most cutting-edge frontiers of research, Ackerman not only tells the story of the recently uncovered genius of birds but also delves deeply into the latest findings about the bird brain itself that are shifting our view of what it means to be intelligent. At once personal yet scientific, richly informative and beautifully written, The Genius of Birds celebrates the triumphs of these surprising and fiercely intelligent creatures.
This eBook edition has been formatted for on-screen viewing with cross-linked questions, answers, and explanations.
Practice makes perfect—and The Princeton Review’s 550 AP Biology Practice Questions gives you everything you need to work your way to the top. Inside, you’ll find tips and strategies for tackling and overcoming challenging questions, plus all the practice you need to get the score you want.
Practice Your Way to Perfection.
• 2 full-length practice tests and 16 practice drills covering each subject type
• Practice drills organized by the 4 "Big Ideas"
Academic and Strategic Explanations.
• Detailed walk-throughs of free-response questions to help you write a winning essay
• Answer keys and detailed explanations for each drill and test question
Techniques That Actually Work.
• Tried-and-true strategies to avoid traps and beat the test
• Essential tactics to help you work smarter, not harder
"I tried to have well-trained police officers and deputies. Bill is paying attention to the training of beekeepers." Johannes F. Spreen, retired police commissioner of Detroit and sheriff of Oakland County, Michigan.
"Honey's anti-bacterial qualities may make it valuable in treating microbes that have become resistant to antibiotics such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-MRSA." Dr. Diane Holloway, formerly in practice at Presbyterian Hospital, Dallas, Texas.
"This knowledge should help you in minimizing any significant impact that the Africanized bee could have on your daily life." Fire Chief Robert Biscoe, Fire District of Sun City West, Arizona.
This well-illustrated text is perfect for beginning beekeepers, experienced beekeepers and their employees, entomology students, and the layman. It offers instructions and information for:
Problems with helpers, animals, people, health, and disasters Working with beeswax, pollen, enzymes, and package bees Dealing with diseases, mites, colony collapse, and Africanized bees Robbing, extracting, bee removal, re-queening and queen rearing