In Love and Math, renowned mathematician Edward Frenkel reveals a side of math we’ve never seen, suffused with all the beauty and elegance of a work of art. In this heartfelt and passionate book, Frenkel shows that mathematics, far from occupying a specialist niche, goes to the heart of all matter, uniting us across cultures, time, and space.
Love and Math tells two intertwined stories: of the wonders of mathematics and of one young man’s journey learning and living it. Having braved a discriminatory educational system to become one of the twenty-first century’s leading mathematicians, Frenkel now works on one of the biggest ideas to come out of math in the last 50 years: the Langlands Program. Considered by many to be a Grand Unified Theory of mathematics, the Langlands Program enables researchers to translate findings from one field to another so that they can solve problems, such as Fermat’s last theorem, that had seemed intractable before.
At its core, Love and Math is a story about accessing a new way of thinking, which can enrich our lives and empower us to better understand the world and our place in it. It is an invitation to discover the magic hidden universe of mathematics.
Hidden symmetries were first discovered nearly two hundred years ago by French mathematician évariste Galois. They have been used extensively in the oldest and largest branch of mathematics--number theory--for such diverse applications as acoustics, radar, and codes and ciphers. They have also been employed in the study of Fibonacci numbers and to attack well-known problems such as Fermat's Last Theorem, Pythagorean Triples, and the ever-elusive Riemann Hypothesis. Mathematicians are still devising techniques for teasing out these mysterious patterns, and their uses are limited only by the imagination.
The first popular book to address representation theory and reciprocity laws, Fearless Symmetry focuses on how mathematicians solve equations and prove theorems. It discusses rules of math and why they are just as important as those in any games one might play. The book starts with basic properties of integers and permutations and reaches current research in number theory. Along the way, it takes delightful historical and philosophical digressions. Required reading for all math buffs, the book will appeal to anyone curious about popular mathematics and its myriad contributions to everyday life.
In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simplicity of the proofs for many theorems.
Among the topics covered in this accessible, carefully designed introduction are multiplicativity-divisibility, including the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, combinatorial and computational number theory, congruences, arithmetic functions, primitive roots and prime numbers. Later chapters offer lucid treatments of quadratic congruences, additivity (including partition theory) and geometric number theory.
Of particular importance in this text is the author's emphasis on the value of numerical examples in number theory and the role of computers in obtaining such examples. Exercises provide opportunities for constructing numerical tables with or without a computer. Students can then derive conjectures from such numerical tables, after which relevant theorems will seem natural and well-motivated..
Unlike many authors, however, Mr. Friedberg encourages students to think about the imaginative, playful qualities of numbers as they consider such subjects as primes and divisibility, quadratic forms and residue arithmetic and quadratic reciprocity and related theorems. Moreover, the author has included a number of unusual features to challenge and stimulate students: some of the original problems in Diophantus' Arithmetica, proofs of Fermat's Last Theorem for the exponents 3and 4, and two proofs of Wilson's Theorem.
Readers with a mathematical bent will enjoy and benefit from these entertaining and thought-provoking adventures in the fascinating realm of number theory. Mr. Friedberg is currently Professor of Physics at Barnard College, where he is Chairman of the Department of Physics and Astronomy.
The book begins with a systematic study of real numbers, understood to be a set of objects satisfying certain definite axioms. The concepts of a mathematical structure and an isomorphism are introduced in Chapter 2, after a brief digression on set theory, and a proof of the uniqueness of the structure of real numbers is given as an illustration. Two other structures are then introduced, namely n-dimensional space and the field of complex numbers.
After a detailed treatment of metric spaces in Chapter 3, a general theory of limits is developed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats some theorems on continuous numerical functions on the real line, and then considers the use of functional equations to introduce the logarithm and the trigonometric functions. Chapter 6 is on infinite series, dealing not only with numerical series but also with series whose terms are vectors and functions (including power series). Chapters 7 and 8 treat differential calculus proper, with Taylor's series leading to a natural extension of real analysis into the complex domain. Chapter 9 presents the general theory of Riemann integration, together with a number of its applications. Analytic functions are covered in Chapter 10, while Chapter 11 is devoted to improper integrals, and makes full use of the technique of analytic functions.
Each chapter includes a set of problems, with selected hints and answers at the end of the book. A wealth of examples and applications can be found throughout the text. Over 340 theorems are fully proved.
The book begins with fundamentals, with a definition of complex numbers, their geometric representation, their algebra, powers and roots of complex numbers, set theory as applied to complex analysis, and complex functions and sequences. The notions of proper and improper complex numbers and of infinity are fully and clearly explained, as is stereographic projection. Individual chapters then cover limits and continuity, differentiation of analytic functions, polynomials and rational functions, Mobius transformations with their circle-preserving property, exponentials and logarithms, complex integrals and the Cauchy theorem , complex series and uniform convergence, power series, Laurent series and singular points, the residue theorem and its implications, harmonic functions (a subject too often slighted in first courses in complex analysis), partial fraction expansions, conformal mapping, and analytic continuation.
Elementary functions are given a more detailed treatment than is usual for a book at this level. Also, there is an extended discussion of the Schwarz-Christolfel transformation, which is particularly important for applications.
There is a great abundance of worked-out examples, and over three hundred problems (some with hints and answers), making this an excellent textbook for classroom use as well as for independent study. A noteworthy feature is the fact that the parentage of this volume makes it possible for the student to pursue various advanced topics in more detail in the three-volume original, without the problem of having to adjust to a new terminology and notation .
In this way, IntroductoryComplex Analysis serves as an introduction not only to the whole field of complex analysis, but also to the magnum opus of an important contemporary Russian mathematician.
Key features of Number Theory: Structures, Examples, and Problems:
* A rigorous exposition starts with the natural numbers and the basics.
* Important concepts are presented with an example, which may also emphasize an application. The exposition moves systematically and intuitively to uncover deeper properties.
* Topics include divisibility, unique factorization, modular arithmetic and the Chinese Remainder Theorem, Diophantine equations, quadratic residues, binomial coefficients, Fermat and Mersenne primes and other special numbers, and special sequences. Sections on mathematical induction and the pigeonhole principle, as well as a discussion of other number systems are covered.
* Unique exercises reinforce and motivate the reader, with selected solutions to some of the problems.
* Glossary, bibliography, and comprehensive index round out the text.
Written by distinguished research mathematicians and renowned teachers, this text is a clear, accessible introduction to the subject and a source of fascinating problems and puzzles, from advanced high school students to undergraduates, their instructors, and general readers at all levels.
Bellos has traveled all around the globe and has plunged into history to uncover fascinating stories of mathematical achievement, from the breakthroughs of Euclid, the greatest mathematician of all time, to the creations of the Zen master of origami, one of the hottest areas of mathematical work today. Taking us into the wilds of the Amazon, he tells the story of a tribe there who can count only to five and reports on the latest findings about the math instinct—including the revelation that ants can actually count how many steps they’ve taken. Journeying to the Bay of Bengal, he interviews a Hindu sage about the brilliant mathematical insights of the Buddha, while in Japan he visits the godfather of Sudoku and introduces the brainteasing delights of mathematical games.
Exploring the mysteries of randomness, he explains why it is impossible for our iPods to truly randomly select songs. In probing the many intrigues of that most beloved of numbers, pi, he visits with two brothers so obsessed with the elusive number that they built a supercomputer in their Manhattan apartment to study it. Throughout, the journey is enhanced with a wealth of intriguing illustrations, such as of the clever puzzles known as tangrams and the crochet creation of an American math professor who suddenly realized one day that she could knit a representation of higher dimensional space that no one had been able to visualize.
Whether writing about how algebra solved Swedish traffic problems, visiting the Mental Calculation World Cup to disclose the secrets of lightning calculation, or exploring the links between pineapples and beautiful teeth, Bellos is a wonderfully engaging guide who never fails to delight even as he edifies. Here’s Looking at Euclid is a rare gem that brings the beauty of math to life.
"This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here."
(David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society)
"The book...is presented in a lively style without unnecessary detail. It is very stimulating and will be appreciated not only by students. Much attention is paid to problems and to the development of mathematics before the end of the nineteenth century... This book brings to the non-specialist interested in mathematics many interesting results. It can be recommended for seminars and will be enjoyed by the broad mathematical community."
(European Mathematical Society)
"Since Stillwell treats many topics, most mathematicians will learn a lot from this book as well as they will find pleasant and rather clear expositions of custom materials. The book is accessible to students that have already experienced calculus, algebra and geometry and will give them a good account of how the different branches of mathematics interact."
(Denis Bonheure, Bulletin of the Belgian Society)
This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and combinatorics, and new sections on several topics, including the Poincare conjecture. The book has also been enriched by added exercises.
László Lovász is a Senior Researcher in the Theory Group at Microsoft Corporation. He is a recipient of the 1999 Wolf Prize and the Gödel Prize for the top paper in Computer Science. József Pelikán is Professor of Mathematics in the Department of Algebra and Number Theory at Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary. In 2002, he was elected Chairman of the Advisory Board of the International Mathematical Olympiad. Katalin Vesztergombi is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Washington.
Every number in this book is identified by its "field marks," "similar species," "personality," and "associations." For example, one field mark of the number 6 is that it is the first perfect number-- the sum of its divisors (1, 2, and 3) is equal to the number itself. Thus 28, the next perfect number, is a similar species. And the fact that 6 can easily be broken into 2 and 3 is part of its personality, a trait that is helpful when large numbers are being either multiplied or divided by 6. Associations with 6 include its relationship to the radius of a circle. In addition to such classifications, special attention is paid to dozens of other fascinating numbers, including zero, pi, 10 to the 76th power (the number of particles in the universe), transfinite and other exceptionally larger numbers, and the concept of infinity.
Ideal for beginners but organized to appeal to the mathematically literate, The Kingdom of Infinite Number will not only add to readers' enjoyment of mathematics, but to their problem-solving abilities as well.
In addition, it studies semigroup, group action, Hopf's group, topological groups and Lie groups with their actions, applications of ring theory to algebraic geometry, and defines Zariski topology, as well as applications of module theory to structure theory of rings and homological algebra. Algebraic aspects of classical number theory and algebraic number theory are also discussed with an eye to developing modern cryptography. Topics on applications to algebraic topology, category theory, algebraic geometry, algebraic number theory, cryptography and theoretical computer science interlink the subject with different areas. Each chapter discusses individual topics, starting from the basics, with the help of illustrative examples. This comprehensive text with a broad variety of concepts, applications, examples, exercises and historical notes represents a valuable and unique resource.
The exposition concentrates on key concepts and then elementary results concerning these numbers. The reader learns how complex numbers can be used to solve algebraic equations and to understand the geometric interpretation of complex numbers and the operations involving them.
The theoretical parts of the book are augmented with rich exercises and problems at various levels of difficulty. A special feature of the book is the last chapter, a selection of outstanding Olympiad and other important mathematical contest problems solved by employing the methods already presented.
The book reflects the unique experience of the authors. It distills a vast mathematical literature, most of which is unknown to the western public, and captures the essence of an abundant problem culture. The target audience includes undergraduates, high school students and their teachers, mathematical contestants (such as those training for Olympiads or the W. L. Putnam Mathematical Competition) and their coaches, as well as anyone interested in essential mathematics.
Peter Higgins distills centuries of work into one delightful narrative that celebrates the mystery of numbers and explains how different kinds of numbers arose and why they are useful. Full of historical snippets and interesting examples, the book ranges from simple number puzzles and magic tricks, to showing how ideas about numbers relate to real-world problems, such as: How are our bank account details kept secure when shopping over the internet? What are the chances of winning at Russian roulette; or of being dealt a flush in a poker hand?
This fascinating book will inspire and entertain readers across a range of abilities. Easy material is blended with more challenging ideas about infinity and complex numbers, and a final chapter "For Connoisseurs" works through some of the particular claims and examples in the book in mathematical language for those who appreciate a complete explanation.
As our understanding of numbers continues to evolve, this book invites us to rediscover the mystery and beauty of numbers and reminds us that the story of numbers is a tale with a long way to run...
Though the book contains advanced material, such as cryptography on elliptic curves, Goppa codes using algebraic curves over finite fields, and the recent AKS polynomial primality test, the authors' objective has been to keep the exposition as self-contained and elementary as possible. Therefore the book will be useful to students and researchers, both in theoretical (e.g. mathematicians) and in applied sciences (e.g. physicists, engineers, computer scientists, etc.) seeking a friendly introduction to the important subjects treated here. The book will also be useful for teachers who intend to give courses on these topics.
Appropriate for anyone familiar with algebra at the high-school level, The Theory of Remainders offers a captivating introduction to both number theory and abstract algebra. Both elementary and challenging, it provides a view of mathematics as a conceptual net and illustrates the differences between conceptual and paraconceptual claims—an excellent start to expanding students' perspectives on mathematics.
Exercises throughout the book form an integral part of the text, extending students' experience with the concepts under discussion and presenting opportunities to observe patterns. In addition to the exercises, a series of optional problems allows more advanced readers to further develop the concepts.
Key features of Putnam and Beyond
* Preliminary material provides an overview of common methods of proof: argument by contradiction, mathematical induction, pigeonhole principle, ordered sets, and invariants.
* Each chapter systematically presents a single subject within which problems are clustered in every section according to the specific topic.
* The exposition is driven by more than 1100 problems and examples chosen from numerous sources from around the world; many original contributions come from the authors.
* Complete solutions to all problems are given at the end of the book. The source, author, and historical background are cited whenever possible.
This work may be used as a study guide for the Putnam exam, as a text for many different problem-solving courses, and as a source of problems for standard courses in undergraduate mathematics. Putnam and Beyond is organized for self-study by undergraduate and graduate students, as well as teachers and researchers in the physical sciences who wish to to expand their mathematical horizons.
The problems are clustered by topic into self-contained sections with solutions provided separately. All sections start with an essay discussing basic facts and one or two representative examples. A list of carefully chosen problems follows and the reader is invited to take them on. Additionally, historical insights and asides are presented to stimulate further inquiry. The emphasis throughout is on encouraging readers to move away from routine exercises and memorized algorithms toward creative solutions to open-ended problems.
Aimed at motivated high school and beginning college students and instructors, this work can be used as a text for advanced problem- solving courses, for self-study, or as a resource for teachers and students training for mathematical competitions and for teacher professional development, seminars, and workshops.
Leading experts have joined forces for the first time to explain the state of the art in quantum computing, hash-based cryptography, code-based cryptography, lattice-based cryptography, and multivariate cryptography. Mathematical foundations and implementation issues are included.
This book is an essential resource for students and researchers who want to contribute to the field of post-quantum cryptography.
Ono describes his rocky path through college and graduate school, interweaving Ramanujan’s story with his own and telling how at key moments, he was inspired by Ramanujan and guided by mentors who encouraged him to pursue his interest in exploring Ramanujan’s mathematical legacy.
Picking up where others left off, beginning with the great English mathematician G.H. Hardy, who brought Ramanujan to Cambridge in 1914, Ono has devoted his mathematical career to understanding how in his short life, Ramanujan was able to discover so many deep mathematical truths, which Ramanujan believed had been sent to him as visions from a Hindu goddess. And it was Ramanujan who was ultimately the source of reconciliation between Ono and his parents.
Ono’s search for Ramanujan ranges over three continents and crosses paths with mathematicians whose lives span the globe and the entire twentieth century and beyond. Along the way, Ken made many fascinating discoveries. The most important and surprising one of all was his own humanity."
The authors, a pair of noted mathematicians, start with a discussion of divisibility and proceed to examine Gaussian primes (their determination and role in Fermat's theorem); polynomials over a field (including the Eisenstein irreducibility criterion); algebraic number fields; bases (finite extensions, conjugates and discriminants, and the cyclotomic field); and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture (concluding with discussions of Pythagorean triples, units in cyclotomic fields, and Kummer's theorem).
In addition to a helpful list of symbols and an index, a set of carefully chosen problems appears at the end of each chapter to reinforce mathematics covered. Students and teachers of undergraduate mathematics courses will find this volume a first-rate introduction to algebraic number theory.
The key to the conjecture lies in elliptic curves, which may appear simple, but arise from some very deep—and often very mystifying—mathematical ideas. Using only basic algebra and calculus while presenting numerous eye-opening examples, Ash and Gross make these ideas accessible to general readers, and, in the process, venture to the very frontiers of modern mathematics.
Key topics and features include:A solid introduction to analytic number theory, including full proofs of Dirichlet's Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem
Concise treatment of algebraic number theory, including a complete presentation of primes, prime factorizations in algebraic number fields, and unique factorization of idealsDiscussion of the AKS algorithm, which shows that primality testing is one of polynomial time, a topic not usually included in such texts
Many interesting ancillary topics, such as primality testing and cryptography, Fermat and Mersenne numbers, and Carmichael numbersThe user-friendly style, historical context, and wide range of exercises that range from simple to quite difficult (with solutions and hints provided for select exercises) make Number Theory: An Introduction via the Density of Primes ideal for both self-study and classroom use. Intended for upper level undergraduates and beginning graduates, the only prerequisites are a basic knowledge of calculus, multivariable calculus, and some linear algebra. All necessary concepts from abstract algebra and complex analysis are introduced where needed.
Most if not all universities worldwide offer introductory courses in number
theory for math majors and in many cases as an elective course.
The notes contain a useful introduction to important topics that need to be addressed
in a course in number theory. Proofs of basic theorems are presented in
an interesting and comprehensive way that can be read and understood even by
non-majors with the exception in the last three chapters where a background in
analysis, measure theory and abstract algebra is required. The exercises are carefully
chosen to broaden the understanding of the concepts. Moreover, these notes
shed light on analytic number theory, a subject that is rarely seen or approached
by undergraduate students. One of the unique characteristics of these notes is the
careful choice of topics and its importance in the theory of numbers. The freedom
is given in the last two chapters because of the advanced nature of the topics that
Throughout the book students are encouraged to express their ideas, conjectures, and conclusions in writing. The goal is to help readers develop a host of new mathematical tools that will be useful beyond the classroom and in a number of disciplines.
This book can be used in introduction to mathematics theories courses and in special topics courses on Fermat's last theorem. It contains themes suitable for development by students as an introduction to personal research as well as numerous exercises and problems. However, the book will also appeal to the inquiring and mathematically informed reader intrigued by the unraveling of this fascinating puzzle.Rigorously presents the concepts required to understand Wiles' proof, assuming only modest undergraduate level mathSets the math in its historical contextContains several themes that could be further developed by student research and numerous exercises and problemsWritten by Yves Hellegouarch, who himself made an important contribution to the proof of Fermat's last theorem
Key topics and features of Advanced Algebra:
*Topics build upon the linear algebra, group theory, factorization of ideals, structure of fields, Galois theory, and elementary theory of modules as developed in Basic Algebra
*Chapters treat various topics in commutative and noncommutative algebra, providing introductions to the theory of associative algebras, homological algebra, algebraic number theory, and algebraic geometry
*Sections in two chapters relate the theory to the subject of Gröbner bases, the foundation for handling systems of polynomial equations in computer applications
*Text emphasizes connections between algebra and other branches of mathematics, particularly topology and complex analysis
*Book carries on two prominent themes recurring in Basic Algebra: the analogy between integers and polynomials in one variable over a field, and the relationship between number theory and geometry
*Many examples and hundreds of problems are included, along with hints or complete solutions for most of the problems
*The exposition proceeds from the particular to the general, often providing examples well before a theory that incorporates them; it includes blocks of problems that illuminate aspects of the text and introduce additional topics
Advanced Algebra presents its subject matter in a forward-looking way that takes into account the historical development of the subject. It is suitable as a text for the more advanced parts of a two-semester first-year graduate sequence in algebra. It requires of the reader only a familiarity with the topics developed in Basic Algebra.
With numerous examples throughout, the text begins with coverage of algebraic number theory, binary quadratic forms, Diophantine approximation, arithmetic functions, p-adic analysis, Dirichlet characters, density, and primes in arithmetic progression. It then applies these tools to Diophantine equations, before developing elliptic curves and modular forms. The text also presents an overview of Fermat’s Last Theorem (FLT) and numerous consequences of the ABC conjecture, including Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem, Hall’s conjecture, the Erdös–Mollin-–Walsh conjecture, and the Granville–Langevin Conjecture. In the appendix, the author reviews sieve methods, such as Eratothesenes’, Selberg’s, Linnik’s, and Bombieri’s sieves. He also discusses recent results on gaps between primes and the use of sieves in factoring.
By focusing on salient techniques in number theory, this textbook provides the most up-to-date and comprehensive material for a second course in this field. It prepares students for future study at the graduate level.
This volume is the fourth of five volumes that the authors plan to write on Ramanujan’s lost notebook. In contrast to the first three books on Ramanujan's Lost Notebook, the fourth book does not focus on q-series. Most of the entries examined in this volume fall under the purviews of number theory and classical analysis. Several incomplete manuscripts of Ramanujan published by Narosa with the lost notebook are discussed. Three of the partial manuscripts are on diophantine approximation, and others are in classical Fourier analysis and prime number theory. Most of the entries in number theory fall under the umbrella of classical analytic number theory. Perhaps the most intriguing entries are connected with the classical, unsolved circle and divisor problems.
Review from the second volume:
"Fans of Ramanujan's mathematics are sure to be delighted by this book. While some of the content is taken directly from published papers, most chapters contain new material and some previously published proofs have been improved. Many entries are just begging for further study and will undoubtedly be inspiring research for decades to come. The next installment in this series is eagerly awaited."
Review from the first volume:
"Andrews and Berndt are to be congratulated on the job they are doing. This is the first step...on the way to an understanding of the work of the genius Ramanujan. It should act as an inspiration to future generations of mathematicians to tackle a job that will never be complete."
- Gazette of the Australian Mathematical Society
Written by international mathematics authorities, the book first examines the invariant of Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity, blowup algebras, and bigraded rings. It then outlines the current status of two challenging conjectures: the lex-plus-power (LPP) conjecture and the multiplicity conjecture. After reviewing results of the geometry of Hilbert functions, the book considers minimal free resolutions of integral subschemes and of equidimensional Cohen-Macaulay subschemes of small degree. It also discusses relations to subspace arrangements and the properties of the infinite graded minimal free resolution of the ground field over a projective toric ring. The volume closes with an introduction to multigraded Hilbert functions, mixed multiplicities, and joint reductions.
By surveying exciting topics of vibrant current research, Syzygies and Hilbert Functions stimulates further study in this hot area of mathematical activity.