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Creating a rigorous mathematical theory of randomness is far from being complete, even in the classical case. Probability and Randomness: Quantum versus Classical rectifies this and introduces mathematical formalisms of classical and quantum probability and randomness with brief discussion of their interrelation and interpretational and foundational issues. The book presents the essentials of classical approaches to randomness, enlightens their successes and problems, and then proceeds to essentials of quantum randomness. Its wide-ranging and comprehensive scope makes it suitable for researchers in mathematical physics, probability and statistics at any level.

Contents:Foundations of ProbabilityRandomnessSupplementary Notes on Measure-theoretic and Frequency ApproachesIntroduction to Quantum FormalismQuantum and Contextual ProbabilityInterpretations of Quantum Mechanics and ProbabilityRandomness: Quantum Versus ClassicalProbabilistic Structure of Bell''s ArgumentQuantum Probability Outside of Physics: from Molecular Biology to CognitionReadership: Researchers in mathematical physics, probability and statistics.

Keywords:Kolmogorov Axiomataics;Randomness;Independence;Quantum Probability'

The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science is is a unique volume that brings together contributions from leading experts on key topics in this new and emerging field. Completely self-contained, it begins with an introductory section which gathers all the fundamental notions required to be able to understand later chapters. The handbook then moves on to address some of the latest research and applications for quantum methods in social science disciplines, including economics, politics and psychology. It begins with the issue of how the quantum mechanical framework can be applied to economics. Chapters devoted to this topic range from how Fisher information can be argued to play a role in economics, to the foundations and application of quantum game theory. The handbook then progresses in considering how belief states can be updated with the theory of quantum measurements (and also with more general methods). The practical use of the Hilbert space (and Fock space) in decision theory is then introduced, and open quantum systems are also considered. The handbook also treats a model of neural oscillators that reproduces some of the features of quantum cognition. Other contributions delve into causal reasoning using quantum Bayes nets and the role of quantum probability in modelling so called affective evaluation. The handbook is rounded off with two chapters which discuss the grand challenges which lie ahead of us. How can the quantum formalism be justified in social science and is the traditional quantum formalism too restrictive? Finally, a question is posed: whether there is a necessary role for quantum mathematical models to go beyond physics.

This book will bring the latest and most cutting edge research on quantum theory to social science disciplines. Students and researchers across the discipline, as well as those in the fields of physics and mathematics will welcome this important addition to the literature.The book begins with an introduction followed by two chapters devoted to fundamentals, one covering classical and quantum probability, which also contains a brief introduction to quantum formalism, and another on an information approach to molecular biology, genetics and epigenetics. It then goes on to examine adaptive dynamics, including applications to biology, and non-Kolmogorov probability theory.

Next, the book discusses the possibility to apply the quantum formalism to model biological evolution, especially at the cellular level: genetic and epigenetic evolutions. It also presents a model of the epigenetic cellular evolution based on the mathematical formalism of open quantum systems. The last two chapters of the book explore foundational problems of quantum mechanics and demonstrate the power of usage of positive operator valued measures (POVMs) in biological science.

This book will appeal to a diverse group of readers including experts in biology, cognitive science, decision making, sociology, psychology, and physics; mathematicians working on problems of quantum probability and information and researchers in quantum foundations.

Everything you need to pass the exam and get the college credit you deserve.

CLEP* is the most popular credit-by-examination program in the country, accepted by more than 2,900 colleges and universities. For over 15 years, REA has helped students pass the CLEP* exam and earn college credit while reducing their tuition costs.

Our CLEP* test preps are perfect for adults returning to college (or attending for the first time), military service members, high-school graduates looking to earn college credit, or home-schooled students with knowledge that can translate into college credit.

There are many different ways to prepare for the CLEP*. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. Our test prep for CLEP* College Algebra and the free online tools that come with it, will allow you to create a personalized CLEP* study plan that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge.

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An introductory chapter traces concepts of abstract algebra from their historical roots. Succeeding chapters avoid the conventional format of definition-theorem-proof-corollary-example; instead, they take the form of a discussion with students, focusing on explanations and offering motivation. Each chapter rests upon a central theme, usually a specific application or use. The author provides elementary background as needed and discusses standard topics in their usual order. He introduces many advanced and peripheral subjects in the plentiful exercises, which are accompanied by ample instruction and commentary and offer a wide range of experiences to students at different levels of ability.

Instructors will find the latest edition pitched at a suitable level of difficulty and will appreciate its gradual increase in the level of sophistication as the student progresses through the book. Rather than inserting superficial applications at the expense of important mathematical concepts, the Beachy and Blair solid, well-organized treatment motivates the subject with concrete problems from areas that students have previously encountered, namely, the integers and polynomials over the real numbers.

Supplementary material for instructors and students available on the books Web site: www.math.niu.edu/~beachy/abstract_algebra/

In Chapter 1, the author discusses the essential ingredients of a mathematical system, and in the next four chapters covers the basic number systems, decompositions of integers, diophantine problems, and congruences. Chapters 6 through 9 examine groups, rings, domains, fields, polynomial rings, and quadratic domains.Chapters 10 through 13 cover modular systems, modules and vector spaces, linear transformations and matrices, and the elementary theory of matrices. The author, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Pittsburgh, includes many examples and, at the end of each chapter, a large number of problems of varying levels of difficulty.

Classroom tested and revised until students achieved consistent, positive results, this textbook is designed to keep students focused as they learn complex topics. Fine, Gaglione, and Rosenberger’s clear explanations prevent students from getting lost as they move deeper and deeper into areas such as abelian groups, fields, and Galois theory.

This textbook will help bring about the day when abstract algebra no longer creates intense anxiety but instead challenges students to fully grasp the meaning and power of the approach.

Topics covered include:• Rings• Integral domains• The fundamental theorem of arithmetic• Fields• Groups• Lagrange’s theorem• Isomorphism theorems for groups• Fundamental theorem of finite abelian groups• The simplicity of A n for n 5• Sylow theorems• The Jordan-Hölder theorem• Ring isomorphism theorems• Euclidean domains• Principal ideal domains• The fundamental theorem of algebra• Vector spaces• Algebras• Field extensions: algebraic and transcendental• The fundamental theorem of Galois theory• The insolvability of the quintic

The book's first five chapters give an exposition of the theory of infinity-categories that emphasizes their role as a generalization of ordinary categories. Many of the fundamental ideas from classical category theory are generalized to the infinity-categorical setting, such as limits and colimits, adjoint functors, ind-objects and pro-objects, locally accessible and presentable categories, Grothendieck fibrations, presheaves, and Yoneda's lemma. A sixth chapter presents an infinity-categorical version of the theory of Grothendieck topoi, introducing the notion of an infinity-topos, an infinity-category that resembles the infinity-category of topological spaces in the sense that it satisfies certain axioms that codify some of the basic principles of algebraic topology. A seventh and final chapter presents applications that illustrate connections between the theory of higher topoi and ideas from classical topology.

"The author has an impressive knack for presenting the important and interesting ideas of algebra in just the right way, and he never gets bogged down in the dry formalism which pervades some parts of algebra." MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS

This book is intended as a basic text for a one-year course in algebra at the graduate level, or as a useful reference for mathematicians and professionals who use higher-level algebra. It successfully addresses the basic concepts of algebra. For the revised third edition, the author has added exercises and made numerous corrections to the text.

“The text is geared to the needs of the beginning graduate student, covering with complete, well-written proofs the usual major branches of groups, rings, fields, and modules...[n]one of the material one expects in a book like this is missing, and the level of detail is appropriate for its intended audience.” (Alberto Delgado, MathSciNet)

“This text promotes the conceptual understanding of algebra as a whole, and that with great methodological mastery. Although the presentation is predominantly abstract...it nevertheless features a careful selection of important examples, together with a remarkably detailed and strategically skillful elaboration of the more sophisticated, abstract theories.” (Werner Kleinert, Zentralblatt)

For the new edition, the author has completely rewritten the text, reorganized many of the sections, and even cut or shortened material which is no longer essential. He has added a chapter on Ext and Tor, as well as a bit of topology.

The focus throughout is rooted in the mathematical fundamentals, but the text also investigates a number of interesting applications, including a section on computer graphics, a chapter on numerical methods, and many exercises and examples using MATLAB. Meanwhile, many visuals and problems (a complete solutions manual is available to instructors) are included to enhance and reinforce understanding throughout the book.

Brief yet precise and rigorous, this work is an ideal choice for a one-semester course in linear algebra targeted primarily at math or physics majors. It is a valuable tool for any professor who teaches the subject.

Solving Word Problems is one of the biggest hurdle that kids face in Algebra. A bit of imagination is required to understand and solve these type of problems along with the calculations.

This book breaks simple word problems using graphics thus helping the kids to visualize and understand the word problems. It develops the imaginative thinking required to solve these problems from an early level. This will help the kids to solve difficult problems as they will learn to imagine, analyze and break the problem into small parts which gives a better understanding on how to solve these type of problems.The early chapters provide students with background by investigating the basic properties of groups, rings, fields, and modules. Later chapters examine the relations between groups and sets, the fundamental theorem of Galois theory, and the results and methods of abstract algebra in terms of algebraic number theory, algebraic geometry, noncommutative algebra, and homological algebra, including categories and functors. An extensive supplement to the text delves much further into homological algebra than most introductory texts, offering applications-oriented results. Solutions to all problems appear in the text.

In addition, it studies semigroup, group action, Hopf's group, topological groups and Lie groups with their actions, applications of ring theory to algebraic geometry, and defines Zariski topology, as well as applications of module theory to structure theory of rings and homological algebra. Algebraic aspects of classical number theory and algebraic number theory are also discussed with an eye to developing modern cryptography. Topics on applications to algebraic topology, category theory, algebraic geometry, algebraic number theory, cryptography and theoretical computer science interlink the subject with different areas. Each chapter discusses individual topics, starting from the basics, with the help of illustrative examples. This comprehensive text with a broad variety of concepts, applications, examples, exercises and historical notes represents a valuable and unique resource.

“This volume is ground-breaking in terms of mathematical texts in that it does not teach from a detached perspective, but instead, looks to show students that competent mathematicians bring an intuitive understanding to the subject rather than just a master of applications.”

– Electric Review

A comprehensive introduction, Linear Algebra: Ideas and Applications, Fourth Edition provides a discussion of the theory and applications of linear algebra that blends abstract and computational concepts. With a focus on the development of mathematical intuition, the book emphasizes the need to understand both the applications of a particular technique and the mathematical ideas underlying the technique.

The book introduces each new concept in the context of an explicit numerical example, which allows the abstract concepts to grow organically out of the necessity to solve specific problems. The intuitive discussions are consistently followed by rigorous statements of results and proofs.

Linear Algebra: Ideas and Applications, Fourth Edition also features:

Two new and independent sections on the rapidly developing subject of wavelets A thoroughly updated section on electrical circuit theory Illuminating applications of linear algebra with self-study questions for additional study End-of-chapter summaries and sections with true-false questions to aid readers with further comprehension of the presented material Numerous computer exercises throughout using MATLAB® codeLinear Algebra: Ideas and Applications, Fourth Edition is an excellent undergraduate-level textbook for one or two semester courses for students majoring in mathematics, science, computer science, and engineering. With an emphasis on intuition development, the book is also an ideal self-study reference.

Key topics and features of Basic Algebra:

*Linear algebra and group theory build on each other continually

*Chapters on modern algebra treat groups, rings, fields, modules, and Galois groups, with emphasis on methods of computation throughout

*Three prominent themes recur and blend together at times: the analogy between integers and polynomials in one variable over a field, the interplay between linear algebra and group theory, and the relationship between number theory and geometry

*Many examples and hundreds of problems are included, along with a separate 90-page section giving hints or complete solutions for most of the problems

*The exposition proceeds from the particular to the general, often providing examples well before a theory that incorporates them; includes blocks of problems that introduce additional topics and applications for further study

*Applications to science and engineering (e.g., the fast Fourier transform, the theory of error-correcting codes, the use of the Jordan canonical form in solving linear systems of ordinary differential equations, and constructions of interest in mathematical physics) appear in sequences of problems

Basic Algebra presents the subject matter in a forward-looking way that takes into account its historical development. It is suitable as a text in a two-semester advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate sequence in algebra, possibly supplemented by some material from Advanced Algebra at the graduate level. It requires of the reader only familiarity with matrix algebra, an understanding of the geometry and reduction of linear equations, and an acquaintance with proofs.

The University of Toronto Undergraduate Competition was founded to provide additional competition experience for undergraduates preparing for the Putnam competition, and is particularly useful for the freshman or sophomore undergraduate. Lecturers, instructors, and coaches for mathematics competitions will find this presentation useful. Many of the problems are of intermediate difficulty and relate to the first two years of the undergraduate curriculum. The problems presented may be particularly useful for regular class assignments. Moreover, this text contains problems that lie outside the regular syllabus and may interest students who are eager to learn beyond the classroom.

The key to the conjecture lies in elliptic curves, which may appear simple, but arise from some very deep—and often very mystifying—mathematical ideas. Using only basic algebra and calculus while presenting numerous eye-opening examples, Ash and Gross make these ideas accessible to general readers, and, in the process, venture to the very frontiers of modern mathematics.

The text offers a systematic, well-planned, and elegant treatment of the main themes in abstract algebra. It begins with the fundamentals of set theory, basic algebraic structures such as groups and rings, and special classes of rings and domains, and then progresses to extension theory, vector space theory and finally the matrix theory. The boolean algebra by virtue of its relation to abstract algebra also finds a proper place in the development of the text.

The students develop an understanding of all the essential results such as the Cayley’s theorem, the Lagrange’s theorem, and the Isomorphism theorem, in a rigorous and precise manner.

Sufficient numbers of examples have been worked out in each chapter so that the students can grasp the concepts, the ideas, and the results of structure of algebraic objects in a comprehensive way. The chapter-end exercises are designed to enhance the student’s ability to further explore and interconnect various essential notions.

Besides undergraduate students of mathematics, this text is equally useful for the postgraduate students of mathematics.

The three-part treatment begins by providing the essential introduction to Galois theory. The second part is devoted to the algebraic, normal, and separable Galois extensions that constitute the center of the theory and examines abelian, cyclic, cyclotomic, and radical extensions. This section enables readers to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the Galois group of a polynomial. The third part deals with applications of Galois theory, including excellent discussions of several important real-world applications of these ideas, including cryptography and error-control coding theory. Symbolic computation via the Maple computer algebra system is incorporated throughout the text (though other software of symbolic computation could be used as well), along with a large number of very interesting exercises with full solutions.

Key topics and features of Advanced Algebra:

*Topics build upon the linear algebra, group theory, factorization of ideals, structure of fields, Galois theory, and elementary theory of modules as developed in Basic Algebra

*Chapters treat various topics in commutative and noncommutative algebra, providing introductions to the theory of associative algebras, homological algebra, algebraic number theory, and algebraic geometry

*Sections in two chapters relate the theory to the subject of Gröbner bases, the foundation for handling systems of polynomial equations in computer applications

*Text emphasizes connections between algebra and other branches of mathematics, particularly topology and complex analysis

*Book carries on two prominent themes recurring in Basic Algebra: the analogy between integers and polynomials in one variable over a field, and the relationship between number theory and geometry

*Many examples and hundreds of problems are included, along with hints or complete solutions for most of the problems

*The exposition proceeds from the particular to the general, often providing examples well before a theory that incorporates them; it includes blocks of problems that illuminate aspects of the text and introduce additional topics

Advanced Algebra presents its subject matter in a forward-looking way that takes into account the historical development of the subject. It is suitable as a text for the more advanced parts of a two-semester first-year graduate sequence in algebra. It requires of the reader only a familiarity with the topics developed in Basic Algebra.

From the reviews:

"Rotman has given us a very readable and valuable text, and has shown us many beautiful vistas along his chosen route." --MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS

Key features: (1) Develops q-theory, a new theory that provides a unifying approach to finite semigroup theory via quantization; (2) Contains the only contemporary exposition of the complete theory of the complexity of finite semigroups; (3) Introduces spectral theory into finite semigroup theory; (4) Develops the theory of profinite semigroups from first principles, making connections with spectra of Boolean algebras of regular languages; (5) Presents over 70 research problems, most new, and hundreds of exercises.

Additional features: (1) For newcomers, an appendix on elementary finite semigroup theory; (2) Extensive bibliography and index.

The q-theory of Finite Semigroups presents important techniques and results, many for the first time in book form, and thereby updates and modernizes the literature of semigroup theory.

Modular Representation Theory of finite Groups comprises this second situation. Many additional tools are needed for this case. To mention some, there is the systematic use of Grothendieck groups leading to the Cartan matrix and the decomposition matrix of the group as well as Green's direct analysis of indecomposable representations. There is also the strategy of writing the category of all representations as the direct product of certain subcategories, the so-called 'blocks' of the group. Brauer's work then establishes correspondences between the blocks of the original group and blocks of certain subgroups the philosophy being that one is thereby reduced to a simpler situation. In particular, one can measure how nonsemisimple a category a block is by the size and structure of its so-called 'defect group'. All these concepts are made explicit for the example of the special linear group of two-by-two matrices over a finite prime field.

Although the presentation is strongly biased towards the module theoretic point of view an attempt is made to strike a certain balance by also showing the reader the group theoretic approach. In particular, in the case of defect groups a detailed proof of the equivalence of the two approaches is given.

This book aims to familiarize students at the masters level with the basic results, tools, and techniques of a beautiful and important algebraic theory. Some basic algebra together with the semisimple case are assumed to be known, although all facts to be used are restated (without proofs) in the text. Otherwise the book is entirely self-contained.

The course begins with the basic combinatorial principles of algebra: posets, chain conditions, Galois connections, and dependence theories. Here, the general Jordan–Holder Theorem becomes a theorem on interval measures of certain lower semilattices. This is followed by basic courses on groups, rings and modules; the arithmetic of integral domains; fields; the categorical point of view; and tensor products.

Beginning with introductory concepts and examples, each chapter proceeds gradually towards its more complex theorems. Proofs progress step-by-step from first principles. Many interesting results reside in the exercises, for example, the proof that ideals in a Dedekind domain are generated by at most two elements. The emphasis throughout is on real understanding as opposed to memorizing a catechism and so some chapters offer curiosity-driven appendices for the self-motivated student.

This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in the fields mentioned above. It contains, besides exercises aimed at giving insights, numerous research problems motivated by the developments reported.

Contributors

D. Akhiezer T. Oshima

A. Andrada I. Pacharoni

M. L. Barberis F. Ricci

L. Barchini S. Rosenberg

I. Dotti N. Shimeno

M. Eastwood J. Tirao

V. Fischer S. Treneer

T. Kobayashi C.T.C. Wall

A. Korányi D. Wallace

B. Kostant K. Wiboonton

P. Kostelec F. Xu

K.-H. Neeb O. Yakimova

G. Olafsson R. Zierau

B. Ørsted

One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups.

Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group rings is of immense interest.

This is the first survey of the theory of alternative loop rings and related issues. Due to the strong interaction between loop rings and certain group rings, many results on group rings have been included, some of which are published for the first time. The authors often provide a new viewpoint and novel, elementary proofs in cases where results are already known.

The authors assume only that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. They present a work which is very much self-contained. It is thus a valuable reference to the student as well as the research mathematician. An extensive bibliography of references which are either directly relevant to the text or which offer supplementary material of interest, are also included.

A number of groups are described in detail and the reader is encouraged to work with one of the many computer algebra packages available to construct and experience "actual" groups for themselves in order to develop a deeper understanding of the theory and the significance of the theorems. Numerous exercises, of varying levels of difficulty, help to test understanding.

A brief resumé of the basic set theory and number theory required for the text is provided in an appendix, and a wealth of extra resources is available online at www.springer.com, including: hints and/or full solutions to all of the exercises; extension material for many of the chapters, covering more challenging topics and results for further study; and two additional chapters providing an introduction to group representation theory.