In 1535 Jacques Cartier, a Frenchman, sailed up the St. Lawrence River and into the heart of New France, where he first set eyes upon Quebec. A half-century later, Samuel de Champlain arrived and capitalized on his countryman's discovery. Champlain established Quebecís first permanent settlement. These first settlers had to contend not only with the weather, but also with local Indians, and in 1629, a British barricade. Nevertheless, Quebec soon became a powerful center for trade and religion.