The book seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of the theoretical and operational aspects of the electron microscope. This edition consists of two parts. Part One deals with the history, basic theory, and operation of the electron microscope. Part Two discusses steps used in material preparation for electron microscope investigation such as fixation, embedding, and staining techniques.
Biomedical researchers, molecular biologists, toxicologists, forensic investigators, and medical students will find this book a very useful reference.
This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a discussion on chemical fixation, with particular reference to fixatives and the hazards, precautions, and safe handling of reagents, as well as the preparation of buffers and tissue blocks. The reader is then introduced to the standard procedure for fixation, rinsing, dehydration, and embedding. Subsequent chapters focus on sectioning, cryofixation, and cryoultramicrotomy; positive and negative staining; and the use of support films. The final chapter presents a wide variety of specimens such as algae, amoeba, anthers, actin filaments, bacteria, and cells in culture.
This monograph is essentially a laboratory handbook intended for students, technicians, teachers, and research scientists in biology and medicine.
Recent advances have led to such remarkable improvements in fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy’s (FLIM) capacity for contrast and sensitivity that researchers can now employ it to detect signals at the single molecule level. FLIM also offers the additional benefit of independence from fluorophore concentration and excitation intensity. Moreover, its unique sensitivity makes it an excellent reporter of conformational changes and of variations in the molecular surroundings of biological molecules.
Most of this improvement and discovery have occurred during the past decade, and, to date, information that would benefit a broad range of researchers remains scattered in the literature. Edited by two of the top pioneers in the field, FLIM Microscopy in Biology and Medicine presents the fundamentals of FLIM along with a number of advanced considerations so that a wider audience can appreciate recent and potential improvements that make it such a valuable tool.
New Opportunities for Biomedical Researchers... New Challenges for Microscopy Researchers
Discussion sections in all the chapters clearly show the challenges for implementing FLIM for various applications. Certain chapters discuss limits on the number of photons required for highly accurate lifetime determinations, as well as the accuracy with which multiple, closely associated lifetime components can reliably be determined. Such considerations are important for the user when he or she is selecting the most advantageous method of FLIM to use for a particular application.
While this book provides an introduction for those new to FLIM, it gathers a wealth of material to enhance the work of experts involved in pioneering technological improvements, as well as those research opportunities in this unique and promising area of microscopy.
The book shows that the correct interpretation of information retrieved from electron micrographs depends on the knowledge of the basic principles underlying the fixation procedure. Also, the book presents the fixation of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic specimens. The special fixation conditions for plant specimens are discussed in detail and have been allotted a whole chapter.
Also emphasized in this book is the connection between morphology and biochemical aspects of preparatory treatments and the chemical basis of the formation of artifacts. This topic is useful in understanding the modifications of cell structures introduced during their processing. A guide for recognizing and minimizing major artifacts and fixation faults that are usually encountered is also presented in the book.
This valuable resource will prove useful to both students and professionals in the field of biology and clinical medicine. Specimen preservation researchers can also benefit from this book.
The book has 20 chapters that deal with various forms and systems of microscopy. Some of the forms and methods used in the book include light, scanning electron, fluorescence, scanning transmission electron, and ion microscopy, as well as combined light and electron and transmission electron microscope. Other methods and their applications are all discussed in detail in the book.
This book will help students apply the methods without outside help as each methodology is presented in a step-by-step approach, including applications and techniques. Aside from students, the book will also be good reference for teachers, scientists, and researchers in the fields of biology, biochemistry, and medicine.
Compared to conventional Raman microscopy, coherent Raman scattering (CRS) allows label-free imaging of living cells and tissues at video rate by enhancing the weak Raman signal through nonlinear excitation. Edited by pioneers in the field and with contributions from a distinguished team of experts, Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy explains how CRS can be used to obtain a point-by-point chemical map of live cells and tissues.
In color throughout, the book starts by establishing the foundation of CRS microscopy. It discusses the principles of nonlinear optical spectroscopy, particularly coherent Raman spectroscopy, and presents the theories of contrast mechanisms pertinent to CRS microscopy. The text then provides important technical aspects of CRS microscopy, including microscope construction, detection schemes, and data analyses. It concludes with a survey of applications that demonstrate how CRS microscopy has become a valuable tool in biomedicine.
Due to its label-free, noninvasive examinations of living cells and organisms, CRS microscopy has opened up exciting prospects in biology and medicine—from the mapping of 3D distributions of small drug molecules to identifying tumors in tissues. An in-depth exploration of the theories, technology, and applications, this book shows how CRS microscopy has impacted human health and will deepen our understanding of life processes in the future.
Written by leading experts in the field, this book presents a unique practical perspective of state-of-the-art microscope image processing and the development of specialized algorithms. It contains in-depth analysis of methods coupled with the results of specific real-world experiments. Microscope Image Processing covers image digitization and display, object measurement and classification, autofocusing, and structured illumination.
Key Features:Detailed descriptions of many leading-edge methods and algorithmsIn-depth analysis of the method and experimental results, taken from real-life examplesEmphasis on computational and algorithmic aspects of microscope image processingAdvanced material on geometric, morphological, and wavelet image processing, fluorescence, three-dimensional and time-lapse microscopy, microscope image enhancement, MultiSpectral imaging, and image data management
This book is of interest to all scientists, engineers, clinicians, post-graduate fellows, and graduate students working in the fields of biology, medicine, chemistry, pharmacology, and other related fields. Anyone who uses microscopes in their work and needs to understand the methodologies and capabilities of the latest digital image processing techniques will find this book invaluable.Presents a unique practical perspective of state-of-the-art microcope image processing and the development of specialized algorithmsEach chapter includes in-depth analysis of methods coupled with the results of specific real-world experimentsCo-edited by Kenneth R. Castleman, world-renowned pioneer in digital image processing and author of two seminal textbooks on the subject
The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
Despite tremendous advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) over the last twenty years, its potential as a quantitative measurement tool have not been fully realized, due to challenges such as the complexity of tip/sample interaction. In this book, Petr Klapetek uses the latest research to unlock SPM as a toolkit for nanometrology in fields as diverse as nanotechnology, surface physics, materials engineering, thin film optics, and life sciences. Klapetek's considerable experience of Quantitive Data Processing, using software tools, enables him to not only explain the microscopy techniques, but also to demystify the analysis and interpretation of the data collected.
In addition to the essential principles and theory of SPM metrology, Klapetek provides readers with a number of worked examples to demonstrate typical ways of solving problems in SPM analysis. Source data for the examples as well as most of the described open source software tools are available on a companion website.Unlocks the use of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) for nanometrology applications in engineering, physics, life science and earth science settings.
Provides practical guidance regarding areas of difficulty such as tip/sample interaction and calibration – making metrology applications achievable.
Gives guidance on data collection and interpretation, including the use of software-based modeling (using applications that are mostly freely available).
The Editors show biomedical and optical engineers how to use phase microscopy for visualizing unstained specimens, and support the theoretical coverage with applied content and examples on designing systems and interpreting results in bio- and nanoscience applications.Provides a comprehensive overview of the principles and techniques of optical phase microscopy and nanoscopy with biomedical applications.
Tips/advice on building systems and working with advanced imaging biomedical techniques, including interpretation of phase images, and techniques for quantitative analysis based on phase microscopy.
Interdisciplinary approach that combines optical engineering, nanotechnology, biology and medical aspects of this topic. Each chapter includes practical implementations and worked examples.
Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a historical background and overview of applications of piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalances, followed by an analysis of the theory and practice of microbalances. The role of acoustic impedance in a quartz crystal microbalance and design considerations for a microbalance are given emphasis. Subsequent chapters focus on applications of microbalances in thin film deposition process control; simultaneous measurement of mass and temperature; surface science and analytical chemistry; plasma-assisted etching and space system contamination studies; and aerosol mass measurement.
This monograph will be of interest to students and practitioners of physics, chemistry, and materials science.
For materials scientists, spectroscopists, chemists, physicists, and medicinal chemists.
role of the late Sir Charles Oatley in the development of the scanning electron microscopeings
* It contains historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory* Emphasizes broad and in depth article collaborations between world-renowned scientists in the field of image and electron physics
Although the scanning electron microscope had a prehistory in Germany and the USA, its real champion was Charles Oatley, who launched his project
in the Cambridge University Engineering Department shortly after the end of World War II. A first microscope was built successfully by D. McMullan, one
of the Guest Editors of this volume and a succession of progressively improved instruments followed. One in particular, built by K.C.A. Smith was commissioned specially for the Canadian Pulp and Paper Research Institute for use in their Montreal laboratories. All these efforts culminated in the commercial model built by the Cambridge Instrument Company and marketed in 1965 under the trade name, Stereoscan.
Although this story has been told on several occasions, in particular in these Advances, it seemed appropriate, in the centenary year of the birth of Sir Charles Oatley, that more details should be published to celebrate these achievements. This volume is the result.
This volume is a tribute to a bold pioneering scientist and a vivid record of the creation of the first commercial scanning electron microscopes and of subsequent developments.* A special volume devoted principally to the
role of the late Sir Charles Oatley in the development of the scanning electron microscopeings
* It contains historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory
* Emphasizes broad and in depth article collaborations between world-renowned scientists in the field of image and electron physics
This universal method is applicable to most microscopical systems including optical microscopy, scanning, transmission and high voltage electron microscopy, and photoelectron, photon, fluorescent darkfield and epipolarization microscopy. Colloidal gold allows high and low resolution studies, enzyme and nucleic acid labeling, study of dynamic cellular processes, and virus detection.Principles, methods, and applications of colloidal gold methodology in cytochemistry and immunochemistryMethods for preparing colloidal gold particles of different sizesProtein A-gold, protein G-gold, and lectin-gold techniquesThe use of resins and thin cryosectionsMultiple labeling
Following Dr. Stehli's careful instructions, we have entered and gone well into the fascinating world of microscopy. The invention of the microscope itself started science on new courses, entire fields of new knowledge. The use of a comparatively simple microscope today can start one on a lifetime interest, an absorbing hobby, a career in science, or a permanent addition to one's cultural background. This book provides all the help needed, whether one is adult or student, hobbyist or scientifically serious, seeking education or merely curious about the minute world that exists all about us. 119 photographs and drawings.
In color throughout, the book takes readers through the history of important discoveries to the most current advances. It introduces the fundamentals of the fluorescence phenomenon and gives detailed examples of fluorescence applications in the molecular life sciences, including biochemistry, biophysics, clinical chemistry and diagnostics, pharmaceutical science, and cell and molecular biology. The author presents the basic theories underlying the applications and offers in-depth information on practical aspects.
Along with a list of references in each chapter, the text incorporates more than 250 figures that clearly illustrate the concepts and gives the chemical structures of the most widely used fluorescent molecules. In addition, the appendix provides a "Rogue’s Gallery" of the most common errors and pitfalls to avoid.
The text features both a screening and interpretational guide for TEM diagnostic applications and current TEM diagnostic tissue preparation methods pertinent to all clinical electron microscope units worldwide. Containing high-quality representative images, this up-to-date text includes detailed information on the most important diagnostic applications of transmission electron microscopy as well as instructions for specific tissues and current basic preparative techniques.
Virtual Microscopy and Virtual Slides in Teaching, Diagnosis, and Research is the first volume that specifically deals with virtual microscopy and its various applications. Within its pages, you will find an in-depth presentation of the current state of microscopy, written by those pioneers and experts whose inventions and innovative applications have shaped and will continue to shape this exciting new technology.
You will also discover complete coverage of a wide range of very real uses for this virtual technology, from applications in teaching, to diagnosis and research; each accompanied by numerous examples.
Virtual Microscopy and Virtual Slides in Teaching, Diagnosis, and Research will provide you with a clear and complete view of this technology of the future that is already dramatically changing the way microscopic images are captured, transmitted, evaluated, and stored.
The text first details the physical aspects of image formation in microscopy, and then proceeds to tackling phase contrast, interference, and reflected-light microscopy. Next, the selection deals with the geometrical measurements and the measurement of refraction indices, thickness, and slope. The text also covers infra-red and ultra-violet microscopy, microspectroscopy, microspectrophotometry, and chemical microscopy.
The book will be of great use to physicists who specializes in optics.
important tool for the study of biological materials. This book focuses on the underlying principles and experimental aspects of AFM under
liquid, with an easy-to-follow organization intended for new AFM scientists. The book also serves as an up-to-date review of new AFM techniques developed especially for biological samples.
Aimed at physicists, materials scientists, biologists, analytical chemists, and medicinal chemists. An ideal reference book for libraries.
From the contents:
Part I: General Atomic Force Microscopy
* AFM: Basic Concepts
* Carbon Nanotube Tips in Atomic Force Microscopy with
* Applications to Imaging in Liquid
* Force Spectroscopy
* Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquid
* Fundamentals of AFM Cantilever Dynamics in Liquid
* Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy
* High-Speed AFM for Observing Dynamic Processes in Liquid
* Integration of AFM with Optical Microscopy Techniques
Part II: Biological Applications
* DNA and Protein-DNA Complexes
* Single-Molecule Force Microscopy of Cellular Sensors
* AFM-Based Single-Cell Force Spectroscopy
* Nano-Surgical Manipulation of Living Cells with the AFM
The book may be considered as a guide to understanding the scientific basis of staining procedures and alternate actions to take when common methods do not proceed as expected. The first chapter gives general theoretical ideas from which most part of the book is largely organized around. As the book considers the arts and crafts making up the practice of histochemistry and biological staining, emphasis is given to the common physicochemical aspects of the technically diverse methodologies involved. Hence, the author has drawn ideas and information from physicochemically and biochemically related fields, such as chromatography, pharmacology, photography, tanning, and textile dyeing. The bulk of the book is structured around groups of practical procedures, such as fixation, staining with dyestuffs, metal impregnation, and selective extraction as a test of significance. Lastly, general essays on the usefulness of staining theories and on the problems arising from reagent impurities are given as examples. The text is suitable for students and researchers in the fields of physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology.
Clinical laboratory scientists and those involved in the life sciences and biotechnology will benefit from reading the book.
Hooke most famously describes a fly's eye and a plant cell (where he coined that term because plant cells, which are walled, reminded him of a monk's quarters). Known for its spectacular copperplate engravings of the miniature world, particularly its fold-out plates of insects, the text itself reinforces the tremendous power of the new microscope. The plates of insects fold out to be larger than the large folio itself, the engraving of the louse in particular folding out to four times the size of the book.
Although the book is best known for demonstrating the power of the microscope, Micrographia also describes distant planetary bodies, the wave theory of light, the organic origin of fossils, and various other philosophical and scientific interests of its author.
Published under the aegis of The Royal Society, the popularity of the book helped further the society's image and mission of being "the" scientifically progressive organization of London. Micrographia also focused attention on the miniature world, capturing the public's imagination in a radically new way. This impact is illustrated by Samuel Pepys' reaction upon completing the tome: "the most ingenious book that I ever read in my life."
Hooke also selected several objects of human origin; among these objects were the jagged edge of a honed razor and the point of a needle, seeming blunt under the microscope. His goal may well have been as a way to contrast the flawed products of mankind with the perfection of nature (and hence, in the spirit of the times, of biblical creation).
Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666, but eventually becoming ill and party to jealous intellectual disputes. These issues may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity.
He was at one time simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society and a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry and a Surveyor to the City of London after the Great Fire of London, in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire. He was also an important architect of his time – though few of his buildings now survive and some of those are generally misattributed – and was instrumental in devising a set of planning controls for London whose influence remains today. Allan Chapman has characterised him as "England's Leonardo".
Robert Gunther's Early Science in Oxford, a history of science in Oxford during the Protectorate, Restoration and Age of Enlightenment, devotes five of its fourteen volumes to Hooke.
Hooke studied at Wadham College during the Protectorate where he became one of a tightly knit group of ardent Royalists led by John Wilkins. Here he was employed as an assistant to Thomas Willis and to Robert Boyle, for whom he built the vacuum pumps used in Boyle's gas law experiments. He built some of the earliest Gregorian telescopes and observed the rotations of Mars and Jupiter. In 1665 he inspired the use of microscopes for scientific exploration with his book, Micrographia. Based on his microscopic observations of fossils, Hooke was an early proponent of biological evolution. He investigated the phenomenon of refraction, deducing the wave theory of light, and was the first to suggest that matter expands when heated and that air is made of small particles separated by relatively large distances. He performed pioneering work in the field of surveying and map-making and was involved in the work, though his plan for London on a grid system was rejected in favour of rebuilding along the existing routes.
He also came near to an experimental proof that gravity follows an inverse square law, and hypothesised that such a relation governs the motions of the planets, an idea which was subsequently developed by Newton.
The Ore Minerals Under the Microscope: An Optical Guide, Second Edition, is a very detailed color atlas for ore/opaque minerals (ore microscopy), with a main emphasis on name and synonyms, short descriptions, mineral groups, chemical compositions, information on major formation environments, optical data, reflection color/shade comparison with four common/standard minerals of a similar color or grey shade, and up to five high-quality photos for each mineral with scale.
In addition, the atlas contains a compilation from some of the prominent publications in the field of ore microscopy presented on a list of 431 minerals.Concise, full-color pictorial reference for scientists and geologistsExplains how to describe and identify microscopic samples of mineralsDraws material from prominent literature yielding more than 400 different minerals
PCR/RT-PCR in situ: Light and Electron Microscopy covers methods of in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), two new approaches in visualizing very low amounts of DNA and RNA in tissues and cell cultures at the light and electron microscopy levels. Written by experts in this field, the book provides theoretical consideration, as well as practical approaches to in situ PCR. The authors provide detailed protocols for each step, including the preparation of tissue samples, the rationale for the design of primers and revelation. They also emphasize the need for appropriate controls to meet the requirements of in situ PCR and RT-PCR specificity. Organized in a user-friendly two-column format, this book will provide you with tools necessary to perform and optimize these sensitive and powerful techniques in your research protocols.
As the topic is getting popular, it is nowadays presented and discussed at various international conferences. After the first ten years during which the topic has remained mainly theoretical with a few proof-of-concept demonstrations in the literature, the evolution has been towards applications, instrumentation, and novel designs. The physical explanations for various effects are now well understood and efficient numerical methods and analysis tools have been developed.
The book contains a comprehensive set of finite element model (FEM) scripts for solving basic phononic crystal problems. The scripts are short, easy to read, and efficient, allowing the reader to generate for him(her)self band structures for 2D and 3D phononic crystals, to compute Bloch waves, waveguide and cavity modes, and more.
This new edition retains its design-led focus and strong emphasis on visual communication while expanding its treatment of crystallography and phase diagrams and transformations to fully meet the needs of instructors teaching a first-year course in materials. The book is fully linked with the leading materials software package used in over 600 academic institutions worldwide as well as numerous government and commercial engineering departments.Winner of a 2014 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors AssociationDesign-led approach motivates and engages students in the study of materials science and engineering through real-life case studies and illustrative applicationsHighly visual full color graphics facilitate understanding of materials concepts and propertiesChapters on materials selection and design are integrated with chapters on materials fundamentals, enabling students to see how specific fundamentals can be important to the design processAvailable solutions manual, lecture slides, online image bank and materials selection charts for use in class handouts or lecture presentationsLinks with the Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES EduPack), the powerful materials selection software
Fortunately, there's Schaum's. This all-in-one-package includes more than 600 fully solved problems, examples, and practice exercises to sharpen your problem-solving skills. Plus, you will have access to 22 detailed videos featuring instructors who explain the most commonly tested problems--it's just like having your own virtual tutor! You'll find everything you need to build confidence, skills, and knowledge for the highest score possible.
More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills.
This Schaum's Outline gives you618 fully solved problems Extra practice on topics such as determinate force systems, torsion, cantilever beams, and more Support for all the major textbooks for strength of materials courses
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Extensively revised for this fourth edition, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design is recognized as one of the leading materials selection texts, and provides a unique and genuinely innovative resource.
Features new to this edition:Material property charts now in full color throughoutSignificant revisions of chapters on engineering materials, processes and process selection, and selection of material and shape while retaining the book's hallmark structure and subject contentFully revised chapters on hybrid materials and materials and the environmentAppendix on data and information for engineering materials fully updatedRevised and expanded end-of-chapter exercises and additional worked examples
Materials are introduced through their properties; materials selection charts (also available on line) capture the important features of all materials, allowing rapid retrieval of information and application of selection techniques. Merit indices, combined with charts, allow optimization of the materials selection process. Sources of material property data are reviewed and approaches to their use are given. Material processing and its influence on the design are discussed. New chapters on environmental issues, industrial engineering and materials design are included, as are new worked examples, exercise materials and a separate, online Instructor's Manual. New case studies have been developed to further illustrate procedures and to add to the practical implementation of the text.The new edition of the leading materials selection text, now with full color material property chartsIncludes significant revisions of chapters on engineering materials, processes and process selection, and selection of material and shape while retaining the book's hallmark structure and subject contentFully revised chapters on hybrid materials and materials and the environmentAppendix on data and information for engineering materials fully updatedRevised and expanded end-of-chapter exercises and additional worked examples
New chapters include: high-temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, nanomaterials, and dental materials, anodic protection. Also featured are chapters dealing with standards for corrosion testing, microbiological corrosion, and electrochemical noise.