Organized into nine chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the transmission of sound waves in semiconducting crystals that are piezoelectric. This text then examines the reactions of nonpiezoelectric semiconductors with electrons through the deformation potential that changes the shape of the Fermi surface. Other chapters consider the amplification of acoustic waves in semiconductors by the application of an electric field. The final chapter examines how measurements can delineate the Fermi surface of monovalent metals.
Physicists and engineers will find this book useful.
Comprised of six chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the significant method for measuring nonlinearities in liquids and solids in the light diffraction method. This text then describes the basic generalization of linear viscoelastic theory, which is the only theory with enough power, range, and simplicity to be of use in relating the mechanical properties as a whole. Other chapters consider the phenomena that are observed during time-dependent dilatation of amorphous polymers and discuss the relationship of this behavior to that observed during shearing deformation. The final chapter deals with the distortion of the ultrasonic waveform arising from nonlinearity.
Physicists and researchers will find this book useful.
The opening chapter discusses techniques of acoustic microscopy, aberration and resolution performance, acoustic lens transfer functions, antireflection coatings, and both transmission and reflection acoustic microscopy. The following chapter deals with the applications to the states called liquid crystals or anisotropic liquids, states in which the material flows but yet has a long-range order that makes it macroscopically anisotropic. The third chapter focuses on the principles and practical applications of electromagnetic transducers for both surface waves and bulk waves. The fourth chapter surveys first the characterization of ultrasonic transducers for materials testing and then compares actual responses to those of an ""ideal"" transducer, elaborating on the many important factors that affect the results obtained with an ultrasonic testing system. The final chapter explains the principles underlying ultrasonic measurements of flow, specifically covering eight different categories of ultrasonic flow measurement principles and their industrial applications indicated.
This book will be of great value to researchers in their fields of electronics technology and applied and engineering mechanics.
Comprised of seven chapters, this volume begins with a historical account of relaxation processes in sound propagation, followed by an analysis of acoustic vibrational modes in quartz crystals. The reader is then introduced to electron and phonon drag on mobile dislocations at low temperatures, together with two-pulse phonon echoes in solid-state acoustics and dynamic polarization echoes in powdered materials. The book also considers memory echoes in powders before concluding with an evaluation of acousto-optic transduction mechanisms used in fiber optic acoustic sensors, together with their practical implementation.
This book will be of interest to physicists.
This volume is composed of five chapters, and begins with the presentation of the theoretical concepts and experimental data concerning the role of long-wavelength acoustic phonons in Jahn-Teller phase transitions. The second chapter highlights the use of superconducting tunneling junctions as phonon generators and detectors followed by a discussion on ultrasonic wave propagation in glasses at low temperatures in the third chapter. The fourth chapter explores various integral transform methods for describing the elastic response to acoustic pulsed. These methods include spatial Fourier and/or Bessel transforms the Watson-Sommerfeld transformation or the Poisson summation formula, and the Fourier or Laplace transform for the time behavior. The final chapter outlines the measurement methods for ultrasonic phase and group velocities and attenuation together with their industrial applications.
The book discusses various topics in physical acoustics such as the process of determining the Debye temperature; use of measurements of polycrystalline and sintered materials in determining the Debye temperature; sound propagation in the earth and the attenuation mechanisms present for seismic waves; the occurrence of internal friction in strained alkali halide crystals; and the interaction of acoustic waves with magnetic spins.
Physicists and geophysicists will find this volume interesting.
Comprised of seven chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the interactions that can happen between electrons and acoustic waves when magnetic fields are present. This text then describes acoustic and plasma waves in ionized gases wherein oscillations are subject to hydrodynamic as well as electromagnetic forces. Other chapters examine the resonances and relaxations that can take place in polymer systems. This book discusses as well the general theory of the interaction of a weak sinusoidal field with matter. The final chapter describes the sound velocities in the rocks composing the Earth.
This book is a valuable resource for physicists and engineers.
Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with a detailed treatment of the theory of third sound in superfluid helium films, third sound resonators, and many other properties. The second chapter is devoted to the MAE method, with emphasis on its ability to produce results in acoustics and to provide insight into classical problems. Subsequent chapters deal with bulk and surface waves; phase coded signals and their generation and detection by interdigital grid structures; elastic surface wave devices such as pulse compression filters; and nonlinear effects in quartz crystals. The final chapter describes acoustic emission and the noise produced in materials when they are strained.
This book will be of interest to physicists.
The first chapter extends the methods for studying high frequency sound waves in the hypersonic range by the technique of Brillouin scattering. The next chapter discusses the acoustic properties of materials of the perovskite structure. These materials have ""soft"" modes, which are transverse optic modes of the phonon spectrum that have unusually low and strongly temperature dependent frequencies. This chapter expounds the influence of the soft modes, with particular attention to potassium tantalate and strontium titanate.
The third chapter gives a theoretical treatment of the properties and possibilities of surface waves in crystals that are becoming of increasing interest for delay lines, amplifiers of sound waves, and other practical applications. The fourth chapter discusses the experimental methods and results of the dynamic shear properties of solvents and polystyrene solutions from 20 to 300 MHz, including a description of its materials and steady-flow properties.
The final chapter deals with condensed helium, which requires quantum reactions to account for its properties. While the experimental data on solid helium are still insufficient, this chapter gives both a theoretical and an experimental account of sound propagation in solid helium, including various liquid forms.
This book is recommended to both students and physicists conducting research on physical acoustics.
The selection first tackles wave propagation in fluids and normal solids and guided wave propagation in elongated cylinders and plates. Discussions focus on fundamentals of continuum mechanics; small-amplitude waves in a linear viscoelastic medium; representation of oscillations and waves; and special effects associated with guided elastic waves in plates and cylinders. The book also touches on piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials and their functions in transducers, including polycrystalline ferroelectrics, equations of the piezoelectric medium, and equivalent circuits.
The publication takes a look at ultrasonic methods for measuring the mechanical properties of
liquids and solids and the use of piezoelectric crystals and mechanical resonators in filters and oscillators. The text then ponders on guided wave ultrasonic delay lines and multiple reflection ultrasonic delay lines, as well as transmission of sound waves in solids, torsional mode delay lines, and transducer considerations.
The selection is a valuable reference for readers interested in physical acoustics.
Chapter 1 deals with the theory and application of anelasticity in studying various types of relaxations, such as point defect, grain-boundary, thermoelastic, phonon and electron relaxations, and magnetic relaxations. Chapter 2 presents the different methods used in studying the very important Type II superconductor materials. Chapter 3 surveys the plate modes in surface acoustic wave devices and the theory needed to understand plate modes in piezoelectric media, as well as to eliminate or reduce their effect on the response. Chapter 4 tackles the ways of predicting diffraction loss and phase distortion, and discusses the alleviation of diffraction effects by acoustic beam shaping, material selection and orientation, and alterations in the transducer structure. Chapter 5 examines plate vibrators whose thickness direction has an arbitrary crystallographic orientation and the tools for the analysis of the properties of doubly rotated cuts, with special emphasis on such cuts in quartz, berlinite, lithium tantalate, and lithium niobate. Chapter 6 discusses generalized ray theory and transient responses of layered elastic solids.
This book will be of great value to researchers in the fields of electronics technology and applied and engineering mechanics.
Chapter 1 provides the history of ultrasonics and the developments of its application in crystal transducers, oscillators, selective wave filters, underwater sound, dentistry, and medicine. Chapter 2 is a comprehensive account of the use of circuit model analysis to design interdigital transducers (IDTs) for surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. This chapter also looks into the total filter design problem for the important case of SAW filters composed solely of IDTs and matching circuits. Chapter 3 discusses the resonance scattering theory, its application to acoustic-and elastic-wave scattering, and the relevant experiments. Chapter 4 deals with the optical detection of acoustic emissions, acoustic emissions during various transformations, and dislocation effects.
Researchers in the fields of electronics technology and applied and engineering mechanics will find this book invaluable.
The first chapter provides the essential results obtained concerning acoustic surface waves on curved surfaces and relates them to the corresponding plane surface waves. This chapter also presents a classification of surface and lateral waves on flat surfaces along with their properties. The second chapter describes a group of acoustic wave problems that are particularly suitable for study by means of Schlieren visualization. The third chapter deals with the production of ultrasonic waves by direct electromagnetic generation, while type II superconductors, which are useful for superconducting magnets with strong magnetic fields and with high current densities, are investigated in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter discusses the principles of hologram and its application to very short length electromagnetic waves known as microwaves and to acoustic waves of various wavelengths.
Comprised of six chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the various effects that can take place when waves are propagated in solids subject to high magnetic fields. This text then discusses the velocity changes and attenuation in solid and liquid metals. Other chapters consider the transmission of sound waves in superconductors and explore the giant quantum oscillations at high magnetic fields. This book discusses as well the X-ray diffraction topological method for investigating resonant vibrations. The final chapter deals with the transmission of hypersonic sound waves.
This book is a valuable resource for physicists and engineers.
Chapter 1 describes the principles and applications of a tool for investigating phonons in dielectric crystals, the spin phonon spectrometer. The next chapter discusses the use of ultrasound in investigating Landau quantum oscillations in the presence of a magnetic field and their relation to the strain dependence of the Fermi surface of metals.
The third chapter focuses on the ultrasonic measurements that are made by pulsing methods with velocities obtained through phase comparison methods and attenuations obtained through comparing pulse heights for successive reflections. In Chapter 4, methods for measuring the properties of solids and liquids at very high pressures are described.
Chapter 5 explores some of the relationships between the thermal equilibrium properties of solids and mechanical properties such as the second- and third-order elastic constants. The sixth chapter discusses the interaction of sound waves with thermal phonons in dielectric crystals and emphasizes the relationship between the various theories proposed and the effect of phonon interactions on the velocity of sound. The last chapter describes the applications to metals and rock mechanics of internal friction at low frequencies due to dislocations.
This book is beneficial to students and physicists conducting work on physical acoustics.
Chapter 1 explains that when a dislocation moves through a crystal, it gives up energy to the medium either through a nonlinear motion over a dynamic Peierls barrier or through conversion of energy by scattering of electrons or phonons, which takes place with an energy loss proportional to the velocity. The next chapter discusses the propagation of ultrasonic surface waves in thin layers. The thin layer confines a surface wave laterally, providing a desired dispersion characteristic, acting as part of a transducer for generating surface waves, or providing an interaction region for other phenomena. Chapter 3 deals with a generation of solid state control elements that utilize the inverse piezoelectric effect. The last chapter provides approximate equations for coupled resonators and methods for accurately controlling the band frequency and bandwidth.
This book is a useful reference for students and physicists working on physical acoustics.
The selection first offers information on the transmission of sound waves in gases at very low pressures and the phenomenological theory of the relaxation phenomena in gases. Topics include free molecule propagation, phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes, and simultaneous multiple relaxation processes. The book then takes a look at relaxation processes in gases, as well as excitation relaxation, molecular theory of relaxation times, and relaxation of a dissociation equilibrium.
The manuscript surveys thermal, structural, and shear relaxation in liquids. Discussions focus on the basic theory for a single chemical reaction, structural viscosity, and cooperative effects on mechanical and dielectric processes. The book also underscores the propagation of ultrasonic waves in electrolytic solutions, including ultrasonic velocity and relaxation processes in electrolytic solutions.
The selection is highly recommended for readers interested in physical acoustics.
Taking on prominent thinkers who argue that music is nothing more than an evolutionary accident, Levitin poses that music is fundamental to our species, perhaps even more so than language. Drawing on the latest research and on musical examples ranging from Mozart to Duke Ellington to Van Halen, he reveals:
• How composers produce some of the most pleasurable effects of listening to music by exploiting the way our brains make sense of the world
• Why we are so emotionally attached to the music we listened to as teenagers, whether it was Fleetwood Mac, U2, or Dr. Dre
• That practice, rather than talent, is the driving force behind musical expertise
• How those insidious little jingles (called earworms) get stuck in our head
A Los Angeles Times Book Award finalist, This Is Your Brain on Music will attract readers of Oliver Sacks and David Byrne, as it is an unprecedented, eye-opening investigation into an obsession at the heart of human nature.
This book is an invaluable resource for burgeoning audio engineers. With clear writing and comprehensive illustrations, fundamental concepts of acoustics are explained in easy to understand language. The operating principles of the essential components of a sound system, as well as their use in the design and implementation of the system, are covered in detail. Operational aspects of executing a live performance are also given full treatment.
By providing practical information surrounding the concepts, implementations, and practices central to live sound reinforcement, this book sets the foundation upon which to build and move forward with confidence.
This is the first in a series of digital audio-engineering books written by Wick van den Belt, who used to be head-lecturer on various audio engineering courses.
Dr. Olson discusses the nature of sound waves; explains the division of sound into scale patterns and the traditional method of notating them; describes the individual characteristics of all musical instruments currently in use (including the human voice); shows how the ears hear; discusses concert hall and recording studio acoustics, amplification systems, etc; describes the elements of sound reproduction systems from the telephone to the stereo record player; and concludes with a new chapter on the production, development, and potentialities of electronic music.
Under these broad headings, readers will find a close analysis of the way in which a violin produces sound; descriptions of carbon, crystal, dynamic, velocity, and unidirectional microphones; a comparison of the relative absorbency of 22 acoustic materials, building materials, and objects; a description of how music can be produced by a digital computer; and much, much more. Conductors will find suggestions on positioning their orchestras; performers will understand the dynamics of their instruments; recording engineers and acousticians will discover a remarkably comprehensive reference work; and music teachers, students, physicists, and enthusiasts in general will find easy access to a vast wealth of information.
Serving both as a text for students in engineering departments and as a reference for practicing engineers, this book focuses on electroacoustics, analyzing the behavior of transducers with the aid of electro-mechano-acoustical circuits. Assuming knowledge of electrical circuit theory, it starts by guiding readers through the basics of sound fields, the laws governing sound generation, radiation, and propagation, and general terminology. It then moves on to examine:Microphones (electrostatic and electromagnetic), electrodynamic loudspeakers, earphones, and hornsLoudspeaker enclosures, baffles, and waveguidesMiniature applications (e.g., MEMS in I-Pods and cellphones)Sound in enclosures of all sizes, such as school rooms, offices, auditoriums, and living rooms
Numerical examples and summary charts are given throughout the text to make the material easily applicable to practical design. It is a valuable resource for experimenters, acoustical consultants, and to those who anticipate being engineering designers of audio equipment.An update for the digital age of Leo Beranek's classic 1954 book AcousticsProvides detailed acoustic fundamentals, enabling better understanding of complex design parameters, measurement methods, and dataExtensive appendices cover frequency-response shapes for loudspeakers, mathematical formulas, and conversion factors
In their conversations with the justices, Brian Lamb and Susan Swain bring readers into a fascinating world to which few have had access. Chief Justice John Roberts talks about the role of the Court in society, his role as chief justice, and the process of deciding cases. Justice Stephen Breyer takes us on a private tour of his chambers and describes the differences between the Court and the Congress. And new Justices Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan reflect on their first impressions of the job. Through these encounters, the justices’ personalities, intellects, and devotion to the Court emerge.
Enriching this material are Mark Farkas’s interviews with journalists, court historians, and other experts on the Court. Reporters Joan Biskupic and Lyle Denniston discuss the Supreme Court in action and the impact of a new member of the Court. Clerk of the Supreme Court William Suter illuminates the traditions of the Court. Historian James O’Hara discusses the Supreme Court building and its history. Former Solicitor General Drew Days III and attorney Maureen Mahoney describe the experience of facing the justices in fast-paced oral arguments.
The Supreme Court offers readers a rare window into the nation’s highest court through the eyes of those who serve there. It is absorbing reading for anyone interested in this vital and powerful institution.
Here, you can enjoy Dr. Emoto's captivating water-crystal photographs and text in this unique collection. The possible benefits you may experience include decreased joint and back pain; improved function of the nervous, circulatory, lymphatic, and immune systems; and the release of negative emotions such as anxiety, self-pity, and depression. The combination of images and words in Water Crystal Healing concentrates consciousness as never before, providing a unique experience for healing.
Dr Michael Ainslie is eminently qualified to write this unique book. He has worked on sonar performance modeling problems since 1983. He has written many peer reviewed research articles and conference papers related to sonar performance modeling, making contributions in the fields of sound propagation and detection theory.
Daniel J. Levitin's astounding debut bestseller, This Is Your Brain on Music, enthralled and delighted readers as it transformed our understanding of how music gets in our heads and stays there. Now in his second New York Times bestseller, his genius for combining science and art reveals how music shaped humanity across cultures and throughout history.
Here he identifies six fundamental song functions or types—friendship, joy, comfort, religion, knowledge, and love—then shows how each in its own way has enabled the social bonding necessary for human culture and society to evolve. He shows, in effect, how these “six songs” work in our brains to preserve the emotional history of our lives and species.
Dr. Levitin combines cutting-edge scientific research from his music cognition lab at McGill University and work in an array of related fields; his own sometimes hilarious experiences in the music business; and illuminating interviews with musicians such as Sting and David Byrne, as well as conductors, anthropologists, and evolutionary biologists. The World in Six Songs is, ultimately, a revolution in our understanding of how human nature evolved—right up to the iPod.
The topics that are treated include sound propagation, Fourier and time-frequency analysis, psychoacoustics, analog and digital signal processing theory, computer science and MP3 sound compression, and of course... music!
Architectural Acoustics also includes more advanced chapters on specific design problems, including treatment of multifamily dwellings, office buildings, sound reinforcement systems, rooms for music, multipurpose rooms, auditoriums, sanctuaries, and studios and listening rooms. Also covered is the theory loudspeaker systems and sound system modeling as well as in-depth presentation of computer modeling, ray tracing and auralization.
* Comprehensive guide to the basics of acoustical science and its applications to architectural design.
* Author is renowned expert engaged in acoustical engineering for 20 years
* Covers the latest environmental regulations and health and safety research related to sound inside and outside of buildings.
The book first offers information on the Stokes-Navier equations of hydrodynamics, as well as equations of motion, viscosity, formal introduction of volume viscosity, and linearized wave equation for a nonviscous fluid. The manuscript then ponders on energy exchange between internal and external degrees of freedom as relaxation phenomenon; effect of slow energy exchange on sound propagation; different ways of evaluating the dispersion curve; and exact calculation of absorption and dispersion.
The text examines the effects of chemical reactions, thermodynamic theory of relaxation, and mixtures. The book also evaluates the absorption of high intensity sound waves, ratio of relaxation absorption to classical absorption at maximum, and gas mixtures. Discussions also focus on translational relaxation in monatomic gases, linear triatomic molecules, and results for rotational relaxation.
The manuscript is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the absorption and dispersion of ultrasonic waves.
In the booklet, the digital audio environment has been reduced down to three key areas: The Input, Processing, and the Output. Each is explored thoroughly and complemented with diagrams, allowing comprehension of even the most complex digital principles with minimal technical language.
That is why this valuable reference provides a complete survey of methods for computational acoustics, namely FEM and BEM. It demonstrates that both methods can be effectively used in the complementary cases.
The chapters by well-known authors are evenly balanced: 10 chapters on FEM and 10 on BEM. An initial conceptual chapter describes the derivation of the wave equation and supplies a unified approach to FEM and BEM for the harmonic case. A categorization of the remaining chapters and a personal outlook complete this introduction. In what follows, both FEM and BEM are discussed in the context of very different problems.
Firstly, this comprises numerical issues, e.g. convergence, multi-frequency solutions and highly efficient methods; and secondly, solutions techniques for the particular difficulties that arise with external problems, e.g. discussion of absorbing boundaries for FEM and treatment of the non-uniqueness problem for BEM. Finally, both parts on FEM and on BEM are completed by chapters on related problems, e.g. formulations for fluid-structure interaction. In addition to time-harmonic problems, transient problems are considered in some chapters. Many theoretical and industrial applications are presented.
Overall, this book is a unified review of the state-of-the-art on FEM and BEM for computational acoustics.
In the 1960s, rock and pop music recording questioned the convention that recordings should recreate the illusion of a concert hall setting. The Wall of Sound that Phil Spector built behind various artists and the intricate eclecticism of George Martin's recordings of the Beatles did not resemble live performances—in the Albert Hall or elsewhere—but instead created a new sonic world. The role of the record producer, writes Virgil Moorefield in The Producer as Composer, was evolving from that of organizer to auteur; band members became actors in what Frank Zappa called a "movie for your ears." In rock and pop, in the absence of a notated score, the recorded version of a song—created by the producer in collaboration with the musicians—became the definitive version. Moorefield, a musician and producer himself, traces this evolution with detailed discussions of works by producers and producer-musicians including Spector and Martin, Brian Eno, Bill Laswell, Trent Reznor, Quincy Jones, and the Chemical Brothers. Underlying the transformation, Moorefield writes, is technological development: new techniques—tape editing, overdubbing, compression—and, in the last ten years, inexpensive digital recording equipment that allows artists to become their own producers. What began when rock and pop producers reinvented themselves in the 1960s has continued; Moorefield describes the importance of disco, hip-hop, remixing, and other forms of electronic music production in shaping the sound of contemporary pop. He discusses the making of Pet Sounds and the production of tracks by Public Enemy with equal discernment, drawing on his own years of studio experience. Much has been written about rock and pop in the last 35 years, but hardly any of it deals with what is actually heard in a given pop song. The Producer as Composer tries to unravel the mystery of good pop: why does it sound the way it does?
This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work.
Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is the Full member of Russian Academy of Sciences, the head of Department at Moscow University and Professor at BTH (Sweden). Dr. Saichev A.I. is the Professor at the Faculty of Radiophysics of Nizhny Novgorod State University, Professor of ETH Zürich.
This simple inversion reveals a panoply of possibilities by which we can re-evaluate how hearing animals use, produce, and perceive sound. Nuance in vocalizations become signals of enticement or boundary setting; silence becomes a field ripe in auditory possibilities; predator/prey relationships are infused with acoustic deception, and sounds that have been considered territorial cues become the fabric of cooperative acoustical communities. This inversion also expands the context of sound perception into a larger perspective that centers on biological adaptation within acoustic habitats. Here, the rapid synchronized flight patterns of flocking birds and the tight maneuvering of schooling fish becomes an acoustic engagement. Likewise, when stridulating crickets synchronize their summer evening chirrups, it has more to do with the ‘cricket community’ monitoring their collective boundaries rather than individual crickets establishing ‘personal’ territory or breeding fitness.
In "Hear Where We Are" the author continuously challenges many of the bio-acoustic orthodoxies, reframing the entire inquiry into sound perception and communication. By moving beyond our common assumptions, many of the mysteries of acoustical behavior become revealed, exposing a fresh and fertile panorama of acoustical experience and adaptation.
The book discusses in detail the derivation of general sparse representations of acoustic MIMO systems in signal or system dependent transform domains. Efficient adaptive filtering algorithms in the transform domains are presented and the relation between the signal- and the system-based sparse representations is emphasized. Furthermore, the book presents a novel approach to spatially preprocess the loudspeaker signals in a full-duplex communication system. The idea of the preprocessing is to prevent the echoes from being captured by the microphone array in order to support the AEC system. The preprocessing stage is given as an exemplarily application of a novel unified framework for the synthesis of sound figures. Finally, a multichannel system for the acoustic echo suppression is presented that can be used as a postprocessing stage for removing residual echoes. As first of its kind, it extracts the near-end signal from the microphone signal with a distortionless constraint and without requiring a double-talk detector.
Headless Males Make Great Lovers and Other Unusual Natural Histories celebrates the extraordinary world of animals with essays on curious creatures and their amazing behaviors. In five thematic chapters, Marty Crump—a tropical field biologist well known for her work with the reproductive behavior of amphibians—examines the bizarre conduct of animals as they mate, parent, feed, defend themselves, and communicate. Crump's enthusiasm for the unusual behaviors she describes-from sex change and free love in sponges to aphrodisiac concoctions in bats-is visible on every page, thanks to her skilled storytelling, which makes even sea slugs, dung beetles, ticks, and tapeworms fascinating and appealing. Steeped in biology, Headless Males Make Great Lovers points out that diverse and unrelated animals often share seemingly bizarre behaviors—evidence, Crump argues, that these natural histories, though outwardly weird, are successful ways of living.
Illustrated throughout, and filled with vignettes of personal and scientific interest, Headless Males Make Great Lovers will enchant the general reader with its tales of blood-squirting horned lizards and intestine-ejecting sea cucumbers—all in the service of a greater appreciation of the diversity of the natural histories of animals.
“ I don’t know at what point noise became intolerable for me,” George Michelsen Foy writes as he recalls standing on a subway platform in Manhattan, hands clamped firmly over his ears, face contorted in pain. But only then does Foy realize how overwhelmed he is by the city’s noise and vow to seek out absolute silence, if such an absence of sound can be discovered.
Foy begins his quest by carrying a pocket-sized decibel meter to measure sound levels in the areas he frequents most—the subway, the local café, different rooms of his apartment—as well as the places he visits that inform his search, including the Parisian catacombs, Joseph Pulitzer’s “silent vault,” the snowy expanses of the Berkshires, and a giant nickel mine in Canada, where he travels more than a mile underground to escape all human-made sound. Along the way, Foy experiments with noise-canceling headphones, floatation tanks, and silent meditation before he finally tackles a Minnesota laboratory’s anechoic chamber that the Guinness Book of World Records calls “the quietest place on earth,” and where no one has ever endured even forty-five minutes alone in its pitch-black interior before finding the silence intolerable.
Drawing on history, science, journalistic reportage, philosophy, religion, and personal memory, as well as conversations with experts in various fields whom he meets during his odyssey, Foy finds answers to his questions: How does one define silence? Did human beings ever experience silence in their early history? What is the relationship between noise and space? What are the implications of silence and our need for it—physically, mentally, emotionally, politically? Does absolute silence
actually exist? If so, do we really want to hear it? And if we do hear it, what does it mean to us?
According to the Environmental Protection Agency, 30 million Americans suffer from environment-related deafness in today’s digital age of pervasive sound and sensory overload. Roughly the same number suffer from tinnitus, a condition, also environmentally related, that makes silence impossible in even the quietest places. In this respect, Foy’s quest for silence represents more than a simple psychological inquiry; both his queries and his findings help to answer the question “How can we live saner, healthier lives today?”
Innovative, perceptive, and delightfully written, Zero Decibels will surely change how we perceive and appreciate the soundscape of our lives.
The topic of digital audio coding is of interest to a wide audience, including engineering and industrial professionals working in telecommunications, hardware design, music, and software product development.
Introduction to Digital Audio Coding and Standards provides a detailed introduction to the methods, implementations, and official standards of state-of-the-art audio coding technology. In the book, the theory and implementation of each of the basic coder building blocks is addressed. The building blocks are then fit together into a full coder and the reader is shown how to judge the performance of such a coder. Finally, the authors discuss the features, choices, and performance of the main state-of-the-art coders defined in the ISO/IEC MPEG and HDTV standards and in commercial use today.
The ultimate goal of this book is to present the reader with a solid enough understanding of the major issues in the theory and implementation of perceptual audio coders that they are able to build their own simple audio codec. There is no other source available where a non-professional has access to the true secrets of audio coding.
Introduction to Digital Audio Coding and Standards is based on a graduate course at Stanford University going into its 7th year. The subject material has been fine-tuned through this process to be accessible to readers of vastly differing backgrounds, levels of preparation, and interests. Exercises that apply the concepts covered are included at the end of each chapter.
This is a complete reference useful for a broad range of readers including guitar manufacturer employees, working luthiers, and interested guitar enthusiasts who do not have a science or engineering background.