From master language creator David J. Peterson comes a creative guide to language construction for sci-fi and fantasy fans, writers, game creators, and language lovers. Peterson offers a captivating overview of language creation, covering its history from Tolkien’s creations and Klingon to today’s thriving global community of conlangers. He provides the essential tools necessary for inventing and evolving new languages, using examples from a variety of languages including his own creations, punctuated with references to everything from Star Wars to Michael Jackson. Along the way, behind-the-scenes stories lift the curtain on how he built languages like Dothraki for HBO’s Game of Thrones and Shiväisith for Marvel’s Thor: The Dark World, and an included phrasebook will start fans speaking Peterson’s constructed languages. The Art of Language Invention is an inside look at a fascinating culture and an engaging entry into a flourishing art form—and it might be the most fun you’ll ever have with linguistics.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you’ll learn how to analyze sample datasets and write simple machine learning algorithms. Machine Learning for Hackers is ideal for programmers from any background, including business, government, and academic research.Develop a naïve Bayesian classifier to determine if an email is spam, based only on its textUse linear regression to predict the number of page views for the top 1,000 websitesLearn optimization techniques by attempting to break a simple letter cipherCompare and contrast U.S. Senators statistically, based on their voting recordsBuild a “whom to follow” recommendation system from Twitter data
Called the “father of framing” by The New York Times, Lakoff explains how framing is about ideas—ideas that come before policy, ideas that make sense of facts, ideas that are proactive not reactive, positive not negative, ideas that need to be communicated out loud every day in public.
The ALL NEW Don’t Think of an Elephant! picks up where the original book left off—delving deeper into how framing works, how framing has evolved in the past decade, how to speak to people who harbor elements of both progressive and conservative worldviews, how to counter propaganda and slogans, and more.
In this updated and expanded edition, Lakoff, urges progressives to go beyond the typical laundry list of facts, policies, and programs and present a clear moral vision to the country—one that is traditionally American and can become a guidepost for developing compassionate, effective policy that upholds citizens’ well-being and freedom.
At last—there is a truly effective and enjoyable way to learn Chinese characters! This book helps students to learn and remember both the meanings and the pronunciations of over 800 characters. This otherwise daunting task is made easier by the use of techniques based on the psychology of learning and memory. key principles include the use of visual imagery, the visualization of short "stories," and the systematic building up of more complicated characters from basic building blocks.
Although Learning Chinese Characters is primarily a book for serious learners of Mandarin Chinese, it can be used by anyone with interest in Chinese characters, without any prior knowledge of Chinese. It can be used alongside (or after, or even before) a course in the Chinese language. All characters are simplified (as in mainland China), but traditional characters are also given, when available.
Key features: Specially designed pictures and stories are used in a structured way to make the learning process more enjoyable and effective, reducing the need for rote learning to the absolute minimum. The emphasis throughout is on learning and remembering the meanings and pronunciations of the characters. Tips are also included on learning techniques and how to avoid common problems. Characters are introduced in a logical sequence, which also gives priority to learning the most common characters first. Modern, simplified characters are used, with pronunciations given in pinyin. Key information is given for each character, including radical, stroke–count, traditional form, compounds, and guidance on writing the character.
This is a practical guide with a clear, concise and appealing layout, and it is well–indexed with easy lookup methods. The 800 Chinese characters and 1,033 compounds specified for the original HSK Level A proficiency test are covered.
Rosten described his book as “a relaxed lexicon of Yiddish, Hebrew, and Yinglish words often encountered in English, plus dozens that ought to be, with serendipitous excursions into Jewish humor, habits, holidays, history, religion, ceremonies, folklore, and cuisine–the whole generously garnished with stories, anecdotes, epigrams, Talmudic quotations, folk sayings, and jokes.” To this day, it is considered the seminal work on Yiddish in America–a true classic and a staple in the libraries of Jews and non-Jews alike.
With the recent renaissance of interest in Yiddish, and in keeping with a language that embodies the variety and vibrancy of life itself, The New Joys of Yiddish brings Leo Rosten’s masterful work up to date. Revised for the first time by Lawrence Bush in close consultation with Rosten’s daughters, it retains the spirit of the original–with its wonderful jokes, tidbits of cultural history, Talmudic and Biblical references, and tips on pronunciation–and enhances it with hundreds of new entries, thoughtful commentary on how Yiddish has evolved over the years, and an invaluable new English-to-Yiddish index. In addition, The New Joys of Yiddish includes wondrous and amusing illustrations by renowned artist R.O. Blechman.
From the Hardcover edition.
The Japanese language has two basic writing systems, hiragana and katakana, in addition to the one that uses Chinese characters or Kanji. This handy book teaches you a new mnemonics–based method to read and write the basic 92 hiragana and katakana characters. Along with its sister book: Japanese Kanji for Beginners it provides a complete introduction to written Japanese. Memorable picture mnemonics help you to learn the characters by associating their shapes and sounds with combinations of images and English words already familiar to you. Clear examples and entertaining exercises offer opportunities to read, write, use and practice all 46 basic hiragana and 46 basic katakana characters, plus the remaining kana that stand for more complex sounds. Polish your knowledge with word searches, crossword puzzles, fill–in–the–blanks, timed recognition quizzes, and other interesting activities. The downloadable audio allows you to print out your own flash cards (featuring the same mnemonic images taught in the book) to help you review and practice, even while you're on the go.
Drawing on cutting-edge developments in biology, neurology, psychology, and linguistics, Charles Yang's The Infinite Gift takes us inside the astonishingly complex but largely subconscious process by which children learn to talk and to understand the spoken word.
Yang illuminates the rich mysteries of language: why French newborns already prefer the sound of French to English; why baby-talk, though often unintelligible, makes perfect linguistic sense; why babies born deaf still babble -- but with their hands; why the grammars of some languages may be evolutionarily stronger than others; and why one of the brain's earliest achievements may in fact be its most complex.
Yang also puts forth an exciting new theory. Building on Noam Chomsky's notion of a universal grammar -- the idea that every human being is born with an intuitive grasp of grammar -- Yang argues that we learn our native languages in part by unlearning the grammars of all the rest.
This means that the next time you hear a child make a grammatical mistake, it may not be a mistake at all; his or her grammar may be perfectly correct in Chinese or Navajo or ancient Greek. This is the brain's way of testing its options as it searches for the local and thus correct grammar -- and then discards all the wrong ones.
And we humans, Yang shows, are not the only creatures who learn this way. In fact, learning by unlearning may be an ancient evolutionary mechanism that runs throughout the animal kingdom. Thus, babies learn to talk in much the same way that birds learn to sing.
Enlivened by Yang's experiences with his own young son, The Infinite Gift is as charming as it is challenging, as thoughtful as it is thought-provoking. An absorbing read for parents, educators, and anyone who has ever wondered about the origins of that uniquely human gift: our ability to speak and, just as miraculous, to understand one another.
Introducción a la Sociolingüística Hispánica is a much-needed undergraduate introduction to the study of sociolinguistics in the Spanish-speaking world. Written in accessible Spanish, each chapter includes an overview, a review of topics, a section of key terms, exercises and questions.Provides up-to-date coverage of the main topics of sociolinguistics – such as phonological variation, bilingualism, and language attitudes – in relation to the Hispanic world Incorporates a variety of activities to support and extend student’s learning Offers a unique pedagogical approach, in which data analysis exercises encourage students to conduct research by using electronic databases, popular music, and audiovisual material Features examples that apply to Spanish varieties spoken around the world, with special sections dedicated to the Spanish varieties of the US
Although more people are studying the Japanese language than ever before, others are still wary of starting because they believe, "it's too difficult." But A Japanese Phrase A Day will show absolute beginners that Japanese is in many ways much easier than other languages and it will help intermediate Japanese learners review and improve upon their past studies and practice Japanese everyday. Japanese is a fascinating language that uses Chinese characters (kanji) as well as two other alphabets (hiragana and katakana). After a few weeks of gradual progress your ability to read Japanese, write Japanese and speak Japanese will grow tremendously.
This calendar like desk companion is divided into monthly topics and builds upon itself, one day at a time. Japanese phrases are kept short, simple and functional. Each of the 365 pages include these four components:The phrase or dialogue in Japanese charactersA transliteration using English letters (romanji), which gives English speakers a guide to pronunciationThe English translationA related note about the phrase, Japan, or Japanese culture to add context.Audio for all of the Japanese Phrase A Day entries is available online. Listening and repeating after the native speakers in the audio files will help you to practice Japanese regularly and polish your spoken Japanese and Japanese listening comprehension. To get started, turn to Day One and begin studying the phrase, its meaning, pronunciation and cultural context. Then tear off the sheet and practice writing it a few times. In a matter of days you'll be on your way to reading and writing Japanese!
These topics are presented in such a way that students can examine the inherent diversity of the communicative systems used in the United States as both a form of cultural enrichment and as the basis for socio-political conflict. The author team outlines the different viewpoints on contemporary issues surrounding language in the US and contextualizes these issues within linguistic facts, to help students think critically and formulate logical discussions. To provide opportunities for further examination and debate, chapters are organized around key misconceptions or questions ("I don't have an accent" or "Immigrants don't want to learn English"), bringing them to the forefront for readers to address directly.
Language and Linguistic Diversity in the US is a fresh and unique take on a widely taught topic. It is ideal for students from a variety of disciplines or with no prior knowledge of the field, and a useful text for introductory courses on language in the US, American English, language variation, language ideology, and sociolinguistics.
"Paul Dickson is a national treasure who deserves a wide audience," declared Library Journal. The author of more than 50 books, Dickson has written extensively on language. This expanded edition of War Slang features new material by journalist Ben Lando, Iraq Bureau Chief for Iraq Oil Report and a regular contributor to The Wall Street Journal and Time. It serves language lovers and military historians alike by adding an eloquent new dimension to our understanding of war.
Textbook publishers and state education agencies have sought to root out racist, sexist, and elitist language in classroom and library materials. But according to Diane Ravitch, a leading historian of education, what began with the best of intentions has veered toward bizarre extremes. At a time when we celebrate and encourage diversity, young readers are fed bowdlerized texts, devoid of the references that give these works their meaning and vitality. With forceful arguments and sensible solutions for rescuing American education from the pressure groups that have made classrooms bland and uninspiring, The Language Police offers a powerful corrective to a cultural scandal.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
These user-friendly Arabic flash cards continue to develop the language skills of beginning Arabic students and others interested in learning Arabic. Volume 1 has a strong focus on basic communication and vocabulary-building—the first 50 cards are divided into three main sections: sounds & orthography, basic communicative words, and key communicative expressions; the rest of the cards build on the most common verbs and related derivatives in the basic communicative patterns to extend the vocabulary base of the learner. Contains 448 flash cards plus a 32–page index booklet. Learn 448 main words plus 2,240 related words and phrases—2,240 basic vocabulary items. Arabic script, romanized forms and English meanings are given for all items. A sample sentence in Arabic with its English translation shows how the main word is used.
This resource is essential for the serious student looking to get an A in Kanji class or the Japanese language enthusiast ready to take written Japanese to the next level. This new expanded edition teaches all 464 essential Kanji required for Levels 4 and 5 of the new Japanese Language Proficiency Test and the AP Japanese Language exam. Each Kanji is presented with the information needed to learn and remember the character and its many variations and uses. Cumulative exercises allow students to practice the Kanji and strengthen existing knowledge. An indexing feature allows Japanese Kanji Power to function as a Kanji dictionary.
The presentation of each Kanji incorporates a number of key features, including: Several example sentences that introduce each kanji reading in context. A list of frequently-used compounds and phrases that allows you to increase your practical vocabulary. Background information, such as the original of the character of a mnemonic to aid in memorization. Stroke count and a stroke-order diagram. Writing hints and a writing practice grid. Numerous exercises and frequent reviews for reinforcement.
This textbook includes:
three parts covering research and study skills, language structure and use, and how texts operate in sociocultural contexts a wide range of international real-life texts, including items from South China Morning Post, art’otel Berlin and Metro Sweden, which cover digital and print media, advertising, recipes and much more objectives and skill review for each section, activities, commentaries, suggestions for independent assignments, and an analysis checklist for students to follow a combined glossary and index and a comprehensive further reading section a companion website at www.routledge.com/cw/goddard with further links and exercises for students.
Written by two experienced teachers of English Language, How to Analyse Texts is key reading for all students of English language and linguistics.
Through a series of recent breakthroughs, deep learning has boosted the entire field of machine learning. Now, even programmers who know close to nothing about this technology can use simple, efficient tools to implement programs capable of learning from data. This practical book shows you how.
By using concrete examples, minimal theory, and two production-ready Python frameworks—scikit-learn and TensorFlow—author Aurélien Géron helps you gain an intuitive understanding of the concepts and tools for building intelligent systems. You’ll learn a range of techniques, starting with simple linear regression and progressing to deep neural networks. With exercises in each chapter to help you apply what you’ve learned, all you need is programming experience to get started.Explore the machine learning landscape, particularly neural netsUse scikit-learn to track an example machine-learning project end-to-endExplore several training models, including support vector machines, decision trees, random forests, and ensemble methodsUse the TensorFlow library to build and train neural netsDive into neural net architectures, including convolutional nets, recurrent nets, and deep reinforcement learningLearn techniques for training and scaling deep neural netsApply practical code examples without acquiring excessive machine learning theory or algorithm details
But if you're serious about your profession, intuition isn't enough. Perl Best Practices author Damian Conway explains that rules, conventions, standards, and practices not only help programmers communicate and coordinate with one another, they also provide a reliable framework for thinking about problems, and a common language for expressing solutions. This is especially critical in Perl, because the language is designed to offer many ways to accomplish the same task, and consequently it supports many incompatible dialects.
With a good dose of Aussie humor, Dr. Conway (familiar to many in the Perl community) offers 256 guidelines on the art of coding to help you write better Perl code--in fact, the best Perl code you possibly can. The guidelines cover code layout, naming conventions, choice of data and control structures, program decomposition, interface design and implementation, modularity, object orientation, error handling, testing, and debugging.
They're designed to work together to produce code that is clear, robust, efficient, maintainable, and concise, but Dr. Conway doesn't pretend that this is the one true universal and unequivocal set of best practices. Instead, Perl Best Practices offers coherent and widely applicable suggestions based on real-world experience of how code is actually written, rather than on someone's ivory-tower theories on howsoftware ought to be created.
Most of all, Perl Best Practices offers guidelines that actually work, and that many developers around the world are already using. Much like Perl itself, these guidelines are about helping you to get your job done, without getting in the way.
Praise for Perl Best Practices from Perl community members:
"As a manager of a large Perl project, I'd ensure that every member of my team has a copy of Perl Best Practices on their desk, and use it as the basis for an in-house style guide."-- Randal Schwartz
"There are no more excuses for writing bad Perl programs. All levels of Perl programmer will be more productive after reading this book."-- Peter Scott
"Perl Best Practices will be the next big important book in the evolution of Perl. The ideas and practices Damian lays down will help bring Perl out from under the embarrassing heading of "scripting languages". Many of us have known Perl is a real programming language, worthy of all the tasks normally delegated to Java and C++. With Perl Best Practices, Damian shows specifically how and why, so everyone else can see, too."-- Andy Lester
"Damian's done what many thought impossible: show how to build large, maintainable Perl applications, while still letting Perl be the powerful, expressive language that programmers have loved for years."-- Bill Odom
"Finally, a means to bring lasting order to the process and product of real Perl development teams."-- Andrew Sundstrom"Perl Best Practices provides a valuable education in how to write robust, maintainable Perl, and is a definitive citation source when coaching other programmers."-- Bennett Todd"I've been teaching Perl for years, and find the same question keeps being asked: Where can I find a reference for writing reusable, maintainable Perl code? Finally I have a decent answer."-- Paul Fenwick"At last a well researched, well thought-out, comprehensive guide to Perl style. Instead of each of us developing our own, we can learn good practices from one of Perl's most prolific and experienced authors. I recommend this book to anyone who prefers getting on with the job rather than going back and fixing errors caused by syntax and poor style issues."-- Jacinta Richardson"If you care about programming in any language read this book. Even if you don't intend to follow all of the practices, thinking through your style will improve it."-- Steven Lembark"The Perl community's best author is back with another outstanding book. There has never been a comprehensive reference on high quality Perl coding and style until Perl Best Practices. This book fills a large gap in every Perl bookshelf."-- Uri Guttman
Japanese Katakana for Beginners makes learning of beginner kana fast and effective by using memorable picture mnemonics, along with clear explanations, examples and lots of fun exercises—a method that has helped thousands of students learn katakana successfully in the United States and Japan. Picture mnemonics enhance memory by associating the shape and sound of each Japanese kana character with combinations of images and English words already familiar to students. This book is organized into three main sections: The first introduces the basic 46 katakana characters along with writing tips and opportunities to practice writing them. The second teaches the usage rules that allow students to write all Japanese sounds, providing more opportunities for practice. The third strengthens students' skills through a wide range of exercises (word searches, crossword puzzles, fill in the blanks, visual discrimination, timed recognition quizzes, etc) designed to both increase the knowledge of the Japanese language and reinforce newly acquired writing skills.A set of flash cards printed on perforated cardstock and a list of suggested flash card activities are also provided at the end of the book. Each of these cards introduces a katakana character along with the picture mnemonic that helps to recognize and remember it.
Two phonetic syllabaries, hiragana and katakana, and a set of kanji characters based on Chinese ideographs are what comprises written Japanese. This workbook has been carefully designed to facilitate the quick and easy mastery of the forty-six character hiragana syllabary used to write all types of native words not written in kanji. An understanding of hiragana is essential for the serious student wishing to learn Japanese effectively.
Each character is introduced with brushed, handwritten, and typed samples which enhance character recognition. Extensive writing space allows for maximum practice to facilitate memorization and ensure proper character formation. Entertaining illustrations and amusing examples of onomatopoeic usage of hiragana in Japanese writings further reinforce memorization in a fun way.
Writing Japanese Hiragana is an easy-to-use and practical workbook tailored to the specific needs of young students of the Japanese language. Beginning students of all ages will delight in its fresh presentation.
Basic Japanese Kanji, Volume 1 is your introduction to the first 205 of the 410 core characters in Japanese (plus 18 additional kanji that serve as building blocks). These kanji are the most frequently used in newspapers, conversations and the top college-level beginning Japanese textbooks. Using a focused combination of proven traditional methods and unique new methods, this book will help independent learners and university or high school students to write, read, speak and use Japanese better.
Basic Japanese Kanji makes studying easier by using a combination of proven traditional methods and unique new methods to learn kanji: Clear explanations of the kanji, example compounds, useful vocabulary, and extensive writing practice. Hundreds of readings with comprehension questions similar in format to those on many important national and international Japanese exams. Additional natural and level-appropriate exercises. Original mnemonics for every kanji.Key features of the downloadable CD content: Interactive software offers exam-quality practice. Gives instant feedback/correction. Extensive kanji exercises. Reading comprehension passages and questions.A set of printable kanji flash cards, for on-the-go practice.
Everyday tasks like finding a street address or buying a train ticket can be an ordeal in Japan if you don't read kanji–the system of Japanese writing based on Chinese characters. Unfortunately, the kanji characters taught in most textbooks are not always those that you'll encounter in everyday situations. To fill this gap, a group of teachers from the prestigious University of Tokyo have pooled their talents to create 250 Essential Japanese Kanji Characters in two volumes: a practical way to learn the kanji most frequently used in daily life in Japan. Each lesson helps you master a new group of kanji, using an extremely effective approach that focuses on you, the learner, taking an active part. Introductory Quizzes introduce everyday situations where you encounter kanji. Vocabulary sections help you understand the readings and meanings of the kanji. New Character Charts teach you new kanji systematically—for each character you'll learn its meanings, its basic on–kun readings, its stroke order, common compounds, and derivations. Practice sections help you improve your skills in recognizing and using the kanji. Advanced Placement Exam Practice Questions for each lesson follow the format of the College Boards Japanese Language and Culture examination.You'll also encounter authentic and practical materials that help you understand how kanji are used in real–life situations. Emails and texts, choosing the best dictionary in a library, understanding the weather report, navigating floors in a Tokyo department store—all are easier when you know kanji. After studying this book together with its companion 250 Essential Japanese Characters, Volume 1 you will have learned 500 of the most important characters in Japanese and thousands of words in which they appear.
The Kanji Handbook presents an ingenious and tested method to learn the 1,945 kanji characters taught in all Japanese language schools. Through the use of "KanjiHybrids"—a concept invented by the author—learners of Kanji and taught to link the characters mentally with English words to form one integral and indivisible unit. This innovative mnemonic device has been proven to train the learner to retain each kanji in the memory much better than simple repetition of the kanji alone—as well as enabling users to differentiate similar–looking kanji characters.
Specific learning strategies also enable users to progress quickly from the beginner to advanced level kanji, with stroke orders shown clearly for each kanji character. Eight different indexes-including the highly useful Flip–it Index—form the last part of this unique handbook. Contains the complete list of all 1,945 kanji characters taught in Japanese schools. Presents a new KanjiHybrids system linking kanji characters with English words to aid memorization. Innovative learning strategies guide learners at all levels from beginner to advanced.
Oscar Wilde once said the Brits have "everything in common with America nowadays except, of course, language."
Any visitor to Old Blighty can sympathize with Mr. Wilde. After all, even fluent English speakers can be at sixes and sevens when told to pick up the "dog and bone" or "head to the loo," so they can "spend a penny." Wherever did these peculiar expressions come from?
British author Christopher J. Moore made a name for himself on this side of the pond with the sleeper success of his previous book, In Other Words. Now, Moore draws on history, literature, pop culture, and his own heritage to explore the phrases that most embody the British character. He traces the linguistic influence of writers from Chaucer to Shakespeare and Dickens to Wodehouse, and unravels the complexity Brits manage to imbue in seemingly innocuous phrases like "All right." Along the way, Moore reveals the uniquely British origins of some of the English language’s more curious sayings. For example: Who is Bob and how did he become your uncle? Why do we refer to powerless politicians as “lame ducks”? How did “posh” become such a stylish word?
Part language guide, part cultural study, How to Speak Brit is the perfect addition to every Anglophile’s library and an entertaining primer that will charm the linguistic-minded legions.
250 Essential Chinese Characters Volume 1 is a completely revised second edition with 50 percent new material. Featuring a new design; tips for mastery throughout; exercises in AP-exam format; progressive review sections; and several indices, this volume is a crucial learning tool for anyone interested in the Chinese language and a great way to learn Chinese characters.
Master each character's radical, stroke count and meaning. Grow in proficiency by learning compound words. Example sentences show how to use them in context. Review activities reinforce your learning progress. Helpful writing guides and practice grids for every character.After studying this book together with its companion, 250 Essential Chinese Characters, Volume 2, you'll have learned 500 of the most important characters in Chinese, and thousands of words in which they appear. Whether you're new to Chinese or coming back for review, each of these 250 characters offers you ways to improve your abilities to read Chinese and write Chinese.
What is it about other people’s language that moves some of us to anxiety or even rage? For centuries, sticklers the world over have donned the cloak of authority to control the way people use words. Now this sensational new book strikes back to defend the fascinating, real-life diversity of this most basic human faculty.
With the erudite yet accessible style that marks his work as a journalist, Robert Lane Greene takes readers on a rollicking tour around the world, illustrating with vivid anecdotes the role language beliefs play in shaping our identities, for good and ill. Beginning with literal myths, from the Tower of Babel to the bloody origins of the word “shibboleth,” Greene shows how language “experts” went from myth-making to rule-making and from building cohesive communities to building modern nations. From the notion of one language’s superiority to the common perception that phrases like “It’s me” are “bad English,” linguistic beliefs too often define “us” and distance “them,” supporting class, ethnic, or national prejudices. In short: What we hear about language is often really about the politics of identity.
Governments foolishly try to police language development (the French Academy), nationalism leads to the violent suppression of minority languages (Kurdish and Basque), and even Americans fear that the most successful language in world history (English) may be threatened by increased immigration. These false language beliefs are often tied to harmful political ends and can lead to the violation of basic human rights. Conversely, political involvement in language can sometimes prove beneficial, as with the Zionist revival of Hebrew or our present-day efforts to provide education in foreign languages essential to business, diplomacy, and intelligence. And yes, standardized languages play a crucial role in uniting modern societies.
As this fascinating book shows, everything we’ve been taught to think about language may not be wrong—but it is often about something more than language alone. You Are What You Speak will certainly get people talking.
From the Hardcover edition.
Each character is introduced here with brushed, handwritten, and typed samples to enhance character recognition. Entertaining illustrations and amusing examples of onomatopoeic usage of hiragana in Japanese writings further reinforce memorization in a fun way.
This easy-to-use and practical workbook is well suited for beginning students of all ages. This revised edition has 16 more pages of exercises and additional practice pages.
This second edition presents new developments and discoveries that have been made in the field. Parsing techniques have grown considerably in importance, both in computational linguistics where such parsers are the only option, and computer science, where advanced compilers often use general CF parsers. Parsing techniques provide a solid basis for compiler construction and contribute to all existing software: enabling Web browsers to analyze HTML pages and PostScript printers to analyze PostScript. Some of the more advanced techniques are used in code generation in compilers and in data compression.
In linguistics, the importance of formal grammars was recognized early on, but only recently have the corresponding parsing techniques been applied. Also their importance as general pattern recognizers is slowly being acknowledged. This text Parsing Techniques explores new developments, such as generalized deterministic parsing, linear-time substring parsing, parallel parsing, parsing as intersection, non-canonical methods, and non-Chomsky systems.
To provide readers with low-threshold access to the full field of parsing techniques, this new edition uses a two-tiered structure. The basic ideas behind the dozen or so existing parsing techniques are explained in an intuitive and narrative style, and problems are presented at the conclusion of each chapter, allowing the reader to step outside the bounds of the covered material and explore parsing techniques at various levels. The reader is also provided with an extensive annotated bibliography as well as hints and partial solutions to a number of problems. In the bibliography, hundreds of realizations and improvements of parsing techniques are explained in a much terser, yet still informal, style, improving its readability and usability.
The reader should have an understanding of algorithmic thinking, especially recursion; however, knowledge of any particular programming language is not required.
Have a great time with your kids reading this book!
~ Resources 4 Rethinking
All resources on resources4rethinking.ca have been professionally reviewed by the people best equipped to judge the value of an educational resource: teachers! Over 30 experienced educators from across Canada are reviewing resources and sharing their energy, enthusiasm, and experience.
The first part provides an introduction to basic procedures for handling and operating with text strings. Then, it reviews major mathematical modeling approaches. Statistical and geometrical models are also described along with main dimensionality reduction methods. Finally, it presents some specific applications such as document clustering, classification, search and terminology extraction.
All descriptions presented are supported with practical examples that are fully reproducible. Further reading, as well as additional exercises and projects, are proposed at the end of each chapter for those readers interested in conducting further experimentation.
Deckert and Vickers adopt an interdisciplinary approach, introducing work from a variety of fields that examine sociolinguistic data, from linguistics to anthropology, sociology, psychology and education. The book moves from looking at language varieties and globalization to a close examination of language in social interaction, covering the concepts of ideology and power. Throughout, the authors offer keen insight into all of the topics, issues and methods that students of language and society will need to understand. The chapters contain a range of pedagogical features, including key terms, study questions, chapter summaries and further reading. This is an essential new text for all those studying contemporary sociolinguistics, suitable for undergraduates and postgraduates alike.
Flash cards are a great way to practice your ability to read Korean, write Korean and remember Korean. This complete boxed set of Korean flash cards has a full range of acclaimed features to help beginners and intermediate learners, and covers the second most-basic Korean words, plus related terms and phrases—in a flash! Contains 448 flash cards plus a 48 page index booklet. Learn 448 main words plus 1,792 related terms and 2,240 basic vocabulary items. Romanized pronunciation and English meanings given for all vocabulary items. Both Korean character forms and romanization are given.
This is the 1st volume of the series, covering the 1st 100 most frequently used Chinese characters as presented with their full colour illustrations and arranged in columns from right to left on the front cover.
For its extensive colour illustrations throughout, this book is best read with a colour screen reader.
Japanese Hiragana for Beginners makes learning hiragana fast and effective by using memorable picture mnemonics, along with clear explanations, examples and lots of fun exercises—a method that has helped thousands of students learn hiragana successfully in the United States and Japan. Picture mnemonics enhance memory by associating the shape and sound of each hiragana character with combinations of images and English words already familiar to students.
This Japanese language learning book is divided into three main sections: Section 1 introduces the basic 46 hiragana characters along with writing tips and practice exercises. Section 2 teaches the usage rules that allow students to write Japanese sounds. Section 3 strengthens students’ skills through a wide range of exercises (word searches, crossword puzzles, fill in the blanks, visual discrimination, timed quizzes, etc).A set of flash cards printed on perforated cardstock and a list of suggested flash card activities, are also provided at the end of the book. Each of these cards introduces a hiragana character along with picture mnemonic that helps to recognize and remember it.