Integrated throughout the text are real-world applications that emphasize the relevance of thermodynamics principles to some of the most critical problems and issues of today, including a wealth of coverage of topics related to energy and the environment, biomedical/bioengineering, and emerging technologies.
Timeless and collectible, the lectures are essential reading, not just for students of physics but for anyone seeking an introduction to the field from the inimitable Feynman.
At the outset the text explains the various key terms of thermodynamics with suitable examples and then thoroughly deals with the virial and cubic equations of state by showing the P-V-T (pressure, molar volume and temperature) relation of fluids. It elaborates on the first and second laws of thermodynamics and their applications with the help of numerous engineering examples. The text further discusses the concepts of exergy, standard property changes of chemical reactions, thermodynamic property relations and fugacity. The book also includes detailed discussions on residual and excess properties of mixtures, various activity coefficient models, local composition models, and group contribution methods. In addition, the text focuses on vapour-liquid and other phase equilibrium calculations, and analyzes chemical reaction equilibria and adiabatic reaction temperature for systems with complete and incomplete conversion of reactants.
Includes a large number of fully worked-out examples to help students master the concepts discussed.
Provides well-graded problems with answers at the end of each chapter to test and foster students’ conceptual understanding of the subject. The total number of solved examples and end-chapter exercises in the book are over 600.
Contains chapter summaries that review the major concepts covered.
The book is primarily designed for the undergraduate students of chemical engineering and its related disciplines such as petroleum engineering and polymer engineering. It can also be useful to professionals.
The Solution Manual containing the complete worked-out solutions to chapter-end exercises and problems is available for instructors.
Reif first introduces basic probability concepts and statistical methods used throughout all of physics. Statistical ideas are then applied to systems of particles in equilibrium to enhance an understanding of the basic notions of statistical mechanics, from which derive the purely macroscopic general statements of thermodynamics. Next, he turns to the more complicated equilibrium situations, such as phase transformations and quantum gases, before discussing nonequilibrium situations in which he treats transport theory and dilute gases at varying levels of sophistication. In the last chapter, he addresses some general questions involving irreversible processes and fluctuations.
A large amount of material is presented to facilitate students later access to more advanced works, to allow those with higher levels of curiosity to read beyond the minimum given on a topic, and to enhance understanding by presenting several ways of looking at a particular question. Formatting within the text either signals material that instructors can assign at their own discretion or highlights important results for easy reference to them. Additionally, by solving many of the 230 problems contained in the text, students activate and embed their knowledge of the subject matter.
The first half of the book focuses on water chillers and the second half addresses cooling towers. In both sections, the author includes the following material:
Fundamentals—basic information about systems and equipment, including how they and their various components work Design and Application—equipment sizing, selection, and application; details of piping, control, and water treatment; and special considerations such as noise control, electrical service, fire protection, and energy efficiency Operations and Maintenance—commissioning and programmed maintenance of components and systems, with guidelines and recommended specifications for procurement
This up-to-date book provides HVAC designers, building owners, operating and maintenance staff, architects, and mechanical contractors with definitive and practical guidance on the application, design, purchase, operation, and maintenance of water chillers and cooling towers. It offers helpful information for you to use on a daily basis, including checklists and troubleshooting guidelines.
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Knowledge flow provides learning book of Engineering Thermodynamics. This book is for all engineering students and professionals across the world. Thermodynamics deals with heat and temperature and also their relation with work and energy. This book of thermodynamics describes Carnot engine cycle, entropy and laws of thermodynamics that partly describe a body of matter or radiation.
1. Thermodynamic System and Control Volume
2. Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
3. First law of Thermodynamics
4. Thermodynamic processes
5. Second law of Thermodynamics
6. Entropy and Third Law of Thermodynamics
7. Working Fluids in Thermodynamics
8. Carnot Engine Cycle
9. Refrigeration Cycle
10. Vapour Compression and Absorption System
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The Nuclear Engineering Handbook is a response to this global resurgence of interest in commercial nuclear power. A broad overview of nuclear power and engineering and their limitless potential, this basic introduction to the field provides an in-depth discussion of power plants and extensive coverage of the nuclear fuel cycle, waste disposal, and related engineering technologies.
Organized into three sections—Nuclear Power Reactors, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Processes and Facilities, and Engineering and Analytical Applications—this book addresses the entire nuclear fuel cycle and process. Topics include everything from the mining, milling, and enrichment of uranium and thorium fuel resources, to fuel fabrication, nuclear materials transportation, fuel reprocessing, and safe waste disposal. This all-encompassing volume discusses current analytical techniques related to nuclear engineering, addressing safety, heat transfer, shielding, thermo-hydraulics, and heat physics. Covering reactor operation and radiation protection, it also outlines the economic considerations involved in building new nuclear power stations instead of large fossil-fueled plants, and elaborates on concerns regarding the control of emissions from the latter.
A review of past and current nuclear engineering capabilities, this valuable resource covers the gamut of crucial topics, including historical perspectives, a detailed technological review, and an assessment of the field’s future direction. It is an exceptional tool that will help readers to foster optimal understanding and use of nuclear power for electricity generation now and in the future.
Providing the big picture view that other detailed, data-focused resources lack, this book has a strong focus on the information needed to effectively decision-make and plan gas turbine system use for particular applications, taking into consideration not only operational requirements but long-term life-cycle costs in upkeep, repair and future use.
With concise, easily digestible overviews of all important theoretical bases and a practical focus throughout, Gas Turbines is an ideal handbook for those new to the field or in the early stages of their career, as well as more experienced engineers looking for a reliable, one-stop reference that covers the breadth of the field.Covers installation, maintenance, manufacturer's specifications, performance criteria and future trends, offering a rounded view of the area that takes in technical detail as well as well as industry economics and outlookUpdated with the latest industry developments, including new emission and efficiency regulations and their impact on gas turbine technology Over 300 pages of new/revised content, including new sections on microturbines, non-conventional fuel sources for microturbines, emissions, major developments in aircraft engines, use of coal gas and superheated steam, and new case histories throughout highlighting component improvements in all systems and sub-systems.
New in the Third Edition:
Computer-aided calculation of phase diagrams Recent developments in metallic glasses The Scheil method of calculating a CCT diagram from a TTT diagram Expanded treatment of the nucleation and growth of polygonal ferrite and bainite New case studies covering copper precipitation hardening of very low carbon bainitic steel and very fine carbide-free bainite Detailed treatment of strain-induced martensite provides a theoretical background to transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels
Unique Presentation Links Theory to Application
Adding new case studies, detailed examples, and exercises drawn from current applications, the third edition keeps the previous editions’ popular easy-to -follow style and excellent mix of basic and advanced information, making it ideal for those new to the field. The book’s unique presentation links basic understanding of theory with application in a gradually progressive yet exciting manner. Based on the author’s teaching notes, the book takes a pedagogical approach and provides examples for applications and problems that can be readily used for exercises.
PowerPoint© illustrations available with qualifying course adoptions
A revised edition of the industry classic, Convection Heat Transfer, Fourth Edition, chronicles how the field of heat transfer has grown and prospered over the last two decades. This new edition is more accessible, while not sacrificing its thorough treatment of the most up-to-date information on current research and applications in the field.
One of the foremost leaders in the field, Adrian Bejan has pioneered and taught many of the methods and practices commonly used in the industry today. He continues this book's long-standing role as an inspiring, optimal study tool by providing:Coverage of how convection affects performance, and how convective flows can be configured so that performance is enhanced How convective configurations have been evolving, from the flat plates, smooth pipes, and single-dimension fins of the earlier editions to new populations of configurations: tapered ducts, plates with multiscale features, dendritic fins, duct and plate assemblies (packages) for heat transfer density and compactness, etc. New, updated, and enhanced examples and problems that reflect the author's research and advances in the field since the last edition A solutions manual
Complete with hundreds of informative and original illustrations, Convection Heat Transfer, Fourth Edition is the most comprehensive and approachable text for students in schools of mechanical engineering.
The second edition yet. Each chapter presents its subject matter consistently, based on the classification of thermodynamic systems, properties, and derivations that illustrate important relationships among variables for finding the conditions for equilibrium. Each chapter also contains a summary of important concepts and relationships as well as examples and sample problems that apply appropriate strategies for solving real-world problems.
The up-to-date and complete coverage ofthermodynamic data, laws, definitions, strategies, and tools in Thermodynamics in Materials Science, Second Edition provides students and practicing engineers a valuable guide for producing and applying maps of equilibrium states to everyday applications in materials sciences.
Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of present applications and past experience. This book also examines the relevance of design and feed-stock parameters to the operation of a CFB boiler; designs of mechanical components, including cyclones, air distributor grids, and solid recycle systems; and special problems CVB boilers present with construction materials.
The Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual is the most comprehensive textbook for the Mechanical PE exam. This book's time-tested organization and clear explanations start with the basics to help you quickly get up to speed on common mechanical engineering concepts. Together, the 76 chapters provide an in-depth review of NCEES Mechanical PE exam topics. The extensive index contains thousands of terms, most indexed in a variety of ways, in anticipation of how you'll search for them.
Features of the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual: • over 120 appendices containing essential support material • over 375 clarifying example problems • thousands of equations, figures, and tables • industry-standard terminology and nomenclature • equal support of U.S. customary and SI units
After you pass your exam, the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual will continue to serve as an invaluable reference throughout your mechanical engineering career.
Topics Covered: • Dynamics and Vibrations: Kinematics; Kinetics; Power Transmission Systems; Vibrating Systems • Materials: Engineering Materials Properties and Testing; Thermal Treatment of Metals • Fluids: Fluid Properties; Fluid Statics; Fluid Flow Parameters; Fluid Dynamics; Hydraulic Machines • Power Cycles: Vapor, Combustion, and Nuclear Power Cycles; Refrigeration and Gas Compression Cycles • HVAC: Psychrometrics; Fans, Ductwork, and Ventilation; Heating and Cooling Loads; Air Conditioning Systems • Heat Transfer: Natural Convection; Evaporation; Condensation; Forced Convection; Radiation • Machine Design: Basic and Advanced Machine Design; Pressure Vessels • Thermodynamics: Inorganic Chemistry; Fuels and Combustion; Properties of Substances • Control Systems: Modeling and Analysis of Engineering Systems • Plant Engineering: Manufacturing Processes; Instrumentation and Measurements; Materials Handling and Processing; Fire Protection Systems; Environmental Pollutants and Remediation; Hazardous Material Storage and Disposal • Fundamentals: Math Review; Probability; Statics; Engineering Economic Analysis • Law and Ethics: Engineering Law; Ethics
What's New in This Edition: • 36 chapters with new material, and 46 chapters with revisions to existing material • 300 new equations, and 128 updated equations • 27 new tables, and 31 updated tables • 7 new examples, and 34 updated examples • 10 new appendices, and 27 updated appendices • 35 new figures, and 28 updated figures • 1,094 new index entries, and 108 updated index entries
Within this context, readers will find valuable information that explores refrigeration and heat pump systems using natural refrigerants, polygeneration systems, the energy efficiency of thermal systems, the utilization of low temperature waste heat, and cleaner production.
The book also examines the technical, economic, and environmental reasons of R718 refrigeration/heat pump systems and how they are competitive with traditional systems, serving as a valuable reference for engineers who work in the design and construction of thermal plants and systems, and those who wish to specialize in the use of R718 as a refrigerant in these systems.Describes existing novel R718 turbo compressor and ejector refrigeration/heat pump systems and technologiesProvides procedures calculating and optimizing cycles, system components, and system structuresEstimates the performance characteristics of the thermal systemsExposes the possibilities for wider applications of R718 systems in the field of refrigeration and heat pumps
Each exercise is carefully solved in full details, explaining the theory behind the solution with particular care for those issues that students often find difficult, or which are often neglected in other books on the subject. The exercises in this book never require extensive calculations but tend to be somewhat unusual and force the solver to think about the problem starting from first principles, rather than by analogy with some previously solved exercise.
The book also gives a comprehensive description of the direct energy conversion methods, including, Photovoltaics, Fuel Cells, Thermoelectric conversion, Thermionics and MHD It briefly reviews the physics of PV electrical generation, discusses the PV system design process, presents several PV system examples, summarizes the latest developments in crystalline silicon PV, and explores some of the present challenges facing the large scale deployment of PV energy sources. The book discusses five energy storage categories: electrical, electromechanical, mechanical, direct thermal, and thermochemical and the storage media that can store and deliver energy.
With contributions from researchers at the top of their fields and on the cutting edge of technologies, the book provides comprehensive coverage of end use efficiency of green technology. It includes in-depth discussions not only of better efficient energy management in buildings and industry, but also of how to plan and design for efficient use and management from the ground up.
Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps, Fifth Edition,provides a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practice of refrigeration. Clear and comprehensive, it is suitable for both trainee and professional HVAC engineers, with a straightforward approach that also helps inexperienced readers gain a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of the technology. With its concise style and broad scope, the book covers most of the equipment and applications professionals will encounter. The simplicity of the descriptions helps users understand, specify, commission, use, and maintain these systems.
It is a must-have text for anyone who needs thorough, foundational information on refrigeration and air conditioning, but without textbook pedagogy. It includes detailed technicalities or product-specific information. New material to this edition includes the latest developments in refrigerants and lubricants, together with updated information on compressors, heat exchangers, liquid chillers, electronic expansion valves, controls, and cold storage. In addition, efficiency, environmental impact, split systems, retail refrigeration (supermarket systems and cold rooms), industrial systems, fans, air infiltration, and noise are also included.Full theoretical and practical treatment of current issues and trends in refrigeration and air conditioning technologyMeets the needs of industry practitioners and system designers who need a rigorous, but accessible reference to the latest developments in refrigeration and AC that is supported by coverage at a level not found in typical course textbooksNew edition features updated content on refrigerants, microchannel technology, noise, condensers, data centers, and electronic control
This book also:
· Adopts a novel inductive pedagogy where commonly understood examples are introduced early and theory is developed to explain and predict readily recognized phenomena
· Introduces new techniques as needed to address specific problems, in contrast to traditional texts’ use of a deductive approach, where abstract general principles lead to specific examples
· Elucidates readers’ understanding of the "heat transfer takes time" idea—transient analysis applications are introduced first and steady-state methods are shown to be a limiting case of those applications
· Focuses on basic numerical methods rather than analytical methods of solving partial differential equations, largely obsolete in light of modern computer power
· Maximizes readers’ insights to heat transfer modeling by framing theory as an engineering design tool, not as a pure science, as has been done in traditional textbooks
· Integrates practical use of spreadsheets for calculations and provides many tips for their use throughout the text examples
This book also:
Offers an in-depth look, from introductory basics to experimental simulation, of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement, an emerging method for generating fusion power
Discusses how the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement method can be applied to other applications besides fusion through theoretical experiments in the text
Details the study of the physics of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement in small-volume plasmas and suggests that their rapid reproduction could lead to the creation of a large-scale power-producing device
Perfect for researchers and students working with nuclear fusion, Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion: Fundamentals and Applications also offers the current experimental status of IEC research, details supporting theories in the field and introduces other potential applications that stem from IEC.
This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.
Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution to the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. It provides detailed treatment of the challenges of this technically complex process, which requires huge investment and operating costs, as well as good technical skills in maintenance and plant operation. Particular attention is paid to technologies for ensuring the complete burn-out of flue gas and residues and for controlling the resulting pollutants.
See What’s New in the Second Edition:Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer’s association standards A new chapter on heat exchanger installation, operation, and maintenance practices Classification chapter now includes coverage of scrapped surface-, graphite-, coil wound-, microscale-, and printed circuit heat exchangers Thorough revision of fabrication of shell and tube heat exchangers, heat transfer augmentation methods, fouling control concepts and inclusion of recent advances in PHEs New topics like EMbaffle®, Helixchanger®, and Twistedtube® heat exchanger, feedwater heater, steam surface condenser, rotary regenerators for HVAC applications, CAB brazing and cupro-braze radiators
Without proper heat exchanger design, efficiency of cooling/heating system of plants and machineries, industrial processes and energy system can be compromised, and energy wasted. This thoroughly revised handbook offers comprehensive coverage of single-phase heat exchangers—selection, thermal design, mechanical design, corrosion and fouling, FIV, material selection and their fabrication issues, fabrication of heat exchangers, operation, and maintenance of heat exchangers —all in one volume.
The authors analyze the optimum selection of the structure of heat exchangers in a 370 MW power block, the structure of heat recovery steam generators and gas turbines. Conversion of Coal-Fired Power Plant to Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle also addresses the problems of converting existing power plants to dual-fuel gas-steam combined-cycle technologies coupled with parallel systems.
Conversion of Coal-Fired Power Plant to Cogeneration and Combined-Cycle is an informative monograph written for researchers, postgraduate students and policy makers in power engineering.
This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time.Contains all information required to design and manufacture a heat pipe Suitable for use as a professional reference and graduate textRevised with greater coverage of key electronic cooling applications
This book has applications for professionals and students in many subsets of the mechanical engineering discipline, with carryover into thermal sciences; which include fluid mechanics, combustion and heat transfer; dynamics and vibrations, as well as structural mechanics and materials engineering.An important, long overdue new chapter on Wind Turbines, with a focus on blade aerodynamics, with useful worked examplesIncludes important material on axial flow compressors and pumpsExample questions and answers throughout
Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systemstackles all aspects of 3D integration, including 3D circuit and system design, new processes and simulation techniques, alternative communication schemes for 3D circuits and systems, application of novel materials for 3D systems, and the thermal challenges to restrict power dissipation and improve performance of 3D systems. Containing contributions from experts in industry as well as academia, this authoritative text: Illustrates different 3D integration approaches, such as die-to-die, die-to-wafer, and wafer-to-wafer Discusses the use of interposer technology and the role of Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) Presents the latest improvements in three major fields of thermal management for multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) Explores ThruChip Interface (TCI), NAND flash memory stacking, and emerging applications Describes large-scale integration testing and state-of-the-art low-power testing solutions
Complete with experimental results of chip-level 3D integration schemes tested at IBM and case studies on advanced complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) integration for 3D integrated circuits (ICs), Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems is a practical reference that not only covers a wealth of design issues encountered in 3D integration but also demonstrates their impact on the efficiency of 3D systems.
Steel Heat Treatment: Metallurgy and Technologies presents the principles that form the basis of heat treatment processes while incorporating detailed descriptions of advances emerging since the 1997 publication of the first edition. Revised, updated, and expanded, this book ensures up-to-date and thorough discussions of how specific heat treatment processes and different alloy elements affect the structure and the classification and mechanisms of steel transformation, distortion of properties of steel alloys. The book includes entirely new chapters on heat-treated components, and the treatment of tool steels, stainless steels, and powder metallurgy steel components.
Steel Heat Treatment: Metallurgy and Technologies provides a focused resource for everyday use by advanced students and practitioners in metallurgy, process design, heat treatment, and mechanical and materials engineering.
This book summarizes the important aspects of cryogenic technology critical to the design and development of refrigerators, cryo-coolers, and micro-coolers needed by various commercial, industrial, space and military systems. Cryogenic cooling plays an important role in unmanned aerial vehicle systems, infrared search and track sensors, missile warning receivers, satellite tracking systems, and a host of other commercial and military systems.
* Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology
* Includes the latest information on micro-coolers for military and space applications
* Offers detailed information on high-capacity cryogenic refrigerator systems used in applications such as food storage, high-power microwave and laser sensors, medical diagnostics, and infrared detectors
In Part 1 the non-linear mass transfer as a result of an intensive interphase mass transfer in the gas (liquid)-solid surface, gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems is considered in the duffusion boundary layer approximation as well as in flat channel taking the longitudinal diffusion into account. The influence of the direction of the intensive interphase mass transfer on heat transfer and multi-component mass transfer is illustrated.
Part 2 discusses non-linear mass transfer in electrochemical systems with high current density using the examples of the anode dissolving of metals in the electrolyte flow and the electro-separation of metals out of concentrated solutions. The theory of the measured electrochemical treatment of metals and alloys, which is a method of wide practical use, has been elaborated on this basis.
In Part 3 the non-linear mass transfer in chemically reacting systems is considered in the cases of: non-linearity of the equations of the chemical reaction's kinetics and intensive interphase mass transfer or thermo-capillary effect due to chemical reactions. On this basis, the mechanisms and the macro-kinetics of the chemical transformations in the gas-liquid systems are discussed.
Part 4 is dedicated to the chemical reaction kinetics in stationary two phase systems at an arbitrary contact time between phases.
In Part 5 the effects of concentration gradients are considered in the approximations of the linear theory of the hydrodynamic stability of almost parallel flows.
In systems with intensive interphase mass transfer, the Marangoni effect could also be observed, beside the effect of non-linear mass transfer. A comparative analysis of both effects is made in this book.
A detailed reference in microchannel phase change (boiling and condensation) including recommended models and correlations for various requirements such as pressure loss, and heat transfer coefficient.
Researchers, engineers, designers and students will benefit from the collated, state-of-the-art of the research put together in this book and its systematic, addressing all the relevant issues and providing a good reference for solving problems of critical analysis.Up-to-date information will help delineate further research direction in the microchannel heat transferThe latest modeling information and recommendations will help in design method and purpose
The following processes are considered in the light of the method of impinging streams: drying of particles, solid-solid and gas-gas mixing, absorption and desorption of gases from liquids, combustion of gas and coal, calcination of phosphate, creation of emulsions, liquid-liquid extraction, dissolution of solids, ion exchange, dust collection and granulation as well as evaporative cooling of air. Additional aspects considered in the book are: power input in performing the above processes, heat and mass transfer coefficient and its correlation, mixing properties of impinging stream reactors, residence time of the particles in the reactors, scale-up of impinging-stream reactors with respect to pressure, drop, hold-up and mean residence time of the particles as well as the heat transfer.
The aim of the book is to review the state-of-the-art in the field of impinging streams, to present results of theoretical and experimental research, and to stimulate research and industrial application of the method so that reactors employing impinging streams will become a common tool in chemical engineering and other disciplines of engineering. The major conclusion of this work is that almost any process in chemical engineering can be conducted by impinging streams, resulting in higher efficiency and less power input in comparison with conventional methods.