Meat & poultry products (M&PP) contaminated with bacteria cause most foodborne illnesses & deaths. In 1997, the USDA announced the need to modify its M&PP slaughter inspect. prog. to make industry more responsible for identifying carcass defects. USDA developed a model to test whether such a change would ensure the safety of M&PP. This report: describes the objectives, design, & scope of the pilot project; identifies limitations in the project's design & methodology; & determines if the data generated by the project will allow USDA to reach valid conclusions on the relative effectiveness of modified & traditional inspection methods in ensuring food safety & quality.
Examines the U.S.'s ability to prevent the introduction of foot & mouth (FMD) disease. FMD is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, swine, & sheep. Many animals recover from an FMD infection, but the disease leaves them debilitated & causes severe losses in meat & milk production. The report contains recommendations to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) on the need to develop a process to expeditiously communicate information on foreign disease outbreaks to the Customs Service, improve some of the preventive measures used in the U.S., & develop plans & timetables to address any outstanding issues that could impede a U.S. response. Color photos.
Foodborne illness in the U.S. is an extensive and expensive problem. While there are 12 federal agencies with food safety responsibilities, the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and the Dept. of Health and Human Service's Food and Drug Admin. (FDA) are the primary federal regulatory agencies responsible for food safety. To obtain a better understanding of federal and state food safety efforts, this report determines for FY 1998 and 1999, the amount of resources that were expended by FSIS, FDA, and the states for food safety and how the agencies used these resources. Charts and tables.
Mad cow disease (BSE), is an always fatal, neuro-degenerative disease that has been found in many countries. Cattle contract the disease through animal feed (AF) that contains protein derived from the remains of diseased animals. The USDA & the FDA have primary responsibility for preventing the introduction of BSE-contaminated products into the U.S. & the spread of the disease. This report: assesses the effective. of Fed. actions to prevent BSE & ensure compliance with the AF ban; assesses the potential econ. impacts & health risks if BSE were to be found in U.S. cattle; & compares U.S. actions with actions taken in other countries to prevent the emergence or spread of BSE. Tables.
Seafood (finfish & crustaceans) represent about 15% of the approximately 76 million foodborne illness outbreaks in the U.S. annually, ranging from mild gastrointestinal discomfort to neurological damage or death. In 1997 the Food & Drug Admin. (FDA) implemented a new science-based seafood safety program, the Hazard Analysis & Critical Point (HACCP) system. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture also adopted a HACCP system for meat & poultry products. This report evaluates the effectiveness of FDA's system to control the risk of foodborne illness resulting from unsafe domestic & imported seafood. Charts & tables.
At an annual cost of $5.4 billion, the Dept. of Housing & Urban Development (HUD) subsidizes the operation, maintenance, & modernization of the nation's public housing, a $90 billion investment that provides homes to 3 million people. This subsidy is provided to more than 3,000 independent, state-chartered public housing authorities. This report reviews HUD's use of its Public Housing Management. Assessment Program (PHMAP), & discusses: HUD's use & implementation of the program at its field offices; public housing authorities PHMAP scores over the first 4 years of the program, & (3) limits on additional uses for the program. Charts & tables.
Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are a critical source of nutrients and other substances that help protect against chronic diseases, incl. heart disease and cancer. Fewer than 1 in 4 Amer. consumes the daily 5-9 servings of F&V recommended by the fed. Dietary Guidelines for Amer. (DGA). This report: examines the health benefits assoc. with consuming the recommended servings of F&V; determines the extent to which overall F&V consumption by Amer. has improved under key fed. nutrition policy, guidance, and educ. programs; assesses the impact of key fed. food assist. programs on F&V consumption by program participants; and identifies fed. actions that experts recommend for increasing the consumption of F&V, as well as the implications of those actions.