Meat & poultry products (M&PP) contaminated with bacteria cause most foodborne illnesses & deaths. In 1997, the USDA announced the need to modify its M&PP slaughter inspect. prog. to make industry more responsible for identifying carcass defects. USDA developed a model to test whether such a change would ensure the safety of M&PP. This report: describes the objectives, design, & scope of the pilot project; identifies limitations in the project's design & methodology; & determines if the data generated by the project will allow USDA to reach valid conclusions on the relative effectiveness of modified & traditional inspection methods in ensuring food safety & quality.
Examines the U.S.'s ability to prevent the introduction of foot & mouth (FMD) disease. FMD is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, swine, & sheep. Many animals recover from an FMD infection, but the disease leaves them debilitated & causes severe losses in meat & milk production. The report contains recommendations to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) on the need to develop a process to expeditiously communicate information on foreign disease outbreaks to the Customs Service, improve some of the preventive measures used in the U.S., & develop plans & timetables to address any outstanding issues that could impede a U.S. response. Color photos.
Mad cow disease (BSE), is an always fatal, neuro-degenerative disease that has been found in many countries. Cattle contract the disease through animal feed (AF) that contains protein derived from the remains of diseased animals. The USDA & the FDA have primary responsibility for preventing the introduction of BSE-contaminated products into the U.S. & the spread of the disease. This report: assesses the effective. of Fed. actions to prevent BSE & ensure compliance with the AF ban; assesses the potential econ. impacts & health risks if BSE were to be found in U.S. cattle; & compares U.S. actions with actions taken in other countries to prevent the emergence or spread of BSE. Tables.
At an annual cost of $5.4 billion, the Dept. of Housing & Urban Development (HUD) subsidizes the operation, maintenance, & modernization of the nation's public housing, a $90 billion investment that provides homes to 3 million people. This subsidy is provided to more than 3,000 independent, state-chartered public housing authorities. This report reviews HUD's use of its Public Housing Management. Assessment Program (PHMAP), & discusses: HUD's use & implementation of the program at its field offices; public housing authorities PHMAP scores over the first 4 years of the program, & (3) limits on additional uses for the program. Charts & tables.
Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are a critical source of nutrients and other substances that help protect against chronic diseases, incl. heart disease and cancer. Fewer than 1 in 4 Amer. consumes the daily 5-9 servings of F&V recommended by the fed. Dietary Guidelines for Amer. (DGA). This report: examines the health benefits assoc. with consuming the recommended servings of F&V; determines the extent to which overall F&V consumption by Amer. has improved under key fed. nutrition policy, guidance, and educ. programs; assesses the impact of key fed. food assist. programs on F&V consumption by program participants; and identifies fed. actions that experts recommend for increasing the consumption of F&V, as well as the implications of those actions.