This volume is a compendium of different approaches to understanding cardiovascular disease and identifying the proteins, pathways and processes that impact it.
Life is the most extraordinary phenomenon in the known universe; but how did it come to be? Even in an age of cloning and artificial biology, the remarkable truth remains: nobody has ever made anything living entirely out of dead material. Life remains the only way to make life. Are we still missing a vital ingredient in its creation?
Using first-hand experience at the cutting edge of science, Jim Al-Khalili and Johnjoe Macfadden reveal that missing ingredient to be quantum mechanics. Drawing on recent ground-breaking experiments around the world, each chapter in Life on the Edge illustrates one of life's puzzles: How do migrating birds know where to go? How do we really smell the scent of a rose? How do our genes copy themselves with such precision? Life on the Edge accessibly reveals how quantum mechanics can answer these probing questions of the universe.
Guiding the reader through the rapidly unfolding discoveries of the last few years, Al-Khalili and McFadden describe the explosive new field of quantum biology and its potentially revolutionary applications, while offering insights into the biggest puzzle of all: what is life? As they brilliantly demonstrate in these groundbreaking pages, life exists on the quantum edge.
– Winner, Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication
Wall Street Journal
From one of the most influential scientists of our time, a dazzling exploration of the hidden laws that govern the life cycle of everything from plants and animals to the cities we live in.
Visionary physicist Geoffrey West is a pioneer in the field of complexity science, the science of emergent systems and networks. The term “complexity” can be misleading, however, because what makes West’s discoveries so beautiful is that he has found an underlying simplicity that unites the seemingly complex and diverse phenomena of living systems, including our bodies, our cities and our businesses.
Fascinated by aging and mortality, West applied the rigor of a physicist to the biological question of why we live as long as we do and no longer. The result was astonishing, and changed science: West found that despite the riotous diversity in mammals, they are all, to a large degree, scaled versions of each other. If you know the size of a mammal, you can use scaling laws to learn everything from how much food it eats per day, what its heart-rate is, how long it will take to mature, its lifespan, and so on. Furthermore, the efficiency of the mammal’s circulatory systems scales up precisely based on weight: if you compare a mouse, a human and an elephant on a logarithmic graph, you find with every doubling of average weight, a species gets 25% more efficient—and lives 25% longer. Fundamentally, he has proven, the issue has to do with the fractal geometry of the networks that supply energy and remove waste from the organism’s body.
West’s work has been game-changing for biologists, but then he made the even bolder move of exploring his work’s applicability. Cities, too, are constellations of networks and laws of scalability relate with eerie precision to them. Recently, West has applied his revolutionary work to the business world. This investigation has led to powerful insights into why some companies thrive while others fail. The implications of these discoveries are far-reaching, and are just beginning to be explored. Scale is a thrilling scientific adventure story about the elemental natural laws that bind us together in simple but profound ways. Through the brilliant mind of Geoffrey West, we can envision how cities, companies and biological life alike are dancing to the same simple, powerful tune.
Since the first international meeting on this topic, held in Heidelberg in 1994, several new avenues of CK2 research have emerged despite persistent deficiencies in our understanding of the regulation of its activity. Among the significant new directions are studies related to the structure of the enzyme, especially its crystal structure, as well as an interesting aspect of CK2 function that involves its subunits as binding partners of several other proteins. In addition, new data have been gathered on the role of CK2 in transcription as well as in certain other cellular functions. To address these various aspects of the progress of CK2, a number of key scientists from different parts of the world came together at the second international meeting on `A Molecular and Cellular View of Protein Kinase CK2', held at Villard de Lans near Grenoble on September 24-26, 1997. The meeting was attended by nearly 50 participants and included 28 presentations, which provide a view of the latest progress on protein kinase CK2.
An Introduction to Systems Biology: Design Principles of Biological Circuits builds a solid foundation for the intuitive understanding of general principles. It encourages the reader to ask why a system is designed in a particular way and then proceeds to answer with simplified models.
Audience: Students, scientists, clinical and experimental cardiologists who seek to understand and manage the perplexing problems of hypertrophy and heart failure.
This volume provides a state-of-the-art source of information for basic scientists and clinicians who are interested in the molecular, biochemical, and cellular aspects of protein-(ADP-ribose) transfer reactions in human health and disease.
One of the most diverse of modern scientific disciplines, biophysics applies methods and technologies from physics to the study of biological systems and phenomena, from the human nervous system to soil erosion to global warming. What are the best options for satisfying the world's growing energy demands? How can we feed the world's growing population? How can we contain, or reverse, global warming? How can we vouchsafe a plentiful supply of potable water for future generations? These are among the critical questions to which biophysicists work to provide answers.Biophysics courses are increasingly taken by students of biology, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, statistics, bioengineering, neuroscience, computer science, pharmacology, agriculture,and many moreProvides a friendly, unintimidating overview of the material covered in a typical college-level biophysics courseA one-stop reference, course supplement and exam preparation tool for university students currently enrolled in an introductory biophysics coursesAn indispensable resource for those studying the natural sciences, biological sciences, and physics, as well as math, statistics,computer science, pharmacology and many other disciplinesThe current job market for people well versed in biophysics is very strong, and biophysics is currently listed as one of the fast-growing occupations in the North America
Taking into account that catecholamines and angiotensin II are vital for a balanced gene expression of many cells, the intriguing possibility arises that various disease are initiated or aggravated by such an imbalance. Catecholamine and angiotensin II influences can be in excess arising from, for example, hypercaloric food intake or psychosocial stress. During early progression of heart failure, sympathetic activity and angiotensin II influences also become increased. Due to beta-adrenergic receptor downregulation, depressed catecholamine influences are expected in the final stage of heart failure. An imbalanced influence of catecholamines and angiotensin II on gene expression leads to disordered molecular structures of the cell and an impaired cell function.
This focused issue is organized into chapters concentrating on catecholamines, angiotensin II, and the interaction between catecholamines and angiotensin II. Basic biochemical processes are covered in detail and the potential of these pathways for explaining chronic diseases associated with excess catecholamine and angiotensin II influences should become apparent. It is hoped that this focussed issue triggers novel research into the development of drugs that are targeted at diseases characterized by an imbalanced gene expression involving catecholamines and angiotensin II.
This new edition discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively, and how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques. The volume is organized into 18 chapters encompassing thermodynamics, electricity, optics, sound, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, and atomic and nuclear physics. Each chapter provides a brief review of the background physics before focusing on the applications of physics to biology and medicine. Topics range from the role of diffusion in the functioning of cells to the effect of surface tension on the growth of plants in soil and the conduction of impulses along the nervous system. Each section contains problems that explore and expand some of the concepts. The text includes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body.
Physics in Biology and Medicine will be a valuable resource for students and professors of physics, biology, and medicine, as well as for applied health workers.Provides practical techniques for applying knowledge of physics to the study of living systemsPresents material in a straight forward manner requiring very little background in physics or biologyIncludes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body
This volume provides an overview of the state of knowledge concerning this intriguing protein kinase. It brings together contributions from leading investigators engaged in research in this field. Key developments during the past three years pertain to the elaboration of the crystal structure and definition of novel functions of the kinase, such as its role as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Additionally, the shuttling of the kinase to various compartments in response to physiological and stress stimuli appears to be a key feature of the functional regulation of its activity in the cell.
Recognition of activated or modified signaling molecules by specific antibodies, new selective inhibitors, and fluorescent fusion tags are but a few of the tools used to dissect signaling pathways and cross-talk mechanisms that may eventually allow rational drug design. Understanding the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy in all its complexity remains a fundamental goal of cardiac research. Since the advancement of adenovirally mediated gene transfer, transfection efficiency is no longer a limiting factor in the study of cardiomyocytes. A limiting factor in considering cell transplantion as a strategy to repair the damaged heart is cell availability at the right time. Cardiac gap junctions, intercellular communication channels that allow electrical and metabolic coupling and play an important role in arrhythmogenesis are now understood to be exquisite sensors of cardiac change.
The reports in this volume incLude elegant studies that made use of cutting edge technological advances and many specialized reagents to address these issues.
The Second Edition includes a robust instructor ancillary package that allows professors to easily incorporate the book's unique approach into their lectures. And in addition to the many free resources for students––including the E-Tutor, Bug Parade, Flashcards, and MicroMovies–– a new online homework platform, will be available for Spring 2016 courses. The homework platform will have a module for each chapter including tutorials, media assessments, and quizzes, and is accompanied by an instructor dashboard which displays data on student performance.
This volume includes an up to date summary of the scientific and clinical aspects of essentially all the biologically active Guanidino Compounds. The articles summarize the current scientific knowledge of these compounds with reference to relevant clinical conditions, and discuss the chemical, biological, and clinical functions of these compounds.
The information provided in this volume will provide new insights into the mechanisms that control vascular function as well as therapies designed to treat vascular disease.
This book thus covers the spectrum ranging from fundamental interactions between light, cells, vascular tissue, and cell labeling particles, to strategies and opportunities for preclinical and clinical research. General topics include light scattering by cells, fast video microscopy, polarization, laser-scanning, fluorescence, Raman, multi-photon, photothermal, and photoacoustic methods for cellular diagnostics and monitoring of disease treatment in living organisms. Also presented are discussions of advanced methods and techniques of classical flow cytometry.
This volume is a compilation of new multidisciplinary research that will broaden our current understanding of diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as provide the basis for the development of novel therapeutic interventions.
Adaptive Radiation Therapy describes technological and methodological advances in the field of ART, as well as initial clinical experiences using ART for selected anatomic sites. Divided into three sections (radiobiological basis, current technologies, and clinical applications), the book covers:
Morphological and biological biomarkers for patient-specific planning Design and optimization of treatment plans Delivery of IMRT and IGRT intervention methodologies of ART Management of intrafraction variations, particularly with respiratory motion Quality assurance needed to ensure the safe delivery of ART ART applications in several common cancer types / anatomic sites
The technology and methodology for ART have advanced significantly in the last few years and accumulated clinical data have demonstrated the need for ART in clinical settings, assisted by the wide application of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). This book shows the real potential for supplying every patient with individualized radiation therapy that is maximally accurate and precise.
As biology increasingly depends on data, algorithms, and models, it has become necessary to use a computing language, such as the user-friendly MATLAB, to focus more on building and analyzing models as opposed to configuring tedious calculations. Explorations of Mathematical Models in Biology with MATLAB provides an introduction to model creation using MATLAB, followed by the translation, analysis, interpretation, and observation of the models.
With an integrated and interdisciplinary approach that embeds mathematical modeling into biological applications, the book illustrates numerous applications of mathematical techniques within biology, ecology, and environmental sciences. Featuring a quantitative, computational, and mathematical approach, the book includes:Examples of real-world applications, such as population dynamics, genetics, drug administration, interacting species, and the spread of contagious diseases, to showcase the relevancy and wide applicability of abstract mathematical techniquesDiscussion of various mathematical concepts, such as Markov chains, matrix algebra, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, first-order linear difference equations, and nonlinear first-order difference equationsCoverage of difference equations to model a wide range of real-life discrete time situations in diverse areas as well as discussions on matrices to model linear problemsSolutions to selected exercises and additional MATLAB codes
Explorations of Mathematical Models in Biology with MATLAB is an ideal textbook for upper-undergraduate courses in mathematical models in biology, theoretical ecology, bioeconomics, forensic science, applied mathematics, and environmental science. The book is also an excellent reference for biologists, ecologists, mathematicians, biomathematicians, and environmental and resource economists.
Ion channels control the electrical properties of neurons and cardiac cells, mediate the detection and response to sensory stimuli, and regulate the response to physical stimuli. They can often interact with the cellular environment due to their location at the surface of cells. In nonexcitable tissues, they also help regulate basic salt balance critical for homeostasis. All of these features make ion channels important targets for pharmaceuticals.
Handbook of Ion Channels illustrates the fundamental importance of these membrane proteins to human health and disease. Renowned researchers from around the world introduce the technical aspects of ion channel research, provide a modern guide to the properties of major ion channels, and present powerful methods for modeling ion channel diseases and performing clinical trials for ion channel drugs.
Conveniently divided into five parts, the handbook first describes the basic concepts of permeation and gating mechanisms, balancing classic theories and the latest developments. The second part covers the principles and practical issues of both traditional and new ion channel techniques and their applications to channel research. The third part organizes the material to follow the superfamilies of ion channels. This part focuses on the classification, properties, gating mechanisms, function, and pharmacology of established and novel channel types. The fourth part addresses ion channel regulation as well as trafficking and distribution. The final part examines several ion channel-related diseases, discussing genetics, mechanisms, and pharmaceutical advances.