The book outlines the technical predicament facing state-of-the-art CMOS technology development, due to the effect of ever-increasing process-induced random/intrinsic variation in transistor performance at the sub-30-nm technology nodes. Therefore, the physical understanding of process-induced random/intrinsic variations and the technical solutions to address these issues plays a key role in new CMOS technology development. This book aims to provide the reader with a deep understanding of the major random variation sources, and the characterization of each random variation source. Furthermore, the book presents various CMOS device designs to surmount the random variation in future CMOS technology, emphasizing the applications to SRAM.
Provides an overview of the recent changes to the 1149.1 standard and the effect of the changes on the work of test engineers; Explains the new IEEE 1149.8.1 subsidiary standard and applications; Describes the latest updates on the supplementary IEEE testing standards.
In particular, addresses:
IEEE Std 1149.1 Digital Boundary-ScanIEEE Std 1149.4 Analog Boundary-ScanIEEE Std 1149.6 Advanced I/O TestingIEEE Std 1149.8.1 Passive Component TestingIEEE Std 1149.1-2013 The 2013 Revision of 1149.1IEEE Std 1532 In-System ConfigurationIEEE Std 1149.6-2015 The 2015 Revision of 1149.6
This book addresses the fundamental issues underlying the semiconductor test discipline. The test engineer must understand the basic principles of semiconductor fabrication and process and have an in-depth knowledge of circuit functions, instrumentation and noise sources.Introduces a novel component-testing philosophy for semiconductor test, product and design engineersBest new source of information for experienced semiconductor engineers as well as entry-level personnelEight chapters about semiconductor testing
Following a short introduction to the working principles of laser diodes, the book describes the basics of laser diode beams and beam propagation, including Zemax modeling of a Gaussian beam propagating through a lens. The core of the book is concerned with laser diode beam manipulations: collimating and focusing, circularization and astigmatism correction, coupling into a single mode optical fiber, diffractive optics and beam shaping, and manipulation of multi transverse mode beams. The final chapter of the book covers beam characterization methods, describing the measurement of spatial and spectral properties, including wavelength and linewidth measurement techniques.
The book is a significantly revised and expanded version of the title Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations by the same author. New topics introduced in this volume include: laser diode types and working principles, non-paraxial Gaussian beam, Zemax modeling, numerical analysis of a laser diode beam, spectral property characterization methods, and power and energy characterization techniques. The book approaches the subject in a practical way with mathematical content kept to the minimum level required, making the book a convenient reference for laser diode users.
Drawing on extensive archival research, contemporaneous press accounts, and over one hundred interviews with scientists, engineers, government officials, and others involved, Tunnel Visions tells the riveting story of the aborted SSC project. The authors examine the complex, interrelated causes for its demise, including problems of large-project management, continuing cost overruns, and lack of foreign contributions. In doing so, they ask whether Big Science has become too large and expensive, including whether academic scientists and their government overseers can effectively manage such an enormous undertaking.
Aluminum shaped the twentieth century. It enabled high-speed travel and gravity-defying flight. It was the material of a streamlined aesthetic that came to represent modernity. And it became an essential ingredient in industrial and domestic products that ranged from airplanes and cars to designer chairs and artificial Christmas trees. It entered modern homes as packaging, foil, pots and pans and even infiltrated our bodies through food, medicine, and cosmetics. In Aluminum Dreams, Mimi Sheller describes how the materiality and meaning of aluminum transformed modern life and continues to shape the world today.
Aluminum, Sheller tells us, changed mobility and mobilized modern life. It enabled air power, the space age and moon landings. Yet, as Sheller makes clear, aluminum was important not only in twentieth-century technology, innovation, architecture, and design but also in underpinning global military power, uneven development, and crucial environmental and health concerns. Sheller describes aluminum's shiny utopia but also its dark side. The unintended consequences of aluminum's widespread use include struggles for sovereignty and resource control in Africa, India, and the Caribbean; the unleashing of multinational corporations; and the pollution of the earth through mining and smelting (and the battle to save it). Using a single material as an entry point to understanding a global history of modernization and its implications for the future, Aluminum Dreams forces us to ask: How do we assemble the material culture of modernity and what are its environmental consequences?
Aluminum Dreams includes a generous selection of striking images of iconic aluminum designs, many in color, drawn from advertisements by Alcoa, Bohn, Kaiser, and other major corporations, pamphlets, films, and exhibitions.
An introductory chapter illustrates just how dependent we are on modern electronic systems and explains the significance of semiconductors in their development. It also provides, in as painless a way as possible, a necessary understanding of semiconductor properties in relation to these applications. The second chapter takes up the historical account and ends with some important results emerging from the Second World War – including its effect on the organisation of scientific research. Chapter three describes the world-shaking discovery of the transistor and some of the early struggles to make it commercially viable, including the marketing of the first transistor radio. In chapter four we meet the integrated circuit which gave shape to much of our modern life in the form of the personal computer (and which gave rise to a famously long-running patent war!). Later chapters cover the application of compound semiconductors to light-emitting devices, such as LEDs and lasers, and light detecting devices such as photocells. We learn how these developments led to the invention of the CD player and DVD recorder, how other materials were applied to the development of sophisticated night vision equipment, fibre optical communications systems, solar photovoltaic panels and flat panel displays. Similarly, microwave techniques essential to our modern day love of mobile phoning are seen to depend on clever materials scientists who, not for the first time, "invented" new semiconductors with just the right properties.
Altogether, it is an amazing story and one which deserves to be more widely known. Read this book and you will be rewarded with a much deeper understanding and appreciation of the technological revolution which shapes so many aspects of our lives.A historical account of the development of semiconductor physics, devices and applications from the nineteenth century to the present dayCoverage of the importance of material quality and its relation to the physics of the devicesPresented in a strictly non-mathematical and anecedotal way, to appeal to a wide audienceProvides the broad sweep of science history
Dr. Wentao Zhang received his PhD from the Institute of Physics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined.
Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based product development process.
The Performance Indicator methodology is applied to demonstrate the importance of hidden memory parameters for a successful product and system development roadmap.
Flash Memories offers an opportunity to enhance your understanding of product development key topics such as:
· Reliability optimization of flash memories is all about threshold voltage margin understanding and definition;
· Product performance parameter are analyzed in-depth in all aspects in relation to the threshold voltage operation window;
· Technical characteristics are translated into quantitative performance indicators;
· Performance indicators are applied to identify and quantify product and technology innovation within adjacent areas to fulfill the application requirements with an overall cost optimized solution; · Cost, density, performance and durability values are combined into a common factor – performance indicator - which fulfills the application requirements
This book presents superconductivity in this materials context and displays some of the underlying simplicity in the materials record that provided fuel for the theoretical developments. Not only is the phenomenon deeply interesting, the metallic systems where it plays out are as well, and superconductivity gives a very interesting window from which to view the nature of electrically conducting materials. The level is not advanced, yet allows the serious reader to access the current developments in the literature.Addresses in detail the exciting developments after 1980. Demonstrates that progress in superconductivity is to a large extent due to progress in materials synthesis and characterization.Gateway to the current developments in the literature.
Part one covers fundamental characteristics of high temperature superconductors and high TC films such as deposition technologies, growth, transport properties and optical conductivity. Part two is concerned with growth techniques and properties of high temperature superconductors, including YBCO, BSCCO and HTSC high TC films, and electron-doped cuprates. Finally, part three describes the various applications of high temperature superconductors, from Josephson junctons and dc-superconductive quantum inference devices (dc-SQUIDs) to microwave filters.
With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, this book is an invaluable resource for those researching high temperature superconductors, in industry and academia. In light of the many recent advances in high temperature superconductors, it will benefit physicists, materials scientists and engineers working in this field, as well as in areas of industrial application, such as electronic devices and power transmission.Summarises the materials science and physics of all the most important high temperature superconductorsDiscusses material growth, properties and applicationsOutlines fundamental characteristics of high temperature superconductors and high TC films
This book focuses on their imaging applications and related properties. It examines the two groups of amorphous semiconductors that are of most commercial interest:
the chalcogenide glassesthe tetrahedrally bonded amorphous solids such as amorphous silicon, germanium and related alloys
Both of these groups may be conveniently prepared in the form of thin/thick films which is of considerable importance in applications where large-area coverage of flat or curved surfaces of rigid or flexible materials is desirable such as in photovoltaic arrays, X-Ray sensors, display screens and photocopier drums.Provides information on the amorphous semiconductors that are of most commercial interestPresents the history of the commercial applications, the latest developments and future possibilities
Comparative studies on the charge dynamics and Mott transition features of transition-metal oxides were performed: Charge dynamics and thermoelectricity in a typical Mott transition system La1−xSrxVO3, charge dynamics in a doped valence-bond solid system (Ti1−xVx)2O3 and in layered nickelates R2-xSrxNiO4 with charge-ordering instability are investigated thoroughly. The results obtained successfully provide a number of novel insights into the emergent phenomena near the Mott transition.
Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists.
The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only reviews the progress made since the early days of pulsar astronomy, but especially focuses on questions such as: "What have we learned about the subject and how did we learn it?", "What are the most important open questions in this area?" and "What new tools, telescopes, observations, and calculations are needed to answer these questions?".
All authors who have contributed to this book have devoted a significant part of their scientific careers to exploring the nature of neutron stars and understanding pulsars. Everyone has paid special attention to writing educational comprehensive review articles with the needs of beginners, students and young scientists as potential readers in mind. This book will be a valuable source of information for these groups.
This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological insulators and related areas.
Shun-Qing Shen is a Professor at the Department of Physics, the University of Hong Kong, China.
This university textbook describes in its first three chapters the fundamentals of lasers: light-matter interaction, the amplifying laser medium and the laser resonator. In the fourth chapter, pulse generation and related techniques are presented. The fifth chapter gives a closing overview on different laser types gaining importance currently and in the future. It also contains a set of examples on which the theory learned in the first four chapters is applied and extended.
This new edition contains an introduction to the methods of theory of one-dimensional systems (bosonization and conformal field theory) and their applications to many-body problems.
Intended for graduate students in physics and related fields, the aim is not to be exhaustive, but to present enough detail to enable the student to follow the current research literature, or to apply the techniques to new problems. Many of the examples are drawn from mesoscopic physics, which deals with systems small enough that quantum coherence is maintained throughout their volume and which therefore provides an ideal testing ground for many-body theories.
The physics of low dimensional semiconductor structures, including heterostructures, superlattices, quantum wells, wires and dots is reviewed and their modeling is discussed in detail. The truly exceptional material, Graphene, is reviewed; its functionalization and Van der Waals interactions are included here. Recent research on optical studies of quantum dots and on the physical properties of one-dimensional quantum wires is also reported. Chapters on fabrication of nanowire – based nanogap devices by the dielectrophoretic assembly approach. The broad spectrum of research reported here incorporates chapters on nanoengineering and nanophysics. In its presentation of tutorial chapters as well as advanced research on nanostructures, this book is ideally suited to meet the needs of newcomers to the field as well as experienced researchers interested in viewing colleagues’ recent advances.
The available books on semiconductor science and technology cannot afford to devote even an entire chapter to photoemissions from optoelectronic materials, although its importance in photoemission spectroscopy is extremely well known. This book deals totally with the photoemission from optoelectronic materials and their nanostructures (ultrathin films, quantum wires, superlattices, etc.).
In this thesis the static and dynamic properties of GaAs-based oxide-confined VCSELs emitting at 850 nm and 980 nm are analyzed and general rules for achieving energy-efficient data transmission using VCSELs at any wavelength are derived. These rules are verified in data transmission experiments leading to record energy-efficient data transmission across a wide range of multimode optical fiber distances and at high temperatures up to 85°C.
Important trade-offs between energy efficiency, temperature stability, modulation bandwidth, low current-density operation and other VCSEL properties are revealed and discussed.