Many important functions of mathematical physics are defined as integrals depending on parameters. The Picard-Lefschetz theory studies how analytic and qualitative properties of such integrals (regularity, algebraicity, ramification, singular points, etc.) depend on the monodromy of corresponding integration cycles. In this book, V. A. Vassiliev presents several versions of the Picard-Lefschetz theory, including the classical local monodromy theory of singularities and complete intersections, Pham's generalized Picard-Lefschetz formulas, stratified Picard-Lefschetz theory, and also twisted versions of all these theories with applications to integrals of multivalued forms. The author also shows how these versions of the Picard-Lefschetz theory are used in studying a variety of problems arising in many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics.In particular, he discusses the following classes of functions: volume functions arising in the Archimedes-Newton problem of integrable bodies; Newton-Coulomb potentials; fundamental solutions of hyperbolic partial differential equations; and, multidimensional hypergeometric functions generalizing the classical Gauss hypergeometric integral. The book is geared toward a broad audience of graduate students, research mathematicians and mathematical physicists interested in algebraic geometry, complex analysis, singularity theory, asymptotic methods, potential theory, and hyperbolic operators.
This English translation of a Russian book presents the basic notions of differential and algebraic topology, which are indispensable for specialists and useful for research mathematicians and theoretical physicists. In particular, ideas and results are introduced related to manifolds, cell spaces, coverings and fibrations, homotopy groups, intersection index, etc. The author notes, 'The lecture note origins of the book left a significant imprint on its style. It contains very few detailed proofs: I tried to give as many illustrations as possible and to show what really occurs in topology, not always explaining why it occurs'. He concludes, 'As a rule, only those proofs (or sketches of proofs) that are interesting per se and have important generalizations are presented'.
This volume contains an introduction to the Picard--Lefschetz theory, which controls the ramification and qualitative behaviour of many important functions of PDEs and integral geometry, and its foundations in singularity theory. Solutions to many problems of these theories are treated. Subjects include the proof of multidimensional analogues of Newton's theorem on the nonintegrability of ovals; extension of the proofs for the theorems of Newton, Ivory, Arnold and Givental on potentials of algebraic surfaces. Also, it is discovered for which d and n the potentials of degree d hyperbolic surfaces in Rn are algebraic outside the surfaces; the equivalence of local regularity (the so-called sharpness), of fundamental solutions of hyperbolic PDEs and the topological Petrovskii--Atiyah--Bott--Gårding condition is proved, and the geometrical characterization of domains of sharpness close to simple singularities of wave fronts is considered; a `stratified' version of the Picard--Lefschetz formula is proved, and an algorithm enumerating topologically distinct Morsifications of real function singularities is given. This book will be valuable to those who are interested in integral transforms, operational calculus, algebraic geometry, PDEs, manifolds and cell complexes and potential theory.