The knee meniscus was once thought to be a vestigial tissue, but is now known to be instrumental in imparting stability, shock absorption, load transmission, and stress distribution within the knee joint. Unfortunately, most damage to the meniscus cannot be effectively healed by the body. Meniscus tissue engineering offers a possible solution to this problem by striving to create replacement tissue that may be implanted into a defect site. With a strong focus on structure-function relationships, this book details the essential anatomical, biochemical, and mechanical aspects of this versatile tissue and reviews current meniscus tissue engineering strategies and repair techniques. We have written this text such that undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers will find it useful as a first foray into tissue engineering, a cohesive study of the meniscus, or a reference for meniscus engineering specifications.
Table of Contents: Structure-Function Relationships of the Knee Meniscus / Pathophysiology and the Need for Tissue Engineering / Tissue Engineering of the Knee Meniscus / Current Therapies and Future Directions
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a site of intense morbidity for millions of people, especially young, pre-menopausal women. Central to TMJ afflictions are the cartilaginous tissues of the TMJ, especially those of the disc and condylar cartilage, which play crucial roles in normal function of this unusual joint. Damage or disease to these tissues significantly impacts a patient's quality of life by making common activities such as talking and eating difficult and painful. Unfortunately, these tissues have limited ability to heal, necessitating the development of treatments for repair or replacement. The burgeoning field of tissue engineering holds promise that replacement tissues can be constructed in the laboratory to recapitulate the functional requirements of native tissues. This book outlines the biomechanical, biochemical, and anatomical characteristics of the disc and condylar cartilage, and also provides a historical perspective of past and current TMJ treatments and previous tissue engineering efforts. This book was written to serve as a reference for researchers seeking to learn about the TMJ, for undergraduate and graduate level courses, and as a compendium of TMJ tissue engineering design criteria. Table of Contents: The Temporomandibular Joint / Fibrocartilage of the TMJ Disc / Cartilage of the Mandibular Condyle / Tissue Engineering of the Disc / Tissue Engineering of the Mandibular Condyle / Current Perspectives
Cartilage injuries in children and adolescents are increasingly observed, with roughly 20% of knee injuries in adolescents requiring surgery. In the US alone, costs of osteoarthritis (OA) are in excess of $65 billion per year (both medical costs and lost wages). Comorbidities are common with OA and are also costly to manage. Articular cartilage's low friction and high capacity to bear load makes it critical in the movement of one bone against another, and its lack of a sustained natural healing response has necessitated a plethora of therapies. Tissue engineering is an emerging technology at the threshold of translation to clinical use. Replacement cartilage can be constructed in the laboratory to recapitulate the functional requirements of native tissues. This book outlines the biomechanical and biochemical characteristics of articular cartilage in both normal and pathological states, through development and aging. It also provides a historical perspective of past and current cartilage treatments and previous tissue engineering efforts. Methods and standards for evaluating the function of engineered tissues are discussed, and current cartilage products are presented with an analysis on the United States Food and Drug Administration regulatory pathways that products must follow to market. This book was written to serve as a reference for researchers seeking to learn about articular cartilage, for undergraduate and graduate level courses, and as a compendium of articular cartilage tissue engineering design criteria. Table of Contents: Hyaline Articular Cartilage / Cartilage Aging and Pathology / In Vitro / Bioreactors / Future Directions
This book is concerned with the study of continuum mechanics applied to biological systems, i.e., continuum biomechanics. This vast and exciting subject allows description of when a bone may fracture due to excessive loading, how blood behaves as both a solid and fluid, down to how cells respond to mechanical forces that lead to changes in their behavior, a process known as mechanotransduction. We have written for senior undergraduate students and first year graduate students in mechanical or biomedical engineering, but individuals working at biotechnology companies that deal in biomaterials or biomechanics should also find the information presented relevant and easily accessible. Table of Contents: Tensor Calculus / Kinematics of a Continuum / Stress / Elasticity / Fluids / Blood and Circulation / Viscoelasticity / Poroelasticity and Thermoelasticity / Biphasic Theory