The twenty-first century has relegated airplane flight—a once remarkable feat of human ingenuity—to the realm of the mundane. Mark Vanhoenacker, a 747 pilot who left academia and a career in the business world to pursue his childhood dream of flight, asks us to reimagine what we—both as pilots and as passengers—are actually doing when we enter the world between departure and discovery. In a seamless fusion of history, politics, geography, meteorology, ecology, family, and physics, Vanhoenacker vaults across geographical and cultural boundaries; above mountains, oceans, and deserts; through snow, wind, and rain, renewing a simultaneously humbling and almost superhuman activity that affords us unparalleled perspectives on the planet we inhabit and the communities we form.
Written by A330 Captain, Bill Palmer, this book opens to understanding the actions of the crew, how they failed to understand and control the problem, and how the airplane works and the part it played. All in easy to understand terms.
Addressed are the many contributing aspects of weather, human factors, and airplane system operation and design that the crew could not recover from. How each contributed is covered in detail along with what has been done, and needs to be done in the future to prevent this from happening again.
Also see the book's companion website: UnderstandingAF447.com
In Fly by Wire, one of America's greatest journalists takes us on a strange and unexpected journey into the fascinating world of advanced aviation. From the testing laboratories where engineers struggle to build a jet engine that can systematically resist bird attacks, through the creation of the A320 in France, to the political and social forces that have sought to minimize the impact of the revolutionary fly-by-wire technology, William Langewiesche assembles the untold stories necessary to truly understand the
"miracle" on the Hudson, and makes us question our assumptions about human beings in
Written by an experienced airline pilot, Ace the Technical Pilot Interview, Second Edition is filled with more than 1000 questions and answers, many of them all-new. This practical study tool asks the right questions so you'll know the right answers. It's a must-have, one-stop resource for all pilots, regardless of aircraft type, performance, or global region.
Ace the Technical Pilot Interview, Second Edition helps you:Review the material most likely to be asked on your interview Practice with 1000+ exam-style questions--complete with answers Learn about the latest technologies, including CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communications) and ADS (Automatic Dependent Surveillance) Focus your study on what you need to know
Aerodynamics * Engines * Jet and propeller aircraft differences * Navigation * Atmosphere and speed * Aircraft instruments and systems * Performance and flight planning * Meteorology and weather recognition * Flight operations and technique * Human performance * Type-specific questions
Chris Heintz is a professional aeronautical engineer with a prolific career spanning over 40 years designing and building light aircraft. Recognized worldwide as a uniquely talented and accomplished designer, his aircraft are known and appreciated for their simplicity of construction, pilot-friendly cabins and controllability as well as remarkable performances. Today, Chris Heintz designs are flown throughout the world, mostly by recreational pilots who have assembled their own planes from a kit. His most popular models are also factory-assembled and sold as ready-to-fly sport aircraft on three continents.
In FLYING ON YOUR OWN WINGS, Mr. Heintz shares his knowledge and insights into the art and science of light aircraft design. He “walks” readers through the essential understanding and skills required to conceive, develop, build and even test-fly their own personal light airplane. Basic mathematics, essential aerodynamics and stress analysis are just a few of the chapters of this fascinating book. Heintz even provides a sample design to help would-be designers take their first step towards imagining and creating their own wings.
Truly a beginner’s guide to everything you need to know in order to achieve that age-old dream: To fly on your own wings!
A valuable employment tool, the Professional Pilot Career Guide provides a complete sourcebook of professional flying opportunities. This updated guide contains detailed coverage of pilot ratings and practical test standards-plus goal-achieving tips on job hunting, networking, regional airlines, the majors, and more.
Written by career pilot and aviation-industry expert Robert P. Mark, this vital reference offers a real-world look at what it's like to fly for the airlines, corporations, or charter companies, together with guidance on pay, benefits, types of aircraft, and future prospects. Packed with illustrations, Professional Pilot Career Guide features:Full coverage of aviation training-where to get it and how to finance it The latest airline, corporate, and charter employment opportunities 200 common interview questions-and the 10 most frequent interview mistakes Current information on the best-paying flying jobs Valuable advice on PC-based job search techniques Indepth pilot interviews Essential internet resources
Inside This Cutting-Edge Employment Resource for Today's Pilots• Your Career Starts Here • Flight Training • Ratings • Where Are the Jobs? • The Regional Airlines • The Majors • Business Aviation • The Pilot and the PC
It was a bird’s-eye view of America—and the trip of a lifetime for author Stephen Coonts and his fourteen-year-old son. But even for Coonts, who had clocked 1,600 hours as a naval aviator and was the recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross commendation, this was a first. He’d be flying closer to the earth than he ever had before. His big yellow wood-and-canvas bird was the Cannibal Queen, a Stearman open-cockpit biplane built in 1942. Destined for the scrap yard, it was rescued and restored for what Coonts would call his “Stearman summer.”
On a clear June afternoon in 1991, Coonts and his son took off to see the country the same way the barnstormers flew their Jennys: with a map and a compass. Coonts followed highways, railroad lines, back roads, mountains, rivers, and landmarks. For the next three months, seeing old friends and meeting new ones, he touched down on the diverse landscapes of each of the forty-eight contiguous states to record the stories of the American countryside, its spirited people, and its rich history.
Soaring from big cities to the heartland, experiencing everything from Bourbon Street jazz and small-town barbershop quartets to greasy spoons and backyard barbeques, the author of Flight of the Intruder and The Art of War captures not only the singular thrill of biplane aviation, but a nostalgia for the simple pleasures of an America thought lost and forgotten. Stephen Coonts found it, and in The Cannibal Queen he shares every exultant moment.
This ebook features an illustrated biography of Stephen Coonts, including rare photos from the author’s personal collection.
Before 1955, the concept of an artificial satellite had been demonstrated only on paper. The first nation to transform theory into practice would gain advantages in science, the Cold War propaganda contest, and the military balance of power. Visionaries such as America’s Wernher von Braun and Russia’s Sergey Korolev knew these fields of endeavor would be affected by the launch of a satellite. Moved by patriotism, inquisitiveness, and pride, people on both sides of the Iron Curtain put forth heroic efforts to make that first satellite possible.
Some aspects of this story, like the Navy’s NOTSNIK satellite project, are almost unknown. Even some details of well-known programs, such as the appearance of America’s pioneering Explorer 1 satellite and the contributions made by its rival, Project Vanguard, are generally misremembered. In this book, authors Matt Bille and Erika Lishock tell the whole story of the first space race. They trace the tale from the origins of spaceflight theory and through the military and political events that engendered the all-out efforts needed to turn dreams into reality and thus shape the modern world.
Then, in August 1985, Bio was assigned to combine his day-to-day flight duties with participation in a Pentagon-blessed project to film action footage for a major Hollywood movie focusing on the lives, loves, heartbreaks, and triumphs of young fighter pilots: Top Gun.
Bio soon found himself riding in limousines to attend gala premieres, and being singled out by giggling teenagers and awed schoolboys who recognized the name "Topgun" on his T-shirts. The book ends with his reflections on his career as a skilled naval aviator and his enduring love of flight.
The paperback and Kindle editions include more than fifty rare full color photographs of fighter jets in action.
Fully revised to cover the most current protocols, this practical resource provides everything you need to communicate with confidence from the cockpit. The Pilot's Radio Communications Handbook, Sixth Edition discusses the full spectrum of radio facilities and communication responsibilities. Designed primarily, but not exclusively, for VFR pilots, this book spells out what to say to contact a facility, what you should expect to hear, and how to properly respond. A new chapter on communications and emergencies and new coverage of the International Phonetic Alphabet are included. Expand your flight horizons beyond the local controlled or uncontrolled airport with help from this must-have pilot's companion.
* Mastering aviation radio communications * Aviation accidents involving communication failure * Breaking through communication barriers * Airspace classifications * MULTICOM airport radio communications * UNICOM airport radio communications * Flight service stations * ATIS: automatic terminal information service * Ground control: the airport surface traffi c director * Transponder: the silent communicator * Operating and communicating in Class D and E airspaces * Operating and communicating in Class B, Class C, and TRSA airspaces * Communicating with approach/departure control * Communicating with air route traffic control centers * Handling radio failures * Communications and emergencies * A cross-country flight to bring it all together
Whether you are training for a powered parachute category rating test or are currently a certified power parachute pilot looking to expand your knowledge, Powered Parachute Flying Handbook is the book you need to make your flying ambitions a reality.
Florence "Pancho" Barnes was a California heiress who inherited a love of flying from her grandfather, a pioneer balloonist in the Civil War. Faced with a future of domesticity and upper-crust pretensions, she ran away from her responsibilities as wife and mother to create her own life. She cruised South America. She trekked through Mexico astride a burro. She hitchhiked halfway across the United States. Then, in the late 1920s, she took to the skies, one of a handful of female pilots.
She was a barnstormer, a racer, a cross-country flier, and a Hollywood stunt pilot. She was, for a time, "the fastest woman on earth," flying the fastest civilian airplane in the world. She was an intimate of movie stars, a script doctor for the great director Erich von Stroheim, and, later in life, a drinking buddy of the supersonic jet jockey Chuck Yeager. She ran a wild and wildly successful desert watering hole known as the Happy Bottom Riding Club, the raucous bar and grill depicted in The Right Stuff.
In The Happy Bottom Riding Club, Lauren Kessler presents a portrait, both authoritative and affectionate, of a woman who didn't play by women's rules, a woman of large appetites--emotional, financial, and sexual--who called herself "the greatest conversation piece that ever existed."
From the Hardcover edition.
In the spirit of those war stories, author Jim Lewis, who has worked as a professional pilot since the mid-sixties, offers his share of stories from his experiences.
Many of these short stories are the result of mistakes in judgment, while others arose from deliberate decisions to proceed made from ignorance. A few were simply experiences that came with being a professional pilot, and two or three were blatant rule breaking. Lewis recalls landing in a soybean field, buzzing a nuclear submarine, flying under a bridge, running low on fuel, and tasting life in the cockpit of a jet liner. Some of his tales are humorous, while others take on a more dangerous nature. All of them, however, offer a lesson for others to learn.
For more than 60 years, the Standard Aircraft Handbook for Mechanics and Technicians has been the trusted resource for building, maintaining, overhauling, and repairing aircraft. This illustrated guide provides clear, step-by-step procedures for all essential aircraft tasks.
The Seventh Edition has been thoroughly revised to cover the latest advances in the industry, including composite materials, cutting-edge nondestructive testing, and detection equipment and procedures. New photos, diagrams, tables, and schematics are featured throughout this must-have reference.
Coverage includes:Tools and their proper use Materials and fabricating Drilling and countersinking Riveting Bolts and threaded fasteners Aircraft plumbing Control cables Electrical wiring and installation Aircraft drawings Nondestructive testing (NDT) Corrosion detection and control Composite materials
In a good year aerobatics is one of the most beautiful sports imaginable. Pilots pull through impossibly elegant figures, twisting their planes at hundreds of miles an hour. The stress on their bodies reaches ten times the force of gravity, but this is nothing compared to the strain on their minds and the tension in their souls. In a bad year no sport kills more of its participants. To fly really well and to win you must depart the land of the possible and enter a place of pure faith.
In this stunning literary debut, Joshua Cooper Ramo has crafted a meditation on the seduction of flight and a passionate love letter to a life of risk. It is partly the story of his own decision, after a decade of casual aerobatics, to transform himself into a serious competitive pilot aiming to finish high at the U.S. national competition. He introduces us to some of the greatest aerobatic pilots in the world: geniuses like Leo Loudenslager, a mild-mannered American Airlines pilot who spent his weekends redefining what it was possible to do in the air with a plane, flying figures so hard they made his eyes bleed as he whimpered with pain in the cockpit; or Kirby Chambliss, the Arizona pilot who performed figures just inches off the runway and sent his plane shooting through holes in cliffs.
The classics of flight and extreme adventure, West With the Night; Wind, Sand, and Stars; and Into Thin Air have brought a poetic vision to their subjects. No Visible Horizon is an elegant and thrilling exploration, not simply of a pilot's physical battle against gravity, but of his dream of perfection and his quest for faith.
In this gripping investigation of the events that led to the plane’s disappearance—and why they could happen again—CNN aviation analyst David Soucie exposes the flaws in the aviation industry, shares what needs to be done so a plane doesn’t go missing again, and uses a Bayesian analysis model to reveal what most likely happened on board the plane that led to its downfall.
Comprehensive in scope, personal and empathetic in voice, Soucie draws on his thirty years of experience as an accident investigator working with the Federal Aviation Administration. He allows you to put the wild speculation about the plane’s disappearance aside and assess the facts through the eyes of an experienced accident investigator.
The Third Edition of Basic Flight Physiology has been completely updated and expanded with information on THAT WILL REDUCE PILOT IMPAIRMENT IN FLIGHT. This definitive guide to PHYSIOLOGICAL human factors in the flying environment provides a wealth of preventive measures pilots can take to anticipate and compensate for HUMAN FACTORS that cause 70% of all aviation accidents.
Packed with over 100 INFORMATIVE illustrations, this resource contains UNDERSTANDABLE coverage of THE MANY PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT PILOT PERFORMANCE PLUS crew resource management, in-flight medical emergencies, health maintenance programs, and more. The Third Edition of Basic Flight Physiology features:Methods for dealing with vertigo and DISORIENTATION Critical information on tolerance to FATIGUE Techniques for handling self-imposed and environmental stresses Guidance on the effects of caffeine, alcohol, and OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS
Explore Every Aspect of “Medical Airworthiness”:• Human Factors Defined • Basic Human Anatomy • The Atmosphere • Situation Awareness • Altitude Physiology • Hearing and Vibration • Vision • Orientation • Self-Imposed Medical Stress • Environmental Stresses • Sleep, Jet Lag, and Fatigue • Acceleration • Crew Resource Management • Human Factors of Automation • In-Flight Medical Emergencies • Health Maintenance Program • Medical Standards, Regulation, and Certification
This up-to-date edition is illustrated with full-color graphics and photographs and covers topics such as basic atmospheric science, the air traffic control system, spatial disorientation and optical illusions, flight support systems, and emergency responses. The book’s two appendixes contain information on clearance shorthand and an instrument training lesson guide. Readers will also find a handy glossary and index.
Since many questions on FAA exams are taken directly from the information presented in this text, the Instrument Flying Handbook is a great study guide for potential pilots looking for certification and a perfect gift for any aircraft or aeronautical buff.
Additional topics included throughout this text include:
Business and Corporate Aviation Management, Second Edition, is the most comprehensive and practical guide for a company to start an on-demand air transportation system--and make it work. This one-of-a-kind resource skillfully blends business and aviation issues to provide solid decision-making strategies and smart operating practices needed to define, establish, and manage a corporate flight department--utilizing the author's more than four decades of experience in the aviation industry.
As business aviation continues to evolve, this blueprint for developing successful flight departments is changing with it. Fully updated, the Second Edition includes the latest business aircraft, equipment technology, and maintenance practices. It has also been revised to reflect the growing importance of safety management systems along with changes in running and managing a flight department.
New to this edition:Current regulations and aviation statistics Tables and graphs updated to reflect current values Regulations associated with increased international operations New material added to each chapter Operations and Safety chapters completely revised Updated management techniques
The Ice Pilots follows renegade Arctic airline Buffalo Airways, and pilots who defy the cold and the competition by using WWII era propeller planes likes the DC-3 to haul vital fuel, supplies, and passengers to remote outposts across the world’s last great wilderness. From rookie pilots trying to earn their wings in sometimes hellish conditions to vintage planes that flew over Normandy on D-Day, The Ice Pilots brings its readers on an engaging romp through Arctic skies.
Michael Vlessides braves bone-chilling temperatures, treacherous landings, and iconic owner “Buffalo” Joe McBryan’s famous temper to capture behind-the-scenes stories about the ice pilots, the crew, and the communities they serve. Weaving in history about bush pilots, plane crashes, and the north, he has crafted an entertaining, informative narrative about aviation, the lifeline of this remote world.
Based on the top-rated Ice Pilots NWT television series now airing on The Weather Channel USA, History Television Canada, National Geographic Australia, and in 12 countries around the world.
Fully revised, updated, and reorganized to reflect the latest advances in the aviation industry, Airport Planning and Management, Sixth Edition offers comprehensive coverage of this challenging field. Airports, airport systems, operations management, and administration are discussed in detail. This authoritative volume addresses changes in technology, structure, and political environment, including enhanced security, environmental impact, and regulatory issues. The Sixth Edition of this landmark guide to the planning, development, and management of airports is ideal as a course text, self-study tool, and professional reference.
Coverage includes:Introduction to airports and airport systems Airport and airport systems: organization and administration Historical and legislative perspectives The airfield Airspace and air traffic management Airport operations management under FAR Part 139 Airport terminals and ground access Airport security Airport financial management Economic, political, and social role of airports Airport planning Airport capacity and delay The future of airport management
The book is intended as a comprehensive guide to glider towing operations, with that all important emphasis on safety. The intent is to provide all the relevant information in one straightforward, easy to read book. The notes are intended to be very generic and non-country specific. Even though local procedures differ, hopefully the information should be useful to any glider tug pilot, anywhere in the world. Each gliding organisation has its operating environment and problems, therefore should adapt, further or improve these suggestions to suit their own needs.
It is fundamental that every tug pilot be a person who is both trustworthy and highly reliable as it is a flying task with huge responsibility placed on the pilot. Aerotowing is expensive, can be noisy and has its own special hazards. These factors have a bearing on the very existence of gliding and it is therefore essential that glider aerotowing be carried out safely, efficiently and thoughtfully, paying particular regard to our neighbours. Your particular aerotowing should of course be carried out in accordance with national laws, regulations, procedures and in conjunction with your organisation’s flying rules.
As the pilots in command of an aircraft you are ultimately responsible for the safe conduct of the flight and the actions that you choose to take. The glider pilot’s requirements should of course be accommodated as far as possible.
Glider aerotowing should be good for your general flying skills. As a flying and gliding instructor for over twenty five years, I have noticed that most glider tug pilots are often also glider pilots and have above average handling and situational awareness skills. Flying tugs should of course also be quite good fun!It is hoped that this comprehensive book will meet the ground school requirements of any current or future glider towing ratings.
Brad O’Connor flew the Nighthawk during the NATO bombing campaign over Kosovo in 1999. His first-person experience puts the reader in the cockpit of this revolutionary combat aircraft. From his F-117 assignment through training, deployment, mission planning, and combat flights, O’Connor relates the day-to-day life of a pilot in the world’s first stealth fighter.
In China Airborne, James Fallows documents, for the first time, the extraordinary scale of this project and explains why it is a crucial test case for China’s hopes for modernization and innovation in other industries. He makes clear how it stands to catalyze the nation’s hyper-growth and hyper- urbanization, revolutionizing China in ways analogous to the building of America’s transcontinental railroad in the nineteenth century. Fallows chronicles life in the city of Xi’an, home to more than 250,000 aerospace engineers and assembly workers, and introduces us to some of the hucksters, visionaries, entrepreneurs, and dreamers who seek to benefit from China’s pursuit of aerospace supremacy. He concludes by examining what this latest demonstration of Chinese ambition means for the United States and the rest of the world—and the right ways to understand it.
Veteran pilot Clark Maxwell thought his fire bombing days were well behind him. But when Jerry Stein, Maxwell's friend and airtanker fleet-owner, calls at the height of the fire season to beg him to reenter the war, he doesn't hesitate. A pair of ferocious forest fires is raging out of control, threatening to destroy Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks and incinerate thousands of area homes. As the wildfires spread, whipped by massive winds, and the federal forces arrayed against the fires reach their limits, anxiety grows in the local population. A paranoia plagues the fire bombers and smoke jumpers as well, after a mysterious string of violent airborne accidents among the airtanker fleet claims the lives of some of the most fearless and experienced veterans.
Maxwell has long argued that the airtankers -- old aircraft used by pilots to bomb the fires with fire retardant slurry -- are faulty museum pieces that should have been grounded years ago. Now some of the fleet seem to be falling apart in midair. In the middle of the area's worst wildfire season in history, Maxwell is convinced that a sinister cover-up is behind the rash of horrific air disasters. Were the planes' inspection papers forged? Is someone capitalizing on these crashes? As he races to unravel a very real mystery and prevent a natural disaster of massive proportions, Maxwell's probe reaches the upper levels of the very government agencies charged with mount-ing the aerial fire fighting effort -- a move that for wholly unexpected reasons just may cost him his life...and the life of Karen Jones, the married smoke jumper with whom he seems to have fallen in love.
In amazing detail, with the signature authenticity only a veteran pilot could provide, John J. Nance creates a hair-raising thriller that will leave readers breathless from cover to cover.
Scrutinizing the theories the media and politicians claim are the “most likely” reasons the plane crashed, Belzer, Noory, and Wayne argue that if a year after a huge Boeing 777 has gone missing, and there’s still no sign of it whatsoever, it’s time to think outside the box. The public needs to stop being misled.
If a plane and its passengers went "missing" once, what's to stop it from happening again?
Some of the theories the authors consider seem implausible on the surface, but the thorough research they've done and the continual failure of politicians, aviation authorities, and military members around the world to give any indication they're wrong makes their arguments as good—if not better—than the more widely shared ones.
The title of this thought-provoking volume, Someone is Hiding Something, is a line spoken by former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad—perhaps the only government official to publicly acknowledge the true reason that neither Flight 370 nor the 239 people onboard have been found.
In From the Flight Deck: Plane Talk and Sky Science, pilot, meteorologist, and flight-school instructor Doug Morris lets you take the window seat on a trip around the world, giving you the scoop on everything from take-off to landing. He explains what you see looking out the window, what that window is made of, and how the plane is kept in rigorous flying condition. Perfect for informing the aviation enthusiast and calming the fearful flier, From the Flight Deck tells you everything you want to know about commercial airline travel: the physics of flight, how airplanes work and what they’re made of, how pilots are trained, route planning and the importance of the ground crew, turbulence, flying in storms, what the flight crew gets up to on layovers, and much more. With facts, trivia, humour, and illuminating photos throughout, From the Flight Deck is the ultimate flight companion.
The first practical guide that shows professional pilots how to safely transition to the automated flight deck
Today's remarkable aircraft require remarkable airmanship skills. Automation Airmanship is a breakthrough book that helps pilots master these skills by introducing Nine Principles for Operating Glass Cockpit Aircraft. The nine principles were derived from over a decade of fi eldwork with organizations worldwide that have successfully transitioned to advanced aircraft fleets. Each principle provides a building block for a simplifi ed, straightforward, and disciplined approach to operating increasingly complex aircraft safely and effectively in demanding operational environments.
Written by experienced airline captains who have trained others through the glass cockpit transition, this book presents ideas useful to both veteran glass cockpit pilots and those new to the twenty-first century flight deck. More than a simple list of skills, this powerful resource draws on real-life examples, providing the roadmap you need to successfully transition from steam to glass--and maintain a performance edge for your entire career.
Features:In-flight experience of experts Success stories and lessons learned from across the industry Real-world accident investigations to underscore the importance of these principles Powerful tools to avoid errors or to resolve them when issues arise A guide to fundamentals of automated flight deck architecture Principles and practices for all phases of flight operations
Helfrick does not limit his discussion to the flying machines themselves, but instead focuses much of his work on the advancement of electronic systems that have kept them in the air and turned aviation into the industry it is today. He gives a clear explanation of technical definitions and acronyms, including Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR), the Instrument Landing System (ILS), the difference between short waves and microwaves, as well as the role of amateur short-wave radio operators in proving the usefulness of amazingly short radio waves in communication. With an easy familiarity, he reviews topics as varied as the Morse code, the Radio Club of America, and the evolution of microprocessors.
Helfrick covers the history of all of the engineering and electronic developments involved in getting an airplane off the ground and keeping it in the air; he does so in a style that will satisfy the curiosity of every reader, from engineer to layman.
ALBERT HELFRICK, a professor of avionics at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, has spent twenty-five years designing avionics. He has done research for government agencies as well as private corporations, including NASA and Boeing. His prior books include "Principles of Avionics, Avionics Test Equipment Handbook and Directory, Practical Aircraft Electronics Systems, " and "Modern Aviation Electronics."
Helfrick traces the paired history of modern aviation and electronics, or avionics, from its earliest years to the indispensable tool it is today. He provides a thorough account of the roles played by the famous and the obscure, from Edwin Howard Armstrong to David Sarnoff, in the successful creation of aviation technology.
*Covers lightplane performance flight testing methods, measures, and computer applications
*Includes CD-ROM with sample spreadsheets containing equations to help readers perform their own flight tests
*Describes GPS (Global Positioning System) test method for airspeed calibration and rapid-wind camera method for takeoff performance