Klimt's talent and brilliance as a draughtsman, however, was widely recognized only after Klimt's death. During his lifetime, he hardly sold a drawing nor did he exhibit them.
There is a sense of movement in Toulouse-Lautrec’s drawings of dancers and horses. His dancers appear from a few twirls and swirls. He does not draw the dancer, but the motions. His lithographs and sketches of Loie Fuller consist of little more than abstract shapes, in which we can barely detect a head and a pair of legs. When he was commissioned to make a series of lithographs with a horse racing theme, The Jockey (1899), Toulouse-Lautrec does not start from an anatomically correct horse, but tries to capture the strength and speed of the horses in motion. By choosing this particular viewing angle he puts the viewer as it were on one of the trailing horses.
After a life of enormous productivity (more than 1,000 paintings, 5,000 drawings, and 350 prints and posters), debauchery, and alcoholism, Toulouse-Lautrec suffered a mental and physical collapse and died at the age of 37.
Joseph Mallord William Turner was English artist, one of the greatest and most original of all landscape painters. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivaling history painting. Although renowned for his oil paintings, Turner is also one of the greatest masters of British watercolor landscape painting. In 1856 the Court of Chancery awarded all the works remaining in his possession at his death to the National Gallery - about 300 oils and 19,000 drawings and watercolors. He is commonly known as "the painter of light" and his work is regarded as a Romantic preface to Impressionism.
This book aims to help you see the same way as Rembrandt has seen. Rembrandt's secrets are not in his words, they are in his works. Look at his paintings in details, the lines, the light, the shadows, the composition, the contrasts, the details. His paintings tell us what we cannot see but need to know and that should be enough. The goal of this book is to make the art of Rembrandt more accessible to everyone. There are so many theories about the Rembrandt's techniques but the book will show you how to get close to his art in number of ways.
Born in Gubbio, he was also called Francesco da Gubbio. His father, Flaminio Allegrini da Cantiano, was also a painter.
Francesco Allegrini studied under Giuseppe Cesari (Cavaliere D'Arpino), and later was helped by his sons in painting historical and religious paintings. A short biography is mentioned by Filippo Baldinucci.
Alberti was born in 1553 in Borgo San Sepolcro, Tuscany (from which he took his nickname of Borgheggiano), into family of artists. He was the second son of Alberto Alberti, a carver and sculptor, and his brothers Alessandro Alberti and Giovanni Alberti were artists as well.
Alberti studied in Rome under Cornelius Cort and worked as an engraver, modeling his works after the inventions of other artists. His early influences included Raphael and contemporary Mannerist art. Between 1571 and 1575 he made engravings after works of Federico and Taddeo Zuccari. Over the next ten years his engravings included works after Raphael, Michelangelo, Polidoro da Caravaggio, Andrea del Sarto, Rosso Fiorentino, Marco Pino, Pellegrino Tibaldi, and Cristofano Gherardi. He also produced works based on ancient statues.
Later in life Alberti decorated palaces and churches with paintings in fresco. His most famous work was the fresco decoration of Sala Clementina in the Vatican, which he completed with his brother Giovanni. He painted for the church of Santa Maria in Via Lata. He may have been first a pupil of Cornelis Cort, and afterwards by studying the works of Agostino Carracci and Francesco Villamena.
At his death in Rome Alberti was Director of the Academy of Saint Luke, an association of artists.
Though noted for his attention to the female figure, Degas executed many studies of grouped horses and jockeys from which he would use figures in later compositions. Later in his career, Degas experimented with mixing drawing media and printmaking techniques. He began the drawing in 1885 using an impression from his 1877–78 lithographs of a concert at Café des Ambassadeurs, which he extended along the bottom and right edges, and drew over in dense strokes of pastel. Degas first produced a mono-type—a unique print made from drawing in ink on a metal or glass plate—of two singers on stage, seen from behind, with a view to the audience. He then enlivened the print with richly colored pastels. In the village of Diénay near Dijon, Degas recalled scenery from the drive through the Burgundian countryside and produced about fifty mono-type landscapes. To create this drawing, he used oil paint (and apparently his fingers) to indicate a few lines of landscape on the plate and printed one or two proofs, hanging them to dry. Later, he completed the composition with a rich layer of pastel.
Giovanni Boldini enjoyed a long and successful artistic career. He was born in Ferrara, the son of a painter of religious subjects, and in 1862 went to Florence for six years to study and pursue painting. He only infrequently attended classes at the Academy of Fine Arts, but in Florence, met other realist painters known as the Macchiaioli. Their influence is seen in Boldini's landscapes which show his spontaneous response to nature, although it is for his portraits that he became best known.
Moving to London, Boldini attained success as a portraitist. He completed portraits of premier members of society including Lady Holland and the Duchess of Westminster. From 1872 he lived in Paris, where he became a friend of Edgar Degas. Boldini developed his own, distinct style, and his portraits grew in fame, helped greatly by a portrait commissioned by Giuseppe Verdi in 1886, the biggest celebrity of his day. He was nominated commissioner of the Italian section of the Paris Exposition in 1889, and received the Légion d'honneur for this appointment.
He died of pneumonia while in Paris, and is buried in his hometown of Ferrara, Italy.
Largely a self-taught artist, Barry in 1763 attracted the patronage of his Irish compatriot Edmund Burke, who funded Barry’s stay in Italy from about 1766 to 1771 to study the Old Masters. Barry then returned to England and rose rapidly in his profession, becoming a member of the Royal Academy in 1773 and obtaining the commission to decorate the Royal Society rooms in 1777. The latter project occupied him until 1783. Barry was professor of painting at the Royal Academy from 1782 to 1799, but he died in poverty.
Barry was an exponent of the “grand style” of Sir Joshua Reynolds; hence, he drew the subject matter for his ambitious figurative compositions from classical antiquity and from literary works. Stylistically, however, his linearity and undulating forms brought him closer to the work of the leaders of the English Neoclassical style, the sculptor John Flaxman and the poet-painter William Blake.
Paul Cézanne was the leading figure in the revolution toward abstraction in modern painting. His influence on the course of modern art, particularly on the development of cubism, is enormous and deep. In his early career, he was strongly influenced by Delacroix and Courbet. Through Pissarro, Cezanne came to know Manet and the Impressionist painters. He exhibited with the Impressionists in 1874, but eventually rejected what he considered the Impressionists' lack of structure. Cezanne sought to "recreate nature" by simplifying forms to their basic geometric equivalents, utilizing contrasts of color and considerable distortion to express the essence of landscape, still-lifes, and figural groupings. Instead of adhering to the traditional system of perspective, he portrayed objects from shifting viewpoints. Cezanne worked in oil, watercolor, and drawing media, often making several versions of his works.
Paul Gauguin was French painter, sculptor, and print-maker. His style developed from Impressionism through a brief cloisonnist phase towards a highly personal brand of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the sceptical pessimism of an educated European. A self-consciously outspoken personality and an aggressively asserted position as the leader of the Pont-Aven group made him a dominant figure in Parisian intellectual circles in the late 1880s. His use of non-naturalistic color and formal distortion for expressive ends was widely influential on early 20th-century avant-garde artists.
Contemporaries of Michelangelo collected his drawings during his lifetime and guarded them like precious gems. Presently, the total number of his existing drawings is around 600. However, during his more than seventy years of activity, he certainly produced much more, thus many works by the master must have been lost. It is well known that Michelangelo twice destroyed his own drawings: the first time was in 1517, the second time shortly before his death.
Drawing revealing the artist at work and allows even the modern viewer to see the artist's hand in action. One of the most notable things about Boucher's superb draughtsmanship is energetic, economical line. Grace, beauty and power combine with a striking inner force. Boucher handles details easy, he describes the essential form in just a few marks, with just enough tone used to suggest the form and the features conveyed accurately but efficiently. At the same tame in Boucher's drawing the observer will notice that the energetic mark-making describes a solidly understood form and precisely observed detail. The learner of drawing will have much to get from this book.
He was educated traditionally, took a craftsman-like advance to his work, and desired academic respect, although he was never accepted into Paris's leading school of art.
Many of his most notable sculptures were severely criticized during his lifetime. They clashed with the predominant figure sculpture tradition, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or highly thematic. Rodin's most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, and celebrated individual character.
It was the freedom and creativity with which Rodin used these practices – along with his activation surfaces of sculptures through traces of his own touch and with his more open attitude toward bodily pose, sensuality, and non-realistic surface – that marked Rodin's re-making of traditional 19th century sculptural techniques into the prototype for modern sculpture.
Sketcher, painter, engraver, sculptor and collector, Auguste Rodin is recognized worldwide for the exceptional authenticity of his anatomical sculptures, but drawing was his means of discovering "truth" in life and in art: for him "good" drawing represented truth and simplicity in nature; 'bad" drawing was self-conscious, mannered in its representation, and often displayed an ignorance of nature or inexact observation with attempts to mask it with artifice.
Rodin was a prolific draughtsman, producing some 10,000 drawings.
His drawings were seldom used as studies or projects for a sculpture or monument. Although the works on paper can only be shown periodically, owing to their fragility, the role they played in Rodin’s art was by no means minor.
As the sculptor said at the end of his life:
“It’s very simple. My drawings are the key to my work.”
The present volume reproduces with excellent clarity all 135 plates that Doré produced for The Inferno, Purgatory, and Paradise. From the depths of hell onto the mountain of purgatory and up to the empyrean realms of paradise, Doré's illustrations depict the passion and grandeur of Dante's masterpiece in such famous scenes as the embarkation of the souls for hell, Paolo and Francesca (four plates), the forest of suicides, Thaïs the harlot, Bertram de Born holding his severed head aloft, Ugolino (four plates), the emergence of Dante and Virgil from hell, the ascent up the mountain, the flight of the eagle, Arachne, the lustful sinners being purged in the seventh circle, the appearance of Beatrice, the planet Mercury, and the first splendors of paradise, Christ on the cross, the stairway of Saturn, the final vision of the Queen of Heaven, and many more.
Each plate is accompanied by appropriate lines from the Henry Wadsworth Longfellow translation of Dante's work.
Starting on a personal note, Hughes takes us to the Rome he first encountered as a hungry twenty-one-year-old fresh from Australia in 1959. From that exhilarating portrait, he takes us back more than two thousand years to the city's foundation, one mired in mythologies and superstitions that would inform Rome's development for centuries.
From the beginning, Rome was a hotbed of power, overweening ambition, desire, political genius, and corruption. Hughes details the turbulent years that saw the formation of empire and the establishment of the sociopolitical system, along the way providing colorful portraits of all the major figures, both political (Julius Caesar, Marcus Aurelius, Nero, Caligula) and cultural (Cicero, Martial, Virgil), to name just a few. For almost a thousand years, Rome would remain the most politically important, richest, and largest city in the Western world.
From the formation of empire, Hughes moves on to the rise of early Christianity, his own antipathy toward religion providing rich and lively context for the brutality of the early Church, and eventually the Crusades. The brutality had the desired effect—the Church consolidated and outlasted the power of empire, and Rome would be the capital of the Papal States until its annexation into the newly united kingdom of Italy in 1870.
As one would expect, Hughes lavishes plenty of critical attention on the Renaissance, providing a full survey of the architecture, painting, and sculpture that blossomed in Rome over the course of the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries, and shedding new light on old masters in the process. Having established itself as the artistic and spiritual center of the world, Rome in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries saw artists (and, eventually, wealthy tourists) from all over Europe converging on the bustling city, even while it was caught up in the nationalistic turmoils of the Italian independence struggle and war against France.
Hughes keeps the momentum going right into the twentieth century, when Rome witnessed the rise and fall of Italian Fascism and Mussolini, and took on yet another identity in the postwar years as the fashionable city of "La Dolce Vita." This is the Rome Hughes himself first encountered, and it's one he contends, perhaps controversially, has been lost in the half century since, as the cult of mass tourism has slowly ruined the dazzling city he loved so much. Equal parts idolizing, blasphemous, outraged, and awestruck, Rome is a portrait of the Eternal City as only Robert Hughes could paint it.
From the Hardcover edition.
In this eminently fascinating work, author Philip Ball makes sense of the visual and emotional power of Chartres and brilliantly explores how its construction—and the creation of other Gothic cathedrals—represented a profound and dramatic shift in the way medieval thinkers perceived their relationship with their world. Beautifully illustrated and written, filled with astonishing insight, Universe of Stone embeds the magnificent cathedral in the culture of the twelfth century—its schools of philosophy and science, its trades and technologies, its politics and religious debates—enabling us to view this ancient architectural marvel with fresh eyes.