“A rambunctious book that is itself alive with the animal spirits of the marketplace.”—The Wall Street Journal
Freedom’s Forge reveals how two extraordinary American businessmen—General Motors automobile magnate William “Big Bill” Knudsen and shipbuilder Henry J. Kaiser—helped corral, cajole, and inspire business leaders across the country to mobilize the “arsenal of democracy” that propelled the Allies to victory in World War II. Drafting top talent from companies like Chrysler, Republic Steel, Boeing, Lockheed, GE, and Frigidaire, Knudsen and Kaiser turned auto plants into aircraft factories and civilian assembly lines into fountains of munitions. In four short years they transformed America’s army from a hollow shell into a truly global force, laying the foundations for the country’s rise as an economic as well as military superpower. Freedom’s Forge vividly re-creates American industry’s finest hour, when the nation’s business elites put aside their pursuit of profits and set about saving the world.
Praise for Freedom’s Forge
“A rarely told industrial saga, rich with particulars of the growing pains and eventual triumphs of American industry . . . Arthur Herman has set out to right an injustice: the loss, down history’s memory hole, of the epic achievements of American business in helping the United States and its allies win World War II.”—The New York Times Book Review
“Magnificent . . . It’s not often that a historian comes up with a fresh approach to an absolutely critical element of the Allied victory in World War II, but Pulitzer finalist Herman . . . has done just that.”—Kirkus Reviews (starred review)
“A compulsively readable tribute to ‘the miracle of mass production.’ ”—Publishers Weekly
“The production statistics cited by Mr. Herman . . . astound.”—The Economist
“[A] fantastic book.”—Forbes
“Freedom’s Forge is the story of how the ingenuity and energy of the American private sector was turned loose to equip the finest military force on the face of the earth. In an era of gathering threats and shrinking defense budgets, it is a timely lesson told by one of the great historians of our time.”—Donald Rumsfeld
This monograph studies the various aspects of electoral politics in Cambodia and ends with strong suggestions for reforms that can strengthen the practice of elections and aid social and political development in a country trying to transit from civil war to post-conflict reconstruction, from socialist one-party state to multiparty electoral system, and from planned economy to market economy.
This monograph is based on a conference paper presented at the 14th KAS Law Talk on Fairness and Integrity of the Electoral Process in Cambodia, organized by Konrad Adenauer Stiftung’s Cambodia Office on 17–18 June 2016.
Even if you don’t know anything about cooking or running abusiness, you might still have a great idea for a restaurant— and this handy guide will show you how to make your dream areality. If you already own a restaurant, but want to see it dobetter, Running a Restaurant For Dummies offers unbeatabletips and advice of bringing in hungry customers. From start tofinish, you’ll learn everything you need to know tosucceed:Put your ideas on paper with a realistic business planAttract investors to help get the business off the groundBe totally prepared for your grand openingMake sure your business is legal and above boardHire and train a great staffDevelop a delicious menu
If you’re looking for expert guidance from people in theknow, then Running a Restaurant For Dummies is the only bookyou need. Written by Michael Garvey, co-owner of the famous OysterBar at Grand Central, with help from writer Heather Dismore andchef Andy Dismore, this book covers all the bases, from balancingthe books to training staff and much more:Designing and theme and a conceptTaking over an existing restaurant or buying into afranchiseStocking and operating a barWorking with partners and other investorsChoose a perfect locationHiring and training an excellent staffPricing menu itemsDesigning the interior of the restaurantPurchasing and managing suppliesMarketing your restaurant to customers
If you’re looking for a new career as a restaurateur, oryou need new ideas for your struggling restaurant, Running aRestaurant For Dummies offers expert advice in a fun, friendlyformat. Packed with practical advice and expert wisdom on everyaspect of the food service business, this guide is all you need toget cooking.
A study of Indonesia's attitude towards regional security. Includes statement of general foreign policy guidelines, discussion of Indonesia's reaction to the Cambodian crisis of March 1970 and detailed analysis of the Djakarta Conference of Foreign Ministers on 16-17 May 1970.
How does a budding cartel boss succeed (and survive) in the 300 billion illegal drug business? By learning from the best, of course. From creating brand value to fine-tuning customer service, the folks running cartels have been attentive students of the strategy and tactics used by corporations such as Walmart, McDonald's, and Coca-Cola.
And what can government learn to combat this scourge? By analyzing the cartels as companies, law enforcers might better understand how they work—and stop throwing away 100 billion a year in a futile effort to win the “war” against this global, highly organized business.
Your intrepid guide to the most exotic and brutal industry on earth is Tom Wainwright. Picking his way through Andean cocaine fields, Central American prisons, Colorado pot shops, and the online drug dens of the Dark Web, Wainwright provides a fresh, innovative look into the drug trade and its 250 million customers.
The cast of characters includes “Bin Laden,” the Bolivian coca guide; “Old Lin,” the Salvadoran gang leader; “Starboy,” the millionaire New Zealand pill maker; and a cozy Mexican grandmother who cooks blueberry pancakes while plotting murder. Along with presidents, cops, and teenage hitmen, they explain such matters as the business purpose for head-to-toe tattoos, how gangs decide whether to compete or collude, and why cartels care a surprising amount about corporate social responsibility.
More than just an investigation of how drug cartels do business, Narconomics is also a blueprint for how to defeat them.
Award-winning journalist Jeanne Marie Laskas reveals “enlightening, entertaining, and often poignant”* profiles of America's working class—the forgotten men and women who make our country run.
Take the men of Hopedale Mining company in Cadiz, Ohio. Laskas spent several weeks with them, both below and above ground, and by the end, you will know not only about their work, but about Pap and his dying mom, Smitty and the mail-order bride who stood him up at the airport, and Scotty and his thwarted dreams of becoming a boxing champion.
That is only one hidden world. Others that she explores: an Alaskan oil rig, a migrant labor camp in Maine, the air traffic control center at LaGuardia Airport in New York, a beef ranch in Texas, a landfill in California, a long-haul trucker in Iowa, a gun shop in Arizona, and the Cincinnati Ben-Gals cheerleaders, mere footnotes in the moneymaking spectacle that is professional football.
“Jeanne Marie Laskas is a reporting and writing powerhouse. She doesn’t just interview the people who dig our coal and extract our oil, she goes deep into the mines and tundra with them. With beauty, wit, curiosity, and grace, she finds the hidden soul of America. Hidden America is essential reading.”—Rebecca Skloot, author of The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks
Based on research in ten leading trading nations, The Competitive Advantage of Nations offers the first theory of competitiveness based on the causes of the productivity with which companies compete. Porter shows how traditional comparative advantages such as natural resources and pools of labor have been superseded as sources of prosperity, and how broad macroeconomic accounts of competitiveness are insufficient. The book introduces Porter’s “diamond,” a whole new way to understand the competitive position of a nation (or other locations) in global competition that is now an integral part of international business thinking. Porter's concept of “clusters,” or groups of interconnected firms, suppliers, related industries, and institutions that arise in particular locations, has become a new way for companies and governments to think about economies, assess the competitive advantage of locations, and set public policy.
Even before publication of the book, Porter’s theory had guided national reassessments in New Zealand and elsewhere. His ideas and personal involvement have shaped strategy in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Portugal, Taiwan, Costa Rica, and India, and regions such as Massachusetts, California, and the Basque country. Hundreds of cluster initiatives have flourished throughout the world. In an era of intensifying global competition, this pathbreaking book on the new wealth of nations has become the standard by which all future work must be measured.
Based on extensive interviews with the scientists, engineers, administrators, and executives who lived the story, this riveting chronicle details PARC's humble beginnings through its triumph as a hothouse for ideas, and shows why Xerox was never able to grasp, and ultimately exploit, the cutting-edge innovations PARC delivered. Dealers of Lightning offers an unprecedented look at the ideas, the inventions, and the individuals that propelled Xerox PARC to the frontier of technohistoiy--and the corporate machinations that almost prevented it from achieving greatness.
More than a million managers in both large and small companies, investment analysts, consultants, students, and scholars throughout the world have internalized Porter's ideas and applied them to assess industries, understand competitors, and choose competitive positions. The ideas in the book address the underlying fundamentals of competition in a way that is independent of the specifics of the ways companies go about competing.
Competitive Strategy has filled a void in management thinking. It provides an enduring foundation and grounding point on which all subsequent work can be built. By bringing a disciplined structure to the question of how firms achieve superior profitability, Porter’s rich frameworks and deep insights comprise a sophisticated view of competition unsurpassed in the last quarter-century.
The numbers are staggering: China spent $40 billion to host the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing and Russia spent $50 billion for the 2014 Sochi Winter Games. Brazil's total expenditures are thought to have been as much as $20 billion for the World Cup this summer and Qatar, which will be the site of the 2022 World Cup, is estimating that it will spend $200 billion.
How did we get here? And is it worth it? Those are among the questions noted sports economist Andrew Zimbalist answers in Circus Maximus: The Economic Gamble Behind Hosting the Olympics and the World Cup. Both the Olympics and the World Cup are touted as major economic boons for the countries that host them, and the competition is fierce to win hosting rights. Developing countries especially see the events as a chance to stand in the world's spotlight.
Circus Maximus traces the path of the Olympic Games and the World Cup from noble sporting events to exhibits of excess. It exposes the hollowness of the claims made by their private industry boosters and government supporters, all illustrated through a series of case studies ripping open the experiences of Barcelona, Sochi, Rio, and London. Zimbalist finds no net economic gains for the countries that have played host to the Olympics or the World Cup. While the wealthy may profit, those in the middle and lower income brackets do not, and Zimbalist predicts more outbursts of political anger like that seen in Brazil surrounding the 2014 World Cup.
Mindless illustrates the shortcomings of CBS, providing an in-depth and disturbing look at how human dignity is slipping as we become cogs on a white collar assembly line.
The first and second editions were bestsellers and the third promises to educate people new to the field of hydrology and challenge professionals alike, with insightful solutions to classical problems as well as trendsetting approaches important to the evolving genre. The third edition enhances materials in the second edition and has expanded information on many topics, in particular, evapotranspiration, soil erosion, two-stage ditch design and applications, and stream processes.
What’s New in the Third Edition:
Presents new sections on rock structures in streams, hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and agricultural practices to reduce nutrient discharges into water resources Enhances the format to aid the reader in finding tables, figures, and equations Contains more than 370 figures, 120 tables, 260 equations, 100 worked examples, 160 problems, and more than 1000 references
Collectively, the authors have more than 130 years of international experience and the addition of John Lyon and Suzette Burckhard as co-authors expands the breadth of knowledge presented in this book. More than 60 scientists and engineers in Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States provided assistance to round out the offerings and ensure applicability to hydrology worldwide.
What is economic growth? And why, historically, has it occurred in only a few places? Previous efforts to answer these questions have focused on institutions, geography, finances, and psychology. But according to MIT's antidisciplinarian César Hidalgo, understanding the nature of economic growth demands transcending the social sciences and including the natural sciences of information, networks, and complexity. To understand the growth of economies, Hidalgo argues, we first need to understand the growth of order.
At first glance, the universe seems hostile to order. Thermodynamics dictates that over time, order-or information-disappears. Whispers vanish in the wind just like the beauty of swirling cigarette smoke collapses into disorderly clouds. But thermodynamics also has loopholes that promote the growth of information in pockets. Although cities are all pockets where information grows, they are not all the same. For every Silicon Valley, Tokyo, and Paris, there are dozens of places with economies that accomplish little more than pulling rocks out of the ground. So, why does the US economy outstrip Brazil's, and Brazil's that of Chad? Why did the technology corridor along Boston's Route 128 languish while Silicon Valley blossomed? In each case, the key is how people, firms, and the networks they form make use of information.
Seen from Hidalgo's vantage, economies become distributed computers, made of networks of people, and the problem of economic development becomes the problem of making these computers more powerful. By uncovering the mechanisms that enable the growth of information in nature and society, Why Information Grows lays bear the origins of physical order and economic growth. Situated at the nexus of information theory, physics, sociology, and economics, this book propounds a new theory of how economies can do not just more things, but more interesting things.
You are being systematically exploited by powerful corporations every day. These companies squeeze their trusting customers for every last cent, risk their retirement funds, and endanger their lives. And they do it all legally. How? It’s all in the fine print.
David Cay Johnston, the bestselling author of Perfectly Legal and Free Lunch, is famous for exposing the perfidies of our biggest institutions. Now he turns his attention to the ways huge corporations hide sneaky stipulations in just about every contract, often with government permission.
Johnston has been known to whip out a utility bill and explain line by line what all that mumbo jumbo actually means (and it doesn’t mean anything good, unless you happen to be the utility company). Within all that jargon, disclosed in accordance with all legal requirements, lie the tools these companies use to rob you blind. Even worse is what’s missing—all the contractually binding clauses that companies hide elsewhere yet still enforce and abuse. Consider, for example, how:An insurance company repeatedly delayed paying for a paralyzed man’s vital care despite court orders to pay up. Laws in nineteen states let companies like Goldman Sachs, General Electric, and Procter & Gamble pocket the state income taxes withheld from their workers’ paychecks for up to twenty-five years. A little-known government rule gives safety waivers to deadly industrial facilities secretly located underneath schools and playgrounds. The “FCC Charge” on your phone bill, which appears to be a government fee, actually goes straight to the phone company.
Johnston shares solutions you can use to fight back against the hundreds of obscure fees and taxes that line the pockets of big corporations, and to help end these devious practices once and for all.
The book begins by tracing the historical development of emergency management from the 1800s to the present world of homeland security. It then discusses the hazards faced by emergency management and the methods of assessing hazard risk; the function of mitigation and the strategies and programs emergency management or other disciplines use to reduce the impact of disasters; and emergency management preparedness.
The book also covers the importance of communication in the emergency management of the twenty-first century; the functions and processes of disaster response; government and voluntary programs aimed at helping people and communities rebuild in the aftermath of a disaster; and international emergency management. It also addresses the impact of September 11, 2001 on traditional perceptions of emergency management; and emergency management in the post-9/11, post-Katrina environment.
* Expanded coverage of risk management * Enhanced coverage of disaster communications, including social networking sites like Twitter * More material on mitigation of disasters * Up-to-date information on the role of FEMA in the Obama administration
The Power of Productivity provides powerful and controversial answers to these questions. William W. Lewis, the director emeritus of the McKinsey Global Institute, here draws on extensive microeconomic studies of thirteen nations over twelve years—conducted by the Institute itself—to counter virtually all prevailing wisdom about how best to ameliorate economic disparity. Lewis's research, which included studying everything from state-of-the-art auto makers to black-market street vendors and mom-and-pop stores, conclusively demonstrates that, contrary to popular belief, providing more capital to poor nations is not the best way to help them. Nor is improving levels of education, exchange-rate flexibility, or government solvency enough. Rather, the key to improving economic conditions in poor countries, argues Lewis, is increasing productivity through intense, fair competition and protecting consumer rights.
As The Power of Productivity explains, this sweeping solution affects the economies of poor nations at all levels—from the viability of major industries to how the average consumer thinks about his or her purchases. Policies must be enacted in developing nations that reflect a consumer rather than a producer mindset and an attendant sense of consumer rights. Only one force, Lewis claims, can stand up to producer special privileges—consumer interests.
The Institute's unprecedented research method and Lewis's years of experience with economic policy combine to make The Power of Productivity the most authoritative and compelling view of the global economy today, one that will inform political and economic debate throughout the world for years to come.
Many small U.S. businesses rely on business aviation. They are located in markets where the airlines have reduced or eliminated service, making business aviation an important connection to the rest of the world. Business aviation fosters efficiency and productivity, and is essential in an intensely competitive global marketplace.
This textbook, Practical Applications in Business Aviation Management, systematically examines business aviation and provides you with a complete understanding of one of America’s most dynamic industries. In this comprehensive guide to business aviation management, authors James R. Cannon and Franklin D. Richey provide in-depth and useful information on all aspects of managing a corporate aviation program. The book begins with a brief look at the history of business aviation and its important role in the aviation industry. It then moves on to focus on the practical issues facing all corporate aviation programs, such as:Regulatory complianceAdministrative issuesAircraft and facility maintenanceFinances and budgetingAircraft selection and acquisitionStandard operating proceduresInternational operationsHuman resource management TrainingCommunication and teambuildingSafety and securityAnd much more
The book also includes a foreword by Ed Bolen, the President and CEO of the National Business Aviation Association. It is an essential tool for students and professionals who need comprehensive, accurate, and practical information on managing a corporate aviation program.
Anyone who has ever tried to launch a fashion design careerknows how grueling it can be. The fashion industry is a highlyprominent field, yielding a competitive environment that is greatlyguarded, secretive, and difficult to infiltrate. Becoming aFashion Designer provides all the information, resources, andtools you need to help you navigate these obstacles andsuccessfully launch a career in fashion design.
Of the various job opportunities available in the fashionindustry, the career path of a fashion designer consistently ranksas the most popular position in the field, making the competitioneven greater. The book pays special attention to this anddemonstrates several ways in which an aspiring fashion designer canstand out from the competition. A dynamic and comprehensive careerguide, this book imparts insider tips from top fashion designersand executives based around the world. Expert advice includes anintroduction to a career in fashion design, educationalrequirements, career opportunities, the design process, portfoliocreation, preparation for getting hired, steps to start and runone's own fashion design business, as well as a forecast of thefuture of the fashion industry.Features original interviews from top designers andhigh-profile fashion executives, including Ralph Rucci, Reem Acra,Peter Som, Anna Sui, Nanette Lepore, Kay Unger, Stuart Weitzman,Dennis Basso, Randolph Duke, Zang Toi, Pamella Roland, Robert Verdiand Daymond JohnIncludes cases in point and insider tips throughoutIncludes illustrations, drawings, sketches, and photographsdemonstrating various aspects of working in fashion design, withspecial contributions from renowned illustrator, Izak Zenou andlegendary fashion photographer, Nigel BarkerOffers in-depth resources to assist you on your journey tobecoming a fashion designer
Whether a student, recent college graduate, industryprofessional or career changer, you'll learn everything you need toknow to successfully develop a fashion design career.
The study of industrial organization (IO)—the analysis of the way firms compete with one another—has become a key component of economics and of such related disciplines as finance, strategy, and marketing. This book provides an issue-driven introduction to industrial organization. Although formal in its approach, it is written in a way that requires only basic mathematical training. It includes a vast array of examples, from both within and outside the United States. This second edition has been thoroughly updated and revised.
In addition to updated examples, this edition presents a more systematic treatment of public policy implications. It features added advanced sections, with analytical treatment of ideas previously presented verbally; and exercises, which allow for a deeper and more formal understanding of each topic. The new edition also includes an introduction to such empirical methods as demand estimation and equilibrium identification. Supplemental material is available online.
Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton argue that the responsibility for this critical alignment lies with corporate headquarters. In this book, the authors apply their revolutionary Balanced Scorecard management system to corporate-level strategy, revealing how highly successful enterprises achieve powerful synergies by explicitly defining corporate headquarters’ role in setting, coordinating, and overseeing organizational strategy.
Based on extensive field research in organizations worldwide, Alignment shows how companies can build an enterprise-level Strategy Map and Balanced Scorecard that clearly articulate the “enterprise value proposition”: how the enterprise creates value above that achieved by individual business units operating alone. The book provides case studies, actionable frameworks, and sample scorecards that show how to align business and support units, boards of directors, and external partners with the corporate strategy and create a governance process that will ensure that alignment is sustained.
The next breakthrough in strategy execution from the field’s premier thinkers, Alignment shows how today’s companies can unlock unrealized value from enterprise synergies.
The “Alice Waters of American natural perfume” (indieperfume.com) celebrates our most potent sense, through five rock stars of the fragrant world.
Look out for Mandy Aftel's new book, The Art of Flavor, on sale in August!
Mandy Aftel is widely acclaimed as a trailblazer in natural perfumery. Over two decades of sourcing the finest aromatic ingredients from all over the world and creating artisanal fragrances, she has been an evangelist for the transformative power of scent. In Fragrant, through five major players in the epic of aroma, she explores the profound connection between our sense of smell and the appetites that move us, give us pleasure, make us fully alive. Cinnamon, queen of the Spice Route, touches our hunger for the unknown, the exotic, the luxurious. Mint, homegrown the world over, speaks to our affinity for the familiar, the native, the authentic. Frankincense, an ancient incense ingredient, taps into our longing for transcendence, while ambergris embodies our unquenchable curiosity. And exquisite jasmine exemplifies our yearning for beauty, both evanescent and enduring.
In addition to providing a riveting initiation into the history, natural history, and philosophy of scent, Fragrant imparts the essentials of scent literacy and includes recipes for easy-to-make fragrances and edible, drinkable, and useful concoctions that reveal the imaginative possibilities of creating with—and reveling in—aroma. Vintage line drawings make for a volume that will be a treasured gift as well as a great read.
See what’s new in the Third Edition:A chapter devoted to the description and simulation of anaerobic bioreactors Coverage of applications of submerged attached growth bioreactors Expanded discussion of modeling attached growth systems Increased information on the fate and effects of trace contaminants as they relate to xenobiotic organic chemicals A chapter on applying biochemical unit operations to design systems for greater sustainability
The book describes named biochemical operations in terms of treatment objectives, biochemical environment, and reactor configuration; introduces the format and notation used throughout the text; and presents the basic stoichiometry and kinetics of microbial reactions that are key to quantitative descriptions of biochemical operations. It then examines the stoichiometry and kinetics used to investigate the theoretical performance of biological reactors containing microorganisms suspended in the wastewater. The authors apply this theory to the operations introduced, taking care to highlight the practical constraints that ensure system functionality in the real world.
The authors focus on further biochemical operations in which microorganisms grow attached to solid surfaces, adding complexity to the analysis, even though the operations are often simpler in application. They conclude with a look to the future, introducing the fate and effects of xenobiotic and trace contaminants in wastewater treatment systems and examining how the application of biochemical operations can lead to a more sustainable world.
Bringing together the work of anthropologists, sociologists, economists, historians, and geographers, this collection reveals how the banana industry marshaled workers of differing nationalities, ethnicities, and languages and, in so doing, created unprecedented potential for conflict throughout Latin American and the Caribbean. The frequently abusive conditions that banana workers experienced, the contributors point out, gave rise to one of Latin America’s earliest and most militant labor movements. Responding to both the demands of workers’ organizations and the power of U.S. capital, Latin American governments were inevitably affected by banana production. Banana Wars explores how these governments sometimes asserted their sovereignty over foreign fruit companies, but more often became their willing accomplices. With several essays focusing on the operations of the extraordinarily powerful United Fruit Company, the collection also examines the strategies and reactions of the American and European corporations seeking to profit from the sale of bananas grown by people of different cultures working in varied agricultural and economic environments.
Laura T. Raynolds
“Without question, the greatest invention in the history of mankind is beer. Oh, I grant you that the wheel was a fine invention, but the wheel does not go nearly as well with pizza.” —Dave Barry
For centuries, brewmasters both professional and homegrown have pursued the perfect pour—a delectable combination of barley, yeast, water, and hops—and few states can claim as devoted a relationship to beer as Minnesota. For a time it seemed that every town had its brewery and a beer garden was a highlight of every local celebration. Dedicated home brewers and casual pub crawlers alike will be amazed by the stories of Minnesota beers and breweries featured in Land of Amber Waters.
Starting with the first brewery in 1849, Doug Hoverson tells the story of the state’s beer industry from the small-town breweries that gave way to larger companies with regional and national prominence, including Hamm’s, Grain Belt, and Schell’s, to the vibrant beer culture of today, led by a new wave of breweries such as Summit, Lake Superior Brewing Co., and Surly, and brewpubs like Town Hall Brewery, Fitger’s, and Granite City Brewpub, and sustained by microbreweries, home brewers, and beer aficionados.
From the first illegal brewer at Fort Snelling to the craft brewers and major companies of today, nearly 300 breweries have opened and operated at one time or another in 125 cities and towns around the state. Complete with a comprehensive list of Minnesota’s breweries—including many never before published—and more than 300 tempting illustrations of beer and breweriana, Land of Amber Waters marvelously chronicles Minnesota’s rich brewing traditions.
Doug Hoverson teaches social studies and coaches the debate team at St. Thomas Academy in Mendota Heights, Minnesota. He is the assistant editor of American Breweriana Journal, an award-winning homebrewer, and a certified beer judge.
Unlike other books that offer economic treatments focused on theoretical expositions and analyses, the thirteenth edition addresses all these questions in a manner that treats each industry in a comprehensive, holistic way. Brock’s approach focuses on everyday experience, enhancing readers’ understanding through examples that emphasize incident and detail. Each chapter, written by an expert in the field, has been updated or rewritten for this edition. A new chapter on the movie industry has been added as well. This outstanding overview of American industry offers the reader a live laboratory of clinical examination and comparative analysis.