The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, board and other cellulose based products. The pulp and paper sector presents one of the energy intensive and highly polluting sectors within the Indian economy and is therefore of particular interest in the context of both local and global environmental discussions. Increases in productivity through the adoption of more efficient and cleaner technologies in the manufacturing sector will be most effective in merging economic, environmental, and social development objectives. Papers are mostly used product starting from writing to packaging. It plays an important role in commercial field as well as in academic field also. Without paper nothing is expressible and reliable, so paper is part and parcel of our life. Adequate amount of raw materials for processing paper and pulp is available. Bamboo is the main raw material for Indian paper industry. New bamboo areas even at high cost are being trapped. Some of the examples of high yield pulping process are mechanical process, semi chemical process, alkaline chemical process, sulfite process, etc. Physical strength properties of paper depend on the quality of raw material, its pulping, bleaching and subsequent paper making processes. Technology has made it easy to process these raw materials in an economic and lucrative way to meet the global demand. Raw materials like, straw, bagasse, wood, bamboo is almost available in most of the places. So it is great opportunity for the entrepreneurs to start up such kind of industry. Paper Industry has tremendously increased in India in the last 20 to 30 yrs. The Paper industry is a priority sector for foreign collaboration and foreign equity participation up to 100% receives automatic approval by Reserve Bank of India. Several fiscal incentives have also been provided to the paper industry, particularly to those mills which are based on non conventional raw material. Some of the fundamentals of the book are bleaching of bamboo cold, high yield semi chemical pulping of mixture of bamboo and mixed hardwoods, sulphate semi chemical process, kraft green liquor semi chemical process, neutral sulphite semi chemical process, thermo mechanical pulps for newsprint, zeta potential concept in paper sizing, sodium carbonate in alkali extraction during bleaching bamboo , maintenance engineering in pulp and paper industry, design and application of refiners in stock preparation, paper machine effluent etc. This book explains about the various raw material, their processing and utilizations and also the possible waste treatment of such paper and pulp making industry. To draw attention for manufacturing quality product with all possible latest technologies is the main purpose of this book. The book is very resourceful for new entrepreneurs, technocrats, existing units and research scholars.
Phenolic resins are obtained by the reaction of phenols with aldehydes. The simplest representative of these types of compounds, phenol and formaldehyde, are by far most important. Phenolic resins are mainly used in the production of circuit boards. The development of synthetic resins for surface coating applications has usually followed the use of similar material in the plastic industry. One of the first synthetic resins ever used commercially, both in plastics and in surface coatings was the phenolic resin. Phenolic resins result aldehyde with or without modification. Phenol resin bonded wood materials; particle boards (PB), plywood, fiber board (FB) and glued wood construction element are used for outdoor construction and in high humidity areas because of the high water and weathering resistance of the phenolic adhesive bond and high specific strength. The competitiveness and development of the wood working industry are of utmost importance for the development for thermosetting plastics. This industry is the largest consumer of urea melamine and phenol resins. Phenolic laminates are made by impregnating one or more layers of a base material such as paper, fiberglass or cotton with phenolic resin and laminating the resin saturated base material under heat and pressure. The resin fully polymerizes (cures) during this process. The base material choice depends on the intended application of the finished product. Paper phenolics are used in manufacturing electrical components such as punch through boards and household laminates. Glass phenolics are particularly well suited for use in the high speed bearing market. Other applications of phenolic resins are in chemical equipments, fibers, socket putties, photo resists, tannins, brush putties, etc. Good performance at a reasonable cost has long been an important selling point for phenolic resins, especially in applications such as wood bonding and insulation, where discoloring and other drawbacks can be overlooked because of cost savings. Hence demand of phenolic resins is growing rapidly. This book basically deals with general reaction of phenols with aldehydes, the resoles, curing stages of resoles, kinetics of a stage reaction, chemistry of curing reactions, kinetics of the curing reaction, the novolacs, decomposition products of resites, acid cured resites, composition of technical resites, mechanisms of rubber vulcanization with phenolic resins, thermosetting alloy adhesives, vinyl phenolic structural adhesives, nitrile phenolic structural adhesives, phenolic resins in contact adhesives, chloroprene phenolic contact adhesives, nitrile phenolic contact adhesives, phenolic resins in pressure sensitive adhesives, rubber reinforcing resins, resorcinol formaldehyde latex systems etc. The present book covers manufacturing processes of phenolic resins. New entrepreneurs, technocrats, research scholars can get good knowledge from this book.
Bricks, cement and asbestos have major role in building and road construction. Construction industry is the largest consumer of material resources, of both the natural ones (like stone, bricks, cement, lime) and the processed and synthetic ones. Each material which is used in the construction, in one form or the other is known as construction material (engineering material). No material, existing in the universe is useless; every material has its own field of application. A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry construction, usually laid using various kinds of mortar. It has been regarded as one of the longest lasting and strongest building materials used throughout history. Brick is the most commonly used building material which is light, easily available, and uniform in shape and size and relatively cheaper except in hilly areas. Bricks are easily moulded from plastic clays, also known as brick clays or brick earth. Bricks can be moulded by any of the three methods; soft mud process, stiff mud process and semi dry process. There are various kinds of bricks; silica bricks, carbon bricks, magnesite bricks, dolomite bricks, alumino silicate bricks, refractory bricks, etc. Cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The most important use of cement is the production of mortar and concrete the bonding of natural or artificial aggregates to form a strong building material that is durable in the face of normal environmental effects. Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450 °C in a kiln, in a process known as calcination, whereby a molecule of carbon dioxide is liberated from the calcium carbonate to form calcium oxide, or quicklime, which is then blended with the other materials that have been included in the mix. The resulting hard substance, called clinker, is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make Ordinary Portland Cement, the most commonly used type of cement (often referred to as OPC). Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals used commercially for their desirable physical properties. Asbestos mineral have an almost unique combination of physical and chemical properties. The most widespread modern uses of asbestos are in fireproof textiles, papers and boards and in brake and clutch linings for many kinds of vehicle and machinery. The three main kinds of asbestos which have had wide commercial exploitation are chrysolite, amosite and crocidolite. Some of the major contents of the book are moulded and ornamental bricks and blocks, including copings and lintels, cutters and rubbers, fireplace bricks, fire bricks and other refractory bricks mixing, tempering mills or wet pans, the addition of water, souring, de airing, shaping the bricks, bricks made of calcined clay or grog, silica bricks, transition temperatures of silica on cooling, alumino silicate bricks, magnesium silicate bricks (forsterite bricks), high alumina bricks, spinel bricks, developments in refractory brick, production of cement clinker, introduction, preparation of kiln feed, wet and semi wet processes, dry and semi dry processes, pyroprocessing: principal manufacturing processes, wet and semi wet processes, dry processes, semi dry (lepol) process, clinker cooling, refractories, electric power consumption , plastic moulding by machinery the machine moulding process, moulding machines, the wire cut or extrusion process, selection of machinery, power, individual machines, shredding machines , grids, feeders, proportioning, proportioning feeders, crushing rolls, high speed rolls, dressing the rolls, edge runner mills, tempering mills etc. The present book contains processes of different types of bricks making, cement manufacturing and production of asbestos. The book is very resourceful for new entrepreneur, existing units, professionals, institutions related to building construction, research scholars etc.
Mineral is defined as a naturally occurring solid chemical substance formed through biogeochemical processes, having characteristic chemical composition, highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties. By comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids and does not have a specific chemical composition. Mineral resources of India are sufficiently rich and varied to provide the country with strong industrial base. The country is particularly rich in metallic minerals of the ferrous group such as iron ores, manganese etc. It has the world largest reserves in mica and bauxite. In the field of extractive metallurgy, mineral processing, also known as mineral dressing or ore dressing, is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body; the term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, limestone, etc. There are three methods of mining; conventional or manual mining, semi mechanised mining and mechanised mining. Geopolymerisation is the processes which can transfer large scale alumina silicate wastes into value added geopolymeric products with sound mechanical strength and high acid, fire and bacterial resistance. One of many useful applications of geopolymerisation is the immobilization of heavy metals and radioactive elements. The production of non ferrous metals from natural mineral ores is, in general, highly energy intensive. Some of the non ferrous mineral sources are bauxite, granite, magnesite, limonite etc. Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Limestone processing includes several steps; primary crushing (jaw crusher, gyratory crusher, impact breaker), secondary crushing (cone crusher), fine grinding and pulverization, conveying, screening, washing, heavy media separation, optical mineral sorters, drying and storage. The non metallic mineral mining and quarrying industry segment covers a wide range of mineral extraction. Most of these minerals are found in abundance close to the surface, so underground mining is uncommon in this industry segment. Mineral resources of India are sufficiently rich and varied to provide the country with strong industrial base. The country is particularly rich in metallic minerals of the ferrous group such as iron ores, manganese etc. It has the world largest reserves in mica and bauxite. This book basically deals with methods of mining, mining machineries, geopolymerisation of mineral products and waste, industrial and scientific aspects of non ferrous metals production, processing of alumina rich Indian iron ore slimes, limestone processing, limestone exploration and extraction, the mineralogy of asbestos, the use of asbestos and asbestos free substitutes in buildings, flotation column ;a novel technique in mineral processing, applications of thermal plasma in the synthesis of covalent carbides, nitrogenous fertilizers, manufacture of ammonium bicarbonate etc. This book is designed to describe the details of mining and processing of different minerals like alumina rich iron ore slimes, conversion of waste to a high valued product, lime stone, asbestos, coal beneficiation, gravity concentration processes to recover values from coal and ore fines and many more. The book is meant for everyone who wants to study about the subject or wants to venture into the field of mineral processing.
Soaps and detergents are used frequently in our daily life. We use them to wash our hands and clean our clothes without ever really paying attention to how they work. Beneath the plain white surface of a bar of soap lies an intriguing history and a powerful chemistry. It has been said that amount of soap and detergent consumed in a country is a reliable measure of its civilizations. There was a time when these products were luxury; now it is a necessity. A disinfectant or agent that frees from infection is ordinarily a chemical agent which kills disease germs or other harmful microorganisms and is applied to inanimate objects. The specific way in which a disinfectant agent is used is dependent on both the desired objective and the infectious agent present. The term detergent by itself refers specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents work because they are amphiphilic partly hydrophilic (polar) and partly hydrophobic (non polar). Their dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic compounds (like oil and grease) with water. Because air is not hydrophillic, detergents are also foaming agents to varying degrees. Completely non polar solvents known as degreasers can also remove hydrophobic contaminants but may not dissolve in water because of a lack of polar elements. Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of lubricants. Soap is a mixture of sodium salts of various naturally occurring fatty acids. Soaps and detergents are very similar in their chemical properties. However, there is a significant difference between them; soaps are produced from natural products, and detergents are synthetic, or manmade. The market is expected to grow at rates ranging from under 4% to around 4.5%. These are very modest rates considering that the lifestyles not only of urbanites, but even of well off rural folks are changing at a very high pace. The analysts are expecting the industry to continue to grow in both the industrialized as well as developing nations. Some of the fundamentals of the book are technology of soap making, washing of saponified soap, plant for total soap making operation, construction materials for soap making plants, earth bleaching of oils, chemical bleaching, fatty acids, manufacture of framed soaps, manufacture of chips and flakes, manufacture of milled bars, the mazzoni process, floating soap bars, mixing of soap, chemicals used in soaps & detergents, alkylolamides, alkylolamides in shampoo formulations, chemistry of the alkylolamides, mono alkylolamides, di alkylolamides, pure dialkylolamides, phosphoxylated alkylolamides, sulphated alkylolamides, disinfectants and antiseptics, dry cleaning agents, etc. The present book contains formulae, processes of different types of soaps, detergents and disinfectants. These products have good demand in domestic as well as in International market. So there is a very good scope for new entrepreneurs to venture into this field. This book is an invaluable resource for entrepreneurs, technocrats and for those who want to diversify in to this field.
Rare earths are essential constituents of more than 100 mineral species and present in many more through substitution. They have a marked geochemical affinity for calcium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, fluoride, phosphate and carbonate ions. Industrially important minerals, which are utilized at present for rare earths production, are essentially three, namely monazite, bastnasite and xenotime. In modern time techniques for exploration of rare earths and yttrium minerals include geologic identification of environments of deposition and surface as well as airborne reconnaissance with magnetometric and radiometric equipment. There are numerous applications of rare earths such as in glass making industry, cracking catalysts, electronic and optoelectronic devices, medical technology, nuclear technology, agriculture, plastic industry etc. Lot of metals and alloys called rare earth are lying in the earth which required to be processed. Some of the important elements extracted from rare earths are uranium, lithium, beryllium, selenium, platinum metals, tantalum, silicon, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, cadmium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium etc. There are different methods involved in production of metals and non metals from rare earths for example; separation, primary crushing, secondary crushing, wet grinding, dry grinding etc. The rare earths are silver, silverymwhite, or gray metals; they have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air, have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties this makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals. Rare earths are found with non metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. At present all the rare earth resources in India are in the form of placer monazite deposits, which also carry other industrially important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite and garnet. Some of the fundamentals of the book are commercially important rare earth minerals, exploration for rare earth resources, rare earth resources of the world, some rare earth minerals and their approximate compositions, rare earths in cracking catalysts, rare earth based phosphors, interdependence of applications and production of rare earths, uranium alloys, conversion of ores to lithium chemicals, characterization and analysis of very pure silicon, derivation of molybdenum metal, electoplating and chromizing, electrolytic production of titanium, heat treatment of titanium alloys, tensile properties of alloys etc. The book covers occurrence of rare earth, resources of the world, production of lithium metals, compounds derived from the metals, chemical properties of beryllium, uses of selenium, derivation of molybdenum metals, ore concentration and treatment and many more. This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.
Many studies have been carried out on fragrances, flavors and perfumes worldwide. These products have important commercial value not only in India but in all over the world. Perhaps the most interesting results of the last few years in the fragrance and flavour fields are the many compounds described in this book. They may be used to engender or augment flavours in foodstuffs, chewing gums and medicinal products like mouthwash and toothpaste. The same compounds or closely related ones serve also to produce desirable aromas for perfumes, perfumed compositions such as soaps, detergents and cosmetics etc. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and/or aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, animals, objects, and living spaces a pleasant scent. The odoriferous compounds that make up a perfume can be manufactured synthetically or extracted from plant or animal sources. Perfumes have been known to exist in some of the earliest human civilizations either through ancient texts or from archaeological digs. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone. Flavors and Fragrances (F&F) are the essential ingredients that lend taste and smell, respectively, to food and personal or home care products. Without these, all the products that we use such as toffees, chips, toothpastes, soaps and shampoos, would be tasteless or odorless, boring, functional products. Fragrances are different types; floral, fruity, woody, flower, natural, etc. and has applications in different field; soap and toiletries, cosmetics, household applications etc. Flavoring in common language denote the combined chemical sensations of taste and smell, the same terms are usually used in the fragrance and flavors industry to refer to edible chemicals and extracts that alter the flavor of food and food products through the sense of smell. Applications of flavouring are in numerous field; meat, chocolate, dairy, beverage, confectionary, bakery, teas etc. Due to the high cost or unavailability of natural flavor extracts, most commercial flavorants are nature identical, which means that they are the chemical equivalent of natural flavors but chemically synthesized rather than being extracted from the source materials. Traditionally, while flavors and fragrances were viewed as the most customized of all raw materials, and therefore commanded higher prices, in the last decade, prices have been pushed down consistently by large manufacturers. This book basically deals with the roots and the evolution of perfumery, the part of hedonism, how perfumery is linked to the other fine arts, the art of composition, conclusion, introduction, fragrancing of functional products, line extensions, perfumery for household products, floral series : rose notes, jasmin notes, hyacinth notes, lilac and lily, orange blossom notes, tuberose notes, violet notes, mignonette, woody series: sandal notes, peppery notes, caryophyllaceous notes, introduction, aroma composition of various teas, flavory ceylon black tea, keemun black tea, green tea, pouchong tea and jasmine tea, lotus tea, soap manufacture, raw materials, shaving soap, transparent soaps, super fatted toilet soaps, the milling process, coloured soaps, perfumes, soap compounds, acacia, almond, almond soap, amber soap, buttermilk, brown windsor, carnation, chypre, cologne, cyclamen, fougere, heliotrope, hyacinth, jasmin, lavender, lilac, lily, etc. This book contains formulae and processes of various types of flavours, fragrances and perfumes. New entrepreneurs, technocrats, research scholars can get good knowledge from this book.
Paints and enamel industry is gaining ground at a rapid pace in modern time accompanied with closed advance in surface coating technology. They are formulated for specific purposes: outside house paints and exterior varnishes are intended to give good service when exposed to weathering; interior wall paints are formulated to give excellent coverage. Enamel paint is paint that air dries to a hard, usually glossy, finish, used for coating surfaces that are outdoors or otherwise subject to wear or variations in temperature; it should not be confused with decorated objects in painted enamel, where vitreous enamel is applied with brushes and fired in a kiln. Indian paint industry has a bright future. The Indian paints market has the potential to grow over the next decade at 15 to 20 per cent per annum owing to more investments in the housing segment and improving infrastructure ,high growth in the Indian automobile industry, etc. which in turn would mean greater demand for paints, as most people aspire for better lifestyle. Moreover the per capita consumption is also low. The demand for premium category paints is likely to increase with rise in construction of commercial infrastructure. The players with aggressive marketing strategies and comprehensive product portfolios will grow at a faster rate. The emerging trends in technology and marketing indicate that the industry is likely to consolidate in the coming years with industry leaders improving their market share. Some of the fundamentals of the book are exterior paints, rapid drying stain and blister resistant house paint, exterior white paint, flat exterior paint, exterior alkyd paint, green trim paint, outside white house paint, hi hiding gloss white house paint, white primer, exterior white house paint, speciality paints, book cloth coating, upholstery fabric coating, green epoxy polyamide flexible fire retardant coating, fire retardant clear topcoats, ignition waterproofing seal coating, polyurethane paper coating, fluorescent gravure ink, industrial paints, aluminum baking enamel, gloss black enamel, corrosion resistant baking primer, heat resistant primer, orange baking enamel, purple baking enamel, black baking enamel, red baking enamel, blue baking enamel etc. This book is the outgrowth offered in the chemistry and chemical engineering of organic polymeric and resinous substances. Needless to say such a book is not available because of the rapidity of growth in the polymer field; it has been difficult to resist the temptation to all with new discoveries and products. The book is emphasized on manufacturing of different types of paints, enamels and allied products. It was purposely made wide, so that the book could be used as a text regardless to particular field of interest. All the chapters are introduced separately with simpler language. The book will be very resourceful for technocrats, new entrepreneurs, industrialists and for those who wants to diversify into this field.
A formula is an entity constructed using the symbols and formation rules of a given logical language. In science, a specific formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically as in a mathematical or chemical formula. Formulation is a key process in the overall life cycle so that products are delivered that is of the right quality, at a competitive cost, and is made available within the specified time scale. The chemical formula identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol and indicates the number of atoms of each element found in each discrete molecule of that compound. If a molecule contains more than one atom of a particular element, this quantity is indicated using a subscript after the chemical symbol and also can be combined by more chemical elements. It is all in the formula, whose implications also remain undiscovered by modern economists. It plays a major role in every process whether it is manufacturing process or preservation. There is a big importance of formula in our life because formulas and equations deal with everyday things like shapes, investments, mixing things, movement, lighting, travel and a host of other things they provide information you can use in planning activities. This book basically deals with inks and marking inks, inks for stamp pads, inks for hand stamps, color stamps for rough paper, indelible hand stamp ink, white stamping ink for embroidery, stencil inks, blue stencil inks, indelible stencil inks, sympathetic inks, typewriter ribbon inks, coloring agents, writing inks, how to decorate furniture, novelties, furniture lacquer enamels, white lacquer enamel, egg shell white enamel, high gloss while enamel, colors for furniture spraying, furniture lacquer formulas., enamels and industrial varnishes, general purposes varnish, spar and boat varnish, exterior varnish, varnish for outside work, spar and yacht varnish, quick drying interior varnish, crystal varnish (indoor), hard varnish for floors, colored linseed oil floor dressing, wrinkle finish varnish, brewers pitch and keg varnishes, undercoat varnish, quick drying varnish mastic varnish etc. This book present several hundred advanced product formulations for household, industrial and other applications. This book will be of help to development chemists looking for leads in the formulation of a wide range of products.
Beekeeping is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. Bees are accommodated in artificial lives where they live comfortably within easy reach of the bee keeper for examination and extraction of surplus lovely, after keeping of sufficient lovely in the combs for the bees. Honey is a part of bees, which gather sugar containing nectars from flowers. Honey should be processed as soon as possible after removal from the hive. Honey processing is a sticky operation, in which time and patience are required to achieve the best results. Careful protection against contamination by ants and flying insects is needed at all stages of processing. Bee honey is natural, unrefined food consumed as much in fresh or canned state. It is readily assimilated and is more acceptable to the stomach, particularly in the case of ailing persons, than cane sugar. It is an antiseptic and is applied to wounds and burns with beneficial results. Honey collection and its marketing in India are still not fully organised. The main uses of honey are in cooking, baking, as a spread on breads and as an addition to various beverages such as tea and as a sweetener in commercial beverages. Honey is the main ingredient in the alcoholic beverages mead, which is also known as honey wine or honey bear, honey is also used in medicines. A number of small scale industries depend upon bees and bee products. Honey and bees products finds use in several industries which are under; pharmaceuticals, meat packing, bees wax in industries, bee venom, royal jelly, bee nurseries, bee equipments and hives etc. There is considerable demand for the honey and other products. Outside the thousands of homemade recipes in each cultural tradition, honey is largely used on a small scale as well as at an industrial level. Some of the fundamentals of the book are history of beekeeping in India present, all India co ordinate research project on honey bee research and training, future plan for development, the pattern of beekeeping today, development of beekeeping equipments, beekeeping industry and honeybee species, bee hive products, medicinal properties of honey, bees and agriculture, pesticidal poisoning to honeybees, handling bees, queen rearing and artificial queen, beekeeping and ancillary industries, honey based industries, honey in pharmaceuticals, honey in meat packing, beeswax in industries, bee stings precautions and treatment. The book contains the steps of bee keeping in proper manner and details of honey processing. This book is an invaluable resource for new entrepreneurs, technocrats and also for established enterprises.