This book is intended to give students at the advanced undergraduate or introduc tory graduate level, and researchers in computer vision, robotics and computer graphics, a self-contained introduction to the geometry of three-dimensional (3- D) vision. This is the study of the reconstruction of 3-D models of objects from a collection of 2-D images. An essential prerequisite for this book is a course in linear algebra at the advanced undergraduate level. Background knowledge in rigid-body motion, estimation and optimization will certainly improve the reader's appreciation of the material but is not critical since the first few chapters and the appendices provide a review and summary of basic notions and results on these topics. Our motivation Research monographs and books on geometric approaches to computer vision have been published recently in two batches: The first was in the mid 1990s with books on the geometry of two views, see e. g. [Faugeras, 1993, Kanatani, 1993b, Maybank, 1993, Weng et aI. , 1993b]. The second was more recent with books fo cusing on the geometry of multiple views, see e. g. [Hartley and Zisserman, 2000] and [Faugeras and Luong, 2001] as well as a more comprehensive book on computer vision [Forsyth and Ponce, 2002]. We felt that the time was ripe for synthesizing the material in a unified framework so as to provide a self-contained exposition of this subject, which can be used both for pedagogical purposes and by practitioners interested in this field.
There has been a great deal of excitement in the last ten years over the emer gence of new mathematical techniques for the analysis and control of nonlinear systems: Witness the emergence of a set of simplified tools for the analysis of bifurcations, chaos, and other complicated dynamical behavior and the develop ment of a comprehensive theory of geometric nonlinear control. Coupled with this set of analytic advances has been the vast increase in computational power available for both the simulation and visualization of nonlinear systems as well as for the implementation in real time of sophisticated, real-time nonlinear control laws. Thus, technological advances havebolstered the impact of analytic advances and produced a tremendous variety of new problems and applications that are nonlinear in an essential way. Nonlinear controllaws have been implemented for sophisticated flight control systems on board helicopters, and vertical take offand landing aircraft; adaptive, nonlinearcontrollaws havebeen implementedfor robot manipulators operating either singly, or in cooperation on a multi-fingered robot hand; adaptive control laws have been implemented forjetengines andautomotive fuel injection systems, as well as for automated highway systems and air traffic management systems, to mention a few examples. Bifurcation theory has been used to explain and understand the onset of fiutterin the dynamics of aircraft wing structures, the onset of oscillations in nonlinear circuits, surge and stall in aircraft engines, voltage collapse in a power transmission network.
This book constitutes the strictly refereed post-proceedings of the 5th International Hybrid Systems Workshop held in Notre Dame, Indiana, USA in September 1998. The 23 revised full papers presented in the book have gone through two rounds of thorough reviewing and revision. The volume presents state-of-the-art research results and particularly addresses such areas as program verification, concurrent and distributed processes, logic programming, logics of programs, discrete event simulation, calculus of variations, optimization, differential geometry, Lie algebras, automata theory, dynamical systems, etc.
Classical multiple-view geometry studies the reconstruction of a static scene - served by a rigidly moving camera. However, in many real-world applications the scene may undergo much more complex dynamical changes. For instance, the scene may consist of multiple moving objects (e.g., a tra?c scene) or arti- lated motions (e.g., a walking human) or even non-rigid dynamics (e.g., smoke, ?re, or a waterfall). In addition, some applications may require interaction with the scene through a dynamical system (e.g., vision-guided robot navigation and coordination). To study the problem of reconstructing dynamical scenes, many new al- braic, geometric, statistical, and computational tools have recently emerged in computer vision, computer graphics, image processing, and vision-based c- trol. The goal of the International Workshop on Dynamical Vision (WDV) is to converge di?erent aspects of the research on dynamical vision and to identify common mathematical problems, models, and methods for future research in this emerging and active area.