## Similar

In Riemannian geometry, parallelism is determined geometrically by this property: along a geodesic, vectors are parallel if they make the same angle with the tangents. In non-Riemannian geometry, the Levi-Civita parallelism imposed a priori is replaced by a determination by arbitrary functions (affine connections). In this volume, Eisenhart investigates the main consequences of the deviation.

Starting with a consideration of asymmetric connections, the author proceeds to a contrasting survey of symmetric connections. Discussions of the projective geometry of paths follow, and the final chapter explores the geometry of sub-spaces.

In this book, Eisenhart succinctly surveys the key concepts of Riemannian geometry, addressing mathematicians and theoretical physicists alike.

The Second Edition maintained the accessibility of the first, while providing an introduction to the use of computers and expanding discussion on certain topics. Further emphasis was placed on topological properties, properties of geodesics, singularities of vector fields, and the theorems of Bonnet and Hadamard.

This revision of the Second Edition provides a thorough update of commands for the symbolic computation programs Mathematica or Maple, as well as additional computer exercises. As with the Second Edition, this material supplements the content but no computer skill is necessary to take full advantage of this comprehensive text.

Over 36,000 copies sold worldwideAccessible, practical yet rigorous approach to a complex topic--also suitable for self-studyExtensive update of appendices on Mathematica and Maple software packagesThorough streamlining of second edition's numbering systemFuller information on solutions to odd-numbered problemsAdditional exercises and hints guide students in using the latest computer modeling toolsThis second edition has been extensively revised and clarified, and the topics have been substantially rearranged. The book now introduces the two most important analytic tools, the rank theorem and the fundamental theorem on flows, much earlier so that they can be used throughout the book. A few new topics have been added, notably Sard’s theorem and transversality, a proof that infinitesimal Lie group actions generate global group actions, a more thorough study of first-order partial differential equations, a brief treatment of degree theory for smooth maps between compact manifolds, and an introduction to contact structures.

Prerequisites include a solid acquaintance with general topology, the fundamental group, and covering spaces, as well as basic undergraduate linear algebra and real analysis.

The first chapters of the book focus on the basic concepts and facts of analytic geometry, the theory of space curves, and the foundations of the theory of surfaces, including problems closely related to the first and second fundamental forms. The treatment of the theory of surfaces makes full use of the tensor calculus.

The later chapters address geodesics, mappings of surfaces, special surfaces, and the absolute differential calculus and the displacement of Levi-Cività. Problems at the end of each section (with solutions at the end of the book) will help students meaningfully review the material presented, and familiarize themselves with the manner of reasoning in differential geometry.

The principal aim of analysis of tensors is to investigate those relations which remain valid when we change from one coordinate system to another. This book on Tensors requires only a knowledge of elementary calculus, differential equations and classical mechanics as pre-requisites. It provides the readers with all the information about the tensors along with the derivation of all the tensorial relations/equations in a simple manner. The book also deals in detail with topics of importance to the study of special and general relativity and the geometry of differentiable manifolds with a crystal clear exposition. The concepts dealt within the book are well supported by a number of solved examples. A carefully selected set of unsolved problems is also given at the end of each chapter, and the answers and hints for the solution of these problems are given at the end of the book. The applications of tensors to the fields of differential geometry, relativity, cosmology and electromagnetism is another attraction of the present book.

This book is intended to serve as text for postgraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. It is ideally suited for both students and teachers who are engaged in research in General Theory of Relativity and Differential Geometry.

Written by a noted mathematician and historian of mathematics, this volume presents the fundamental conceptions of the theory of curves and surfaces and applies them to a number of examples. Dr. Struik has enhanced the treatment with copious historical, biographical, and bibliographical references that place the theory in context and encourage the student to consult original sources and discover additional important ideas there.

For this second edition, Professor Struik made some corrections and added an appendix with a sketch of the application of Cartan's method of Pfaffians to curve and surface theory. The result was to further increase the merit of this stimulating, thought-provoking text — ideal for classroom use, but also perfectly suited for self-study. In this attractive, inexpensive paperback edition, it belongs in the library of any mathematician or student of mathematics interested in differential geometry.

The contributors are Marco Abate, Marco Arizzi, Alexander Blokh, Thierry Bousch, Xavier Buff, Serge Cantat, Tao Chen, Robert Devaney, Alexandre Dezotti, Tien-Cuong Dinh, Romain Dujardin, Hugo García-Compeán, William Goldman, Rotislav Grigorchuk, John Hubbard, Yunping Jiang, Linda Keen, Jan Kiwi, Genadi Levin, Daniel Meyer, John Milnor, Carlos Moreira, Vincente Muñoz, Viet-Anh Nguyên, Lex Oversteegen, Ricardo Pérez-Marco, Ross Ptacek, Jasmin Raissy, Pascale Roesch, Roberto Santos-Silva, Dierk Schleicher, Nessim Sibony, Daniel Smania, Tan Lei, William Thurston, Vladlen Timorin, Sebastian van Strien, and Alberto Verjovsky.

In more practical terms, the book is a sequel to the author's Special Relativity in the same series, with some overlap in the treatment of tensors. The basic theory is presented using techniques, such as phase-plane analysis, that will already be familiar to mathematics undergraduates, and numerous problems, of varying levels of difficulty, are provided to test understanding. The latter chapters include the theoretical background to contemporary observational tests - in particular the detection of gravitational waves and the verification of the Lens-Thirring precession - and some introductory cosmology, to tempt the reader to further study.

While primarily designed as an introduction for final-year undergraduates and first-year postgraduates in mathematics, the book is also accessible to physicists who would like to see a more mathematical approach to the ideas.

Part 1 begins by employing vector methods to explore the classical theory of curves and surfaces. An introduction to the differential geometry of surfaces in the large provides students with ideas and techniques involved in global research. Part 2 introduces the concept of a tensor, first in algebra, then in calculus. It covers the basic theory of the absolute calculus and the fundamentals of Riemannian geometry. Worked examples and exercises appear throughout the text.

The treatment begins with a chapter on curves, followed by explorations of regular surfaces, the geometry of the Gauss map, the intrinsic geometry of surfaces, and global differential geometry. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, this text's prerequisites include an undergraduate course in linear algebra and some familiarity with the calculus of several variables. For this second edition, the author has corrected, revised, and updated the entire volume.

Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this text invites its audience to take a fresh look at previously learned material through the prism of tensor calculus. Once the framework is mastered, the student is introduced to new material which includes differential geometry on manifolds, shape optimization, boundary perturbation and dynamic fluid film equations.

The language of tensors, originally championed by Einstein, is as fundamental as the languages of calculus and linear algebra and is one that every technical scientist ought to speak. The tensor technique, invented at the turn of the 20th century, is now considered classical. Yet, as the author shows, it remains remarkably vital and relevant. The author’s skilled lecturing capabilities are evident by the inclusion of insightful examples and a plethora of exercises. A great deal of material is devoted to the geometric fundamentals, the mechanics of change of variables, the proper use of the tensor notation and the discussion of the interplay between algebra and geometry. The early chapters have many words and few equations. The definition of a tensor comes only in Chapter 6 – when the reader is ready for it. While this text maintains a consistent level of rigor, it takes great care to avoid formalizing the subject.

The last part of the textbook is devoted to the Calculus of Moving Surfaces. It is the first textbook exposition of this important technique and is one of the gems of this text. A number of exciting applications of the calculus are presented including shape optimization, boundary perturbation of boundary value problems and dynamic fluid film equations developed by the author in recent years. Furthermore, the moving surfaces framework is used to offer new derivations of classical results such as the geodesic equation and the celebrated Gauss-Bonnet theorem.

Peter W. Michor

In this volume, the authors provide a thorough introduction to characteristic classes, with detailed studies of Stiefel-Whitney classes, Chern classes, Pontrjagin classes, and the Euler class. Three appendices cover the basics of cohomology theory and the differential forms approach to characteristic classes, and provide an account of Bernoulli numbers.

Based on lecture notes of John Milnor, which first appeared at Princeton University in 1957 and have been widely studied by graduate students of topology ever since, this published version has been completely revised and corrected.

This monograph follows the Greek tradition in seeking beautiful shapes such as regular convex polyhedra. The primary aim is to convey to the reader how algebraic topology is effectively used to explore the rich world of crystal structures. Graph theory, homology theory, and the theory of covering maps are employed to introduce the notion of the topological crystal which retains, in the abstract, all the information on the connectivity of atoms in the crystal. For that reason the title Topological Crystallography has been chosen.

Topological crystals can be described as “living in the logical world, not in space,” leading to the question of how to place or realize them “canonically” in space. Proposed here is the notion of standard realizations of topological crystals in space, including as typical examples the crystal structures of diamond and lonsdaleite. A mathematical view of

the standard realizations is also provided by relating them to asymptotic behaviors of random walks and harmonic maps. Furthermore, it can be seen that a discrete analogue of algebraic geometry is linked to the standard realizations.Applications of the discussions in this volume include not only a systematic enumeration of crystal structures, an area of considerable scientific interest for many years, but also the architectural design of lightweight rigid structures. The reader therefore can see the agreement of theory and practice.

During his years as professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1962 until retiring from teaching in 1993, he received many honors and prizes: election to the National Academy of Sciences USA, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the AMS Steele Prize, Honorary Doctorates from University of Córdoba, Argentina, the University of Salamanca, Spain, Purdue University. Now in the sixth decade of his career, he continues to produce results of astonishing beauty and significance for which he is invited to lecture all over the world.

This is the first volume (1955-1966) of a five-volume set of Bertram Kostant's collected papers. A distinguished feature of this first volume is Kostant's commentaries and summaries of his papers in his own words.

This book, unlike other introductory texts in differential geometry, develops the architecture necessary to introduce symplectic and contact geometry alongside its Riemannian cousin. The main goal of this book is to bring the undergraduate student who already has a solid foundation in the standard mathematics curriculum into contact with the beauty of higher mathematics. In particular, the presentation here emphasizes the consequences of a definition and the careful use of examples and constructions in order to explore those consequences.

All of the necessary functional analysis and differential geometry is included, along with basic calculus of variations and partial differential equations (linear and nonlinear). An introduction to classical and quantum mechanics is given with topics in Feynman integrals, gauge fields, geometric quantization, attractors for PDE, Ginzburg-Landau Equations in superconductivity, Navier-Stokes equations, soliton theory, inverse problems and ill-posed problems, scattering theory, convex analysis, variational inequalities, nonlinear semigroups, etc.

Contents: 1. Classical Ideas and Problems. Introduction. Some Preliminary Variational Ideas. Various Differential Equations and Their Origins. Linear Second Order PDE. Further Topics in the Calculus of Variations. Spectral Theory for Ordinary Differential Operators, Transmutation, and Inverse Problems. Introduction to Classical Mechanics. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Weak Problems in PDE. Some Nonlinear PDE. Ill-Posed Problems and Regularization.

2. Scattering Theory and Solitons. Introduction. Scattering Theory I (Operator Theory). Scattering Theory II (3-D). Scattering Theory III (A Medley of Themes). Scattering Theory IV (Spectral Methods in 3-D). Systems and Half Line Problems. Relations between Potentials and Spectral Data. Introduction to Soliton Theory. Solitons via AKNS Systems. Soliton Theory (Hamiltonian Structure). Some Topics in Integrable Systems.

3. Some Nonlinear Analysis: Some Geometric Formalism. Introduction. Nonlinear Analysis. Monotone Operators. Topological Methods. Convex Analysis. Nonlinear Semigroups and Monotone Sets. Variational Inequalities. Quantum Field Theory. Gauge Fields (Physics). Gauge Fields (Mathematics) and Geometric Quantization.

Appendices: Introduction to Linear Functional Analysis. Selected Topics in Functional Analysis. Introduction to Differential Geometry.

References. Index.

The author discusses topics where the interaction of physical and mathematical theories has led to new points of view and new results in mathematics. The area where this is most evident is that of geometric topology of low dimensional manifolds. These include the theories of Donaldson, Chern-Simons, Floer-Fukaya, Seiberg-Witten, and Topological (Quantum) Field Theory.

The author also discusses the interaction of CFT, Supersymmetry, String Theory and Gravity with diverse areas of mathematics. Several of these ideas have led to new insights into old mathematical structures and some have led to surprising new results The term "Physical Mathematics'' has been coined to describe collectively these new and fast growing areas of research, and regards the work of Donaldson and Witten as belonging to this new area of physical mathematics. Study of this work forms an important part of this book.

This third edition is completed by a number of additional figures, examples and exercises. The text and formulae have been revised and improved where necessary.

Starting with an introduction to the various curvatures associated to a hypersurface embedded in Euclidean space, the text advances to a brief review of the differential and integral calculus on manifolds. A discussion of the fundamental notions of linear connections and their curvatures follows, along with considerations of Levi-Civita's theorem, bi-invariant metrics on a Lie group, Cartan calculations, Gauss's lemma, and variational formulas. Additional topics include the Hopf-Rinow, Myer's, and Frobenius theorems; special and general relativity; connections on principal and associated bundles; the star operator; superconnections; semi-Riemannian submersions; and Petrov types. Prerequisites include linear algebra and advanced calculus, preferably in the language of differential forms.

Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society

Elementary Differential Geometry presents the main results in the differential geometry of curves and surfaces suitable for a first course on the subject. Prerequisites are kept to an absolute minimum – nothing beyond first courses in linear algebra and multivariable calculus – and the most direct and straightforward approach is used throughout.

New features of this revised and expanded second edition include:

a chapter on non-Euclidean geometry, a subject that is of great importance in the history of mathematics and crucial in many modern developments. The main results can be reached easily and quickly by making use of the results and techniques developed earlier in the book.

Coverage of topics such as: parallel transport and its applications; map colouring; holonomy and Gaussian curvature.

Around 200 additional exercises, and a full solutions manual for instructors, available via www.springer.com

Praise for the first edition:

"The text is nicely illustrated, the definitions are well-motivated and the proofs are particularly well-written and student-friendly...this book would make an excellent text for an undergraduate course, but could also well be used for a reading course, or simply read for pleasure."

Australian Mathematical Society Gazette

"Excellent figures supplement a good account, sprinkled with illustrative examples."

Times Higher Education Supplement

The 6th edition includes a systematic treatment of eigenvalues of Riemannian manifolds and several other additions. Also, the entire material has been reorganized in order to improve the coherence of the book.

From the reviews:

"This book provides a very readable introduction to Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis. ... With the vast development of the mathematical subject of geometric analysis, the present textbook is most welcome." Mathematical Reviews

"...the material ... is self-contained. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. Most of the paragraphs have a section ‘Perspectives’, written with the aim to place the material in a broader context and explain further results and directions." Zentralblatt MATH

Key topics include:

-vectors and vector fields;

-line integrals;

-regular k-surfaces;

-flux of a vector field;

-orientation of a surface;

-differential forms;

-Stokes' theorem;

-divergence theorem.

This book is intended for upper undergraduate students who have completed a standard introduction to differential and integral calculus for functions of several variables. The book can also be useful to engineering and physics students who know how to handle the theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss, but would like to explore the topic further.

The author, who is a Professor of Mathematics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York, begins with a discussion of plane geometry and then treats the local theory of Lie groups and transformation groups, solid differential geometry, and Riemannian geometry, leading to a general theory of connections.

The author presents a full development of the Erlangen Program in the foundations of geometry as used by Elie Cartan as a basis of modern differential geometry; the book can serve as an introduction to the methods of E. Cartan. The theory is applied to give a complete development of affine differential geometry in two and three dimensions.

Although the text deals only with local problems (except for global problems that can be treated by methods of advanced calculus), the definitions have been formulated so as to be applicable to modern global differential geometry. The algebraic development of tensors is equally accessible to physicists and to pure mathematicians. The wealth of specific resutls and the replacement of most tensor calculations by linear algebra makes the book attractive to users of mathematics in other disciplines.

Starting with an introduction to differentiable manifolds and their tangent spaces, the text examines Euclidean spaces, their submanifolds, and abstract manifolds. Succeeding chapters explore the tangent bundle and vector fields and discuss their association with ordinary differential equations. The authors offer a coherent treatment of the fundamental concepts of Lie group theory, and they present a proof of the basic theorem relating Lie subalgebras to Lie subgroups. Additional topics include fiber bundles and multilinear algebra. An excellent source of examples and exercises, this graduate-level text requires a solid understanding of the basic theory of finite-dimensional vector spaces and their linear transformations, point-set topology, and advanced calculus.

Important additions to this new edition include:

* A completely new coordinate free formula that is easily remembered, and is, in fact, the Koszul formula in disguise;

* An increased number of coordinate calculations of connection and curvature;

* General fomulas for curvature on Lie Groups and submersions;

* Variational calculus has been integrated into the text, which allows for an early treatment of the Sphere theorem using a forgottten proof by Berger;

* Several recent results about manifolds with positive curvature.

From reviews of the first edition:

"The book can be highly recommended to all mathematicians who want to get a more profound idea about the most interesting

achievements in Riemannian geometry. It is one of the few comprehensive sources of this type."

- Bernd Wegner, Zentralblatt

Key features include:

· a rare undergraduate-level approach to differential geometry;

· brief biographies of historically relevant mathematicians and physicists;

· significant aspects of general relativity and Riemannian geometry and

· chapter-by-chapter exercises.

This accessible and comprehensive textbook offers a valuable introduction to differential geometry, simplifying the complicated theory by using Clifford algebra. It will serve as a useful resource for upper-level undergraduates, beginning-level graduate students, and researchers in the algebra and physics communities.

This accessible and comprehensive textbook offers a valuable introduction to differential geometry, simplifying the complicated theory by using Clifford algebra. It will serve as a useful resource for upper-level undergraduates, beginning-level graduate students, and researchers in the algebra and physics communities.

Each new concept is presented with a natural picture that students can easily grasp. Algebraic properties then follow. This facilitates the development of differential forms without assuming a background in linear algebra. Throughout the text, emphasis is placed on applications in 3 dimensions, but all definitions are given so as to be easily generalized to higher dimensions. A centerpiece of the text is the generalized Stokes' theorem. Although this theorem implies all of the classical integral theorems of vector calculus, it is far easier for students to both comprehend and remember.

The text is designed to support three distinct course tracks: the first as the primary textbook for third semester (multivariable) calculus, suitable for anyone with a year of calculus; the second is aimed at students enrolled in sophomore-level vector calculus; while the third targets advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics or mathematics, covering more advanced topics such as Maxwell's equations, foliation theory, and cohomology.

Containing excellent motivation, numerous illustrations and solutions to selected problems in an appendix, the material has been tested in the classroom along all three potential course tracks.

distance geometric analysis on manifolds, in particular, comparison theory for distance functions in spaces which have well defined bounds on their curvature

the application of the Lichnerowicz formula for Dirac operators to the study of Gromov's invariants to measure the K-theoretic size of a Riemannian manifold.

It is intended for both graduate students and researchers.

Topics covered in this volume include differential forms, the differential geometry of tangent and cotangent bundles, almost tangent geometry, symplectic and pre-symplectic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, tensors and connections on manifolds, and geometrical aspects of variational and constraint theories.

The book may be considered as a self-contained text and only presupposes that readers are acquainted with linear and multilinear algebra as well as advanced calculus.