With clear text, appealing cartoons, and a focus on common grammatical errors and how to correct them, this little volume is a real gem that should find a permanent place with companies, universities, and anyone seeking a user-friendly guide to style and usage.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
The Perfect series is a range of practical guides that give clear and straightforward advice on everything from getting your first job to choosing your baby's name. Written by experienced authors offering tried-and-tested tips, each book contains all you need to get it right first time.
Beginning in the mid-fifties and emanating largely from MIT, linguists developed an approach to linguistic theory and to the study of the structure of particular languages that diverged in many respects from conventional modern linguistics. Although the new approach was connected to the traditional study of languages, it differed enough in its specific conclusions about the structure of language to warrant a name, "generative grammar." Various deficiencies were discovered in the first attempts to formulate a theory of transformational generative grammar and in the descriptive analysis of particular languages that motivated these formulations. At the same time, it became apparent that these formulations can be extended and deepened. In this book, Chomsky reviews these developments and proposes a reformulation of the theory of transformational generative grammar that takes them into account. The emphasis in this study is syntax; semantic and phonological aspects of the language structure are discussed only insofar as they bear on syntactic theory.
The second edition of Sentence Structure has been revised and updated throughout and includes new material on tense, aspect, modality and the verb phrase, whilst the order of topics has been rearranged to improve clarity.
With easy-to-follow rules and tips, and examples taken from published and unpublished papers, you will learn how to:prepare and structure a manuscript
increase readability and reduce the number of mistakes you make in English by writing concisely, with no redundancy and no ambiguity
write a title and an abstract that will attract attention and be read
decide what to include in the various parts of the paper (Introduction, Methodology, Discussion etc)
highlight your claims and contribution
discuss the limitations of your research
choose the correct tenses and style
satisfy the requirements of editors and reviewers
This new edition contains over 40% new material, including two new chapters, stimulating factoids, and discussion points both for self-study and in-class use.
EAP teachers will find this book to be a great source of tips for training students, and for preparing both instructive and entertaining lessons.
Other books in the series cover: presentations at international conferences; academic correspondence; English grammar, usage and style; interacting on campus, plus exercise books and a teacher's guide to the whole series.
Please visit http://www.springer.com/series/13913 for a full list of titles in the series.
Adrian Wallwork is the author of more than 30 ELT and EAP textbooks. He has trained several thousand PhD students and academics from 35 countries to write research papers, prepare presentations, and communicate with editors, referees and fellow researchers.
Contributors to this volume are primarily Word Grammar grammarians from across the world. All the chapters here manifest theoretical potentialities of Word Grammar, exploring how powerful Word Grammar is to offer analysis for linguistic phenomena in various languages. The chapters come from varying perspectives and include work on a number of languages, including English, German, Japanese, Swahili, Turkish and Ancient Greek. Phenomena studied include verbal inflection, case agreement, extraction, construction and code-mixing. This collection will be of interest to academics encountering Word Grammar for the first time, or for those who are already familiar with this theory and are interested in reading how it has evolved and what its future may hold.
This book pulls from linguistic theory all the relevant notions that will enable the language student to fully grasp English grammar. After introducing form and function, the authors cover verbs, nouns, aspect and tense, modality and discourse. Readers are led through the underlying principles of language use, with the book presupposing only a basic grasp of linguistic terminology. It does not get bogged down in huge amounts of detail and focuses on the crucial issues. Full of exercises and with attention paid to moving the reader through their course, this is the desk reference grammar of choice for both native and non-native English speakers.
"Cowper exhibits the analytical devices of current principles-and-parameters approaches, takes readers carefully through the central elements of grammatical theory (including very recent work), and ushers them selectively into the technical literature. . . . A serious introduction for those who want to know the nuts and bolts of syntactic theory and to see why linguists are so excited these days."—David Lightfoot, University of Maryland
"An excellent short introduction to the Government and Binding model of syntactic theory. . . . Cowper's work succeeds in teaching syntactic argumentation and in showing the conceptual reasons behind specific proposals in modern syntactic theory."—Jaklin Kornfilt, Syracuse University
Degree Change is an important part of “Transformation of Sentence” in which one sentence is changed into another but the sense or meaning of one sentence when changed to another sentence remains the same.
It is a rare significance of any language and literature that the speaker can express his/her views not only in one way/style/fashion but in more than one ways/styles/fashions also. There is no exaggeration to say that it is an art of such a language that enriches it. Degree change is one of them that teaches us how to express our views suitably in different degrees – positive, comparative and superlative as and where required on different occasions.
Anyone who desires to learn it can access to “Google Play” and search the related site by typing “Durga Prasad” or “Shubham Kumar” in search column.
“Description” and “About the Author” are free of cost to access but to read the total subject one has to pay Rs.30 online.
The language in which it is written is very simple, the method that is adopted with the suitable examples is very clear and the flow that once starts with in the beginning continues till it ends in like a fairy tale.
The author is the founder of “E-Blue Books.” The idea of writing such a book in a few pages was generated when the author was waiting for more than four hours for the second flight from Delhi to Varanasi after arriving from Pune. And thus about 80 such books are published till now in “Google Play” on different topics of different categories in Hindi as well as in English languages for those who have to wait for hours together in airport, rly. Platforms, bus stands and so on. They can pass their time usefully by reading such E-Blue Books in case they have got in -hand facilities to internet connectivity.
The exercises include the following areas:active vs passive, use of wearticles (a/an, the, zero) and quantifiers (some, any, few etc)conditionals and modalscountable and uncountable nounsgenitiveinfinitive vs -ing formnumbers, acronyms, abbreviationsrelative clauses and which vs thattenses (e.g. simple present, simple past, present perfect)word order
Exercise types are repeated for different contexts. For example, the difference between the simple present, present perfect and simple past is tested for use in papers, referees' reports, and emails of various types. Such repetition of similar types of exercises is perfect for revision purposes.
English for Academic Research: Grammar Exercises is designed for self-study and there is a key to all exercises. Most exercises require no actual writing but simply choosing between various options, thus facilitating e-reading and rapid progress.
The exercises can also be integrated into English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Special Purposes (ESP) courses at universities and research institutes.
The book can be used in conjunction with the other exercise books in the series and is cross-referenced to:
English for Research: Usage, Style, and Grammar
English for Writing Research Papers
English for Academic Correspondence and Socializing
Adrian Wallwork is the author of around 30 ELT and EAP textbooks. He has trained several thousand PhD students from 35 countries to write and present academic work.
Each chapter is followed by two sets of exercises. The first set can be used in self-study or in the classroom. The second set deals with more advanced topics, and can be used for classroom discussion or essay writing.
This fourth edition has been fully revised and updated and includes:
clearer descriptions and improved presentation
new material on word structure and word formation
new exercises, examples and extracts
updated further reading
Assuming no prior knowledge of English grammar, this book is ideal for beginning students on a one-semester course and provides everything a student needs on the theory and practice of English usage. A comprehensive Glossary of grammatical terms is included and a website provides invaluable additional exercises.
This is the first detailed description of Malayalam, providing an in-depth analysis of the linguistic richness of this language.
Each unit focuses on a different word class, using an analysis of specific words which includes:
an introduction to the grammar of each word;
examples of real world usage featuring that word;
exercises with answers.
This unique approach not only introduces students to grammar but also provides them with an understanding of how grammar works in everyday English. Written by an experienced teacher and author, From Words to Grammar is ideal for all students of English Language.
These articles were originally published in Studies in Language 32:3 (2008).
O'Grady reviews the literature andÂ covers the theoryÂ before moving on to a practical, analytic section.Â His final chapter reviews the arguments, maps the road ahead and lays out the practical applications of the grammar.Â The book will be of great interest to researchers in applied linguistics, discourse analysis and also EFL/ESL.
Jelinek originated the Pronominal Argument Hypothesis – the idea that many languages restrict realization of their arguments to pronouns. In other work, Jelinek investigated a broad range of morphological, syntactic and semantic phenomena in understudied and endangered languages. Besides the theoretical value of that work, it was instrumental in providing sophisticated semantic and syntactic documentation for such languages, where description is typically limited to the basic morphophonology and morphosyntax, as well as texts, that form the core of most descriptive work.
Thirteen of her most important papers, together with a fourteenth essay previously unpublished, are here collected, each preceded by a short introduction that provides context for the work and evidence of its subsequent influence.
In The Disappearing Dictionary, linguistics expert Professor David Crystal collects together delightful dialect words that either provide an insight into an older way of life, or simply have an irresistible phonetic appeal. Like a mirror image of The Meaning of Liff that just happens to be true, The Disappearing Dictionary unearths some lovely old gems of the English language, dusts them down and makes them live again for a new generation.
dabberlick [noun, Scotland]
A mildly insulting way of talking about someone who is tall and skinny. 'Where's that dabberlick of a child?'
fubsy [adjective, Lancashire]
Plump, in a nice sort of way.
squinch [noun, Devon]
A narrow crack in a wall or a space between floorboards. 'I lost sixpence through a squinch in the floor'.
For each resource that linguists create, NooJ provides parsers that can apply it to any corpus of texts in order to extract examples or counter-examples, to annotate matching sequences, to perform statistical analyses, etc. NooJ also contains generators that can produce the texts that these linguistic resources describe, as well as a rich toolbox that allows linguists to construct, maintain, test, debug, accumulate and reuse linguistic resources. For each elementary linguistic phenomenon to be described, NooJ proposes a set of computational formalisms, the power of which ranges from very efficient finite-state automata to very powerful Turing machines. This makes NooJ’s approach different from most other computational linguistic tools that typically offer a unique formalism to their users.
Since it was released in 2002, NooJ has been enhanced with new features every year. Linguists, researchers in the social sciences and, more generally, professionals who analyse texts have contributed to its development and participated in the annual NooJ conference. Since 2011, the European project Meta-Net CESAR has introduced new interest in NooJ as well as a new set of projects, both in linguistics and in computer science. The present volume contains 18 articles selected from the 32 papers presented at the International NooJ 2012 Conference which was held from June 14th to 16th at the Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO) in Paris. These articles are organised in three parts: “Vocabulary and Morphology” contains five articles; “Syntax and Semantics” contains six articles; “NooJ Applications” contains six articles. In this volume, we decided to add a new part: eight short papers that present prototype NooJ modules developed by graduate students and that could serve as bases for more ambitious projects.
This book furnishes plenty of examples of idiomatic phrases and provides the foundation for how MT systems can process and translate idioms by means of simple linguistic resources.
The general aim of the Senshu University Project The Development of the Anglo-Saxon Language and Linguistic Universals is investigation of structural characteristics common to the Germanic languages, such as English, German and Norwegian, and of works on and in the tradition of Generative Grammar founded by Noam Chomsky in the 1950s. The central idea of Generative Grammar, that the nature of natural-language syntax can be captured by a finite set of rules which are able to produce an infinite set of well-formed structures has been highly evaluated and influential even in related fields such as biolinguistics, philosophy, psychology and computer science. Noam Chomsky and Language Descriptions is a collection of articles that focus on the earliest but essential linguistic theory proposed by Noam Chomsky and articles that discuss specific topics pertaining to the study Germanic languages, in particular English and German. It is divided into two parts: Part 1. Genesis of Generative Grammar; and Part 2. Current Issues in Language Descriptions. The present book will be of general interest to linguists who seek to understand the original idea of Generative Grammar and nature of the Germanic languages.
The book's main focus is the nature and structure of invariant principles and parameters (variables) and how they interact to give principled accounts to a variety of seemingly unrelated differences between English and Japanese. The contrasts between these two types of language is an ideal testing ground, since the languages are superficially different in virtually every aspect of their linguistic structures from word order and wh-movement, to grammatical agreement and case-marking systems, among many others.
These articles constitute a considerable contribution to the development of the principles-and-parameters model in its exploration and refinement of theoretical concepts and fundamental principles of linguistic theory, leading to some of the basic insights that lie behind the minimalist program.
The symposia are held by the Santiago-based institution every two years. Since their inception in 1987, these meetings have provided an excellent opportunity for scientific exchange among scholars from all continents, through the presentation of papers, keynote speeches, and workshops focusing on the most current and recent results of linguistics and other related disciplines that are also invited to the event.
This volume includes 34 papers subdivided in eight sections: General Linguistics (8), Phonetics (5), Lexicology (3), Corpus Linguistics (2), Natural Language Processing (9), Foreign Languages (3), Mass Media (2) and Art, Ethnology and Folklore (2).
These articles provide an excellent overview of the current state of research from around the world. Scholars came from Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Cuba, Spain, United States, France, Greek, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal and the United Kingdom.
It is important to highlight the presence in this book of papers by some of the world’s leading researchers in linguistics, including Prof. Dr. Anton Nijholt, from Twente University, Enschede, The Netherlands; Prof. Dr. Nicoletta Calzolari, director of the prestigious Institute of Computational Linguistics of Pisa, Italy; Prof. Dr. Michael Zock, from the Scientific Research Center of France; Prof. Dr. Dieter Fensel, from the Digital Enterprise Research Institute of Leopold-Franzens University, Innsbruck, Austria; Prof Dr. Gloria Corpas Pastor from the University of Malaga, Spain; and the doctors Iñaki Alegria, Xabier Arregi and Xabier Artola, from the IXA Group of the Basque Country University.