Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject Electrotechnology, grade: 1,3, Reutlingen University (Produktionsmanagement), 48 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: In times of the EU Enlargement Germany has been faced with steadily increasing freight and transit traffic, due to its geographical position in the middle of Europe. The German expressway system has an overall length of approximately 25.000 kilometers (both directions) and therewith is the longest system in Europe. Overall 1.2 million trucks use the German expressways and cover a total distance of 22.7 trillion kilometers every year. The preservation and further expansion of this system is an important leverage of development for Germany and Europe as a whole. The costs for road construction and maintenance have been rising directly proportional to the transit traffic. Since this burden was only carried by Germany's public, namely by the German citizens' taxes, the Federal Government launched a distance-based toll for all heavy goods vehicles with a total weight of 12 tons or more, driving on German expressways. This so-called "LKW Maut" came into effect on January 1st, 2005 and is a watershed in financing. For the first time the costs for maintenance are allocated to those who predominantly cause the abrasion. Politics call this a better and fairer financing of the infrastructure. One heavy truck stresses the streets 60.000-times more than a car. In addition this toll system leads to a higher transport efficiency, which can be seen in the fact that empty return trips went back from over ten to nine percent in 2005, respectively. Thereby it also has a positive effect on sustainability. The fee, each truck has to pay, is defined in accordance to the number of axles, the relating emissions class and the distance travelled. Political background of the toll is to shift freight traffic from the roads to railroad and waterways. Toll Collect GmbH has been responsible for developing a toll system in the name of the Federal Republic of Germany which united GPS technology for satellite-based positioning and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications). Together with vehicle-installed On-Board Units the system is able to determine the exact position of the trucks and to calculate the toll amount automatically without any need for stops because of personal log-ons for the intended route.
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Hotel Industry / Catering, grade: B+, César Ritz Colleges (Hotel Management School), 8 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Introduction of Malta Country, Region, Area Set in the clear blue Mediterranean Sea, the Maltese islands are the most southerly European country. It is just an archipelago of islands about halfway between the coasts of Sicily and North Africa. The archipelago consists of five islands: Malta, Gozo and Comino, together with two other uninhabited islands Cominetto and Filfla. The total area is approximately 316 sq kms (Malta 246 sq km, Gozo 67 sq km, Comino 2.7 sq km). The longest distance in Malta from North West to South East is about 27 km, with 14.5 km width in an East - West direction. The Islands are only 90 km south of Sicily and 290 km from the northern coast of Africa. The strategic position of Malta, Gozo and Comino has made these Mediterranean islands a crossroad of history and a bone of contention. The powers of Europe′s past knew it well as a stepping-stone between Europe and North Africa. Involved in Malta′s history are the Stone-Age and Bronze-Age people, Romans and Phoenicians, Arabs, Normans and Carthaginians, Castilians, French and British; from whom Malta became independent in 1964. Napoleon Bonaparte did unutterable damage in an only six-day occupation; and Malta stood firm against Hitler despite massive bombing during World War II, deservedly earning the nation the George Cross medal from King George VI (April 1942) and depicting it on the left hand corner of the flag. Wine Origin and History Malta′s viticulture, like its history, dates back thousands of years. The first Phoenician settlers introduced its cultivation in Malta. Along with improved forms of the vine they introduced their methods of cultivation which along the course of the ages have had slight variations and even today shows signs of its Phoenician origin. Although it is assumed that vines were planted on Malta from the time it was properly settled, the foundations of today′s wine industry were laid by the Knights of St. John when they were ceded Malta by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V of Spain in 1530. The Knights brought with them vine-cuttings from Europe to revitalize whatever vineyards remained after two centuries of Arab domination. In the middle ages owing to the recurrent invasions by the Arabs of Barbary, the spread of malaria, the epidemics of fevers and plague, and the emigration to Sicily and Italy, the population became greatly reduced in numbers, and the cultivation of lands in outlying districts was neglected or abandoned. [...]
Master's Thesis from the year 2014 in the subject Business economics - Miscellaneous, grade: 1,0, University of Applied Sciences Wildau (Wildau Institute of Technology), course: AVIMA 12 - Airport Management, language: English, abstract: The aim of this thesis is to investigate the latest challenges and trends in airport retail using the practical example of Copenhagen Airport. Driven by the steadily increasing cost pressure on European airports, operators need to develop new sources of revenue. The greatest po-tential in generating additional revenue to combine reasonable income with high profitability can be found in the non-aviation sector, particularly in the travel retail segment. The re-search, however, revealed that airport retail is not always a fast-selling item. The market experiences extensive challenges driven by advanced airline retail activities or online sales developments. In order to face the recent challenges, the importance of commercial revenues for airport operators needs to be evaluated firstly. Moreover, characteristics and specialties of travel retail have to be analyzed. Based on that, the thesis explores some of the key factors, such as market trends, economical changes and technical developments, which are leading to an ever-challenging environment for airport retail managers. Finally, the research paper aims at elaborating resulting challenges and future opportunities by providing new ideas and solutions in optimizing airport retail for European airports in general and Copenhagen Airport in particular. To conclude the master’s thesis, a summary is presented reviewing all findings. The overall research results reveal that Copenhagen Airport’s retail philosophy has adapted to the dynamic changes in the airport retail segment. However, there remains significant room for further improvement in order to combat future challenges on the travel retail mar-ket. Furthermore, my results and recommendations can be transferred to the benefit of other airport retail managements as well.
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Instructor Plans: Transportation Professions / Air Transportation / Logistics, grade: 1,0, University of Applied Sciences Wildau (Wildau Institute of Technology), course: Aviation Management 2012, language: English, abstract: Airports all over the world are regional centers of growth. They provide access to the worlds most important markets for the domestic economy. Airports interlink economic regions and are the basis for international business relations. Without any doubt, the Federal Republic of Germany has one of the densest airport network in Europe. Especially in populous areas, multiple international and regional airports are competing for potential passengers. Against the background of converting traditional airfields into multi-faceted facilities and shopping malls with runways, in the last decade airports tout for more than only people willing to leave the city by airplane. They are competing for prospective customers. As a result of these tendencies, the European airline and airport market is facing emerging competition. The question to be asked under this continuous cost pressure is not whether to react or not on the circumstances. Every single airport shall ask how to deal with that rat race and what its competitive advantage is. The competition between the recently renamed Dusseldorf Airport (DUS) and Cologne/Bonn Airport (CGN) is exemplary in this situation and is perfectly illustrating the new competitive situation. Separated by only 50 kilometers air-line distance, it can be assumed that both airports are in a race for supremacy in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region since many years. The key question to be answered in this context is: Do both airports really compete and if, what are the business segments they are struggling for? How can the airports react on present developments and might they even benefit from a kind of cooperation? This paper is trying to give answers on the questions mentioned above. In the first part I am going to describe the local aviation market and current airport concepts of each location. Both airports will be classified in regard to their German and European airport market environment. Describing the traffic development within the last five years and analyzing the recent situation of both companies, I will try to forecast how the airports are going to evolve in the midterm horizon. In a second step I will examine kind and degree of competition between CGN and DUS. Moreover I will discuss whether an airport cooperation might be useful or even other solutions represent a valuable solution to guarantee a financially healthy future for both airports. Finally I am going to develop strategic recommendations for the operators.
Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject Engineering - Aerospace Technology, grade: 1,3, University of Applied Sciences Wildau (Wildau Institute of Technology), course: Aviation Management 2012, language: English, abstract: Indeed, the majority of airlines are faced with the challenge of aging fleets and when it might be optimal to replace older aircraft. Well, any discussion of the wisdom of retaining capital equipment is usually based on economic arguments. In a competitive environment, airlines are continuously obliged to improve their business and equipment to stay profitable. The prediction of future maintenance costs of the own fleet is an integral element of prospective budgeting projections; on the other hand they serve as a vital part within aircraft replacement calculations. For example if the costs of maintaining the existing equipment on a timely basis exceeds the capital, interest, and amortization charges on replacement equipment, the decision to buy a sort of replacement is straightforward. In most cases the substitute equipment even offers an improved productivity as well (Dixon 2006, p. 1). Beside any debate concerning costs and efficiency, flight safety considerations also enter into the discussion especially in the field of aviation. The question to repair or replace is an ongoing decision making process for the maintenance department of every airline operator. Now the key questions to be answered in this context are: Is it possible to describe a standard airplane service life and how does the fleet age of world’s leading airlines look like? How does the process of maintenance develop over an aircraft’s whole life cycle and can necessary costs be estimated? What can be done technically to keep aging effects of aircraft under control and when might be the right time to withdraw an aircraft from service? In order to answer the abundance of questions my term paper is divided into an economic based part including compiled data and statistics and a more technical part. In the beginning, this paper investigates the ordinary economic life of commercial airplanes. Additionally I’m going to inspect exemplary the average fleet age of world’s leading airlines. In the second stage I am going to describe how to estimate maintenance costs of aircraft that grow older. Further I wanted to clarify technical aspects and problems that might occur more frequently with the rising age of an aircraft.
Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject Communications - Media and Politics, Politic Communications, grade: 2,0, University of Applied Sciences Wildau (Wildau Institute of Technology), course: Aviation Management 2012, language: English, abstract: "Living Ideas – Connecting Lives" "We promote cooperative development with the region, assume responsibility for our employees, and create added value for our customers." This is the brand-new motto of the fresh corporate identity program of Flughafen München GmbH (FMG) introduced in January 2014. At the first glance it appears as a nice sounding slogan but there is more behind. It stands as a symbol of the entire Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy at Munich International Airport (MUC). It is CSR which has gained increasing importance in the global corporate environment mainly driven by changing expectations of the society towards the economy. And it is FMG which became a pioneer in CSR commitment and reporting of airports very early. By the end of 2015, MUC intends to be the most sustainable airport of the world. Especially in regard of reporting on CSR the airport operator is already second to none and has ambitious plans in order to satisfy their multi-dimensional stakeholder interfaces in the future. This research paper is going to describe key elements of CSR reporting of airports and FMG in particular. The overall structure of this paper uses the annual "Perspectives 2012" report of FMG and additional company and airport industry related publications. After briefly introducing FMG as a company I will assess the CSR reporting practices of the airport operator in detail. An overview of the CSR reporting quality of FMG is given. Additionally,essential information are identified which shall be included in a publication in order to provide successful CSR reporting. In a second step I will now go into more detail by chronologically assessing the most current CSR report of FMG by highlighting and discussing specific topics. Furthermore I will describe the efforts of FMG to increase the social involvement of own employees by encouraging their interest in voluntary projects. Based on the findings, a conclusion emphasizing the importance of CSR in regard of public perception of FMG as a future-oriented airport operator is given.
Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, grade: 1,3, University of Applied Sciences Wildau (Wildau Institute of Technology), course: Aviation Management 2012, language: English, abstract: For today’s globalized companies, the problem of how to effectively motivate staff is becom-ing more and more vital. During the last decades, a vast number of incentive schemes and bonus plans have been developed by researchers and are applied in daily business. By now organizations have realized to appropriately view employee rewards as a kind of key investment, rather than one of their largest expenses. But why do people put so much effort in researching and ascertaining incentive systems? Companies want to ensure that good and well-trained employees do not leave the company and they are desperately trying to avoid the recruitment of new professionals. To reach these goals companies should use the inter-dependencies of linking rewards, results, and employee motivation, which can be one of the most value-added human capital strategies (Chen/Hsieh 2005, p. 155). In the meantime the process of globalization is accelerating this development. The growing demand for highly skilled employees is intensifying the competition for workers in certain specialized industries and regions. On the other hand companies are expanding to new markets and countries in order to secure future business success. This dynamic has a direct im-pact on the value employers are placing on retaining employees and increasing employee productivity as well. The key questions to be answered in this context are: If an organization moves to multinational areas, do any problems in designing rewards arise due to different cultural under-standings? And if so, what is seen as motivating in specific cultural environments and what can be seen as non-motivating in multinational firms and international joint ventures? In order to answer these questions I will justify the use of rewards and incentives based on a description of frequently used work motivation theories. Additionally I’m going to examine the scientific models for a certain ‘country-compatibility’. In a second step I will go into more depth by defining and differentiating between types of rewards. Furthermore I’m going to put my findings into a global context by introducing a theory which involves the influence of culture or cultural variations on organizational dynamics and employee performance.
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Hotel Industry / Catering, grade: B-, César Ritz Colleges (Hotel Management School), 16 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Introduction Spas are not a very new invention. They go back, like many other things, to the ancient Romans who invented spas. Back then it was not only a place where people took advantage of the healthy mineral water but where they could find some rest, socialize, do business, refresh their bodies as well as their minds. This idea was then lost for several hundred years and came back in the medieval ages, for instance in Carlsbad, Europe, where the famous bath industry began around the year 1300. But unlike the Romans there were only bathing and drinking cures. It was not until 1800 when the first bathing and leisure facilities were built. Only from then on did the old Roman concept of a spa really come back in people`s mind. Today the market, especially in the USA, is huge and the supply of different spa resorts is numerous (it is predicted that the spa industry will double in size every four years) ( Sabene, 2001). Considering this and the increasing number of spas, there is the question: What features in terms of Food, Fitness and Fun must a spa provide in order to stay competitive in the changing resort spa market in the USA? Offers can be almost endless, from beauty and skin care services, massages, body wraps, aquatic and other therapies or additional fitness programs to simple bathing pleasures in differently designed springs of varying temperatures. What is becoming more popular nowadays is the health-conscious eating habits of guests. This can be integrated into programs as for example in Palms Springs, USA, where there are nurses employed who guide the guests individually in terms of nutrition (Madley, 1999). Another example is the Aspen Club & Spa in Aspen, USA, that offers special products with vitamins, herbs and other organic supplements also guided by nurses and even doctors (Madley, 1999). The majority of guests are electing the spa they want to visit according to the services and facilities it offers (Madley, 1999) . So it is obvious that a spa resort that wants to attract and keep guests has to think about its programs to be outstanding. [...]
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Food Technology, grade: B+, César Ritz Colleges (Hotel Management School), 15 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: It is not very clear where the lemon has its origin. Citrus fruits have been cultivated in southern China and Southeast Asia for approximately 4000 years (apparently a lemon-shaped earring was found in the Indus-valley dating back to 2500 BC). Between 400 and 600 BC the lemon (the scientific name of the tree is Citrus lemon) was introduced into the Middle East, one can find old Oriental stories where this fruit is mentioned. It were Arab traders in Asia who brought then around AD100 and 700 citrus fruits into Eastern Africa and the Middle East, after that they planted lemons in the Sahara, Andalusia and Sicily, bringing the lemon to Southern Europe during their occupation of Spain (in Pompeii a mosaic was found showing a lemon, but botanists argue that it became popular first in the Middle Ages probably through crusaders). Christopher Columbus carried the fruit then into the new discovered continent, known as America, where it spread rapidly. Portuguese traders came back to Europe with new varieties from Southeast Asia in the 16th century. 2 centuries later then, citrus fruits had been distributed and known all over the world. In the 1890s physicians discovered that drinking juice of citrus fruits could cure scurvy, a vitamin deficiency disease. Further efforts by scientists resulted in the knowledge that this juice had positive effects because of its high vitamin C content. Furthermore there are other substances present such as vitamin A, vitamin B and some other minerals beneficial for the human body. People used lemons for flavouring foods and drinks, bleaching printings on cotton, production of perfume as well as medicine. Even before that lemons were used, for example the ladies of Louis XIV`s court reddened their lips with lemons or to express wealth. All these new discoveries of the positive effects of lemons made the fruit popular. Today about 25% of the world′s lemon production is raised in the United States, mostly in southern and central California (the earliest lemon-record in America is from 1493 in Haiti when Columbus arrived). [...]
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Business economics - Investment and Finance, grade: 1,0, University of Applied Sciences Wildau (Wildau Institute of Technology), course: Corporate Finance, language: English, abstract: The formation of modern airline alliances has been a key process and prominent tradition in the airline industry since the last three decades. The characteristics of these alliances vary in scopes and extend from branding or franchising of low density feeder or regional routes to the creation of global airline networks conducted by the world’s most powerful carriers. Due to various reasons airliners prefer the amenities of acting co-operative rather than competitive relationships. Overall, it is undeniable that the formation and the rapid growth of alliances has been a central topic of the airline industry. Meanwhile it is scientifically proven that the economical benefits and opportunities for airlines prevail possible threats and disadvantages. This project paper intends to give a detailed description of present alliance landscape and competition connected with chosen statistical data in the beginning. Furthermore the key competitive effects and motivations leading the formation of alliances are described and act as basis for this project paper. This is followed by a concise overview about the mentioned regulations relating to bilateral air service agreements and M&A in aviation industry. Based on that we will describe how the participation in an airline alliance can help to circumvent several constraints imposed by the current regulatory system. Finally the paper is closing with a critical look at the question whether airlines are airline alliances are the really the second best solutions or even sometimes intentionally chosen by the operators.
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Law - Miscellaneous, grade: B-, César Ritz Colleges (Hotel Management School), course: Business Law, 6 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Health and Safety in the working environment The hospitality industry that we focus on is an industry many people are involved in as employers as well as employees, and the work is very widespread, through many different requirements and departments in a hotel for example. Therefore there are lots of threats for the health and safety of people involved such as e.g. slippery floors, sharp or dangerous kitchen equipment or chemicals used for cleaning. In the sector of health and safety both civil law and criminal law are covered, the civil law to compensate losses of people suffering from accidents and the criminal law for creating and keeping certain standards of safety in the working environment through the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 for example (United Kingdom). [...]
Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject Instructor Plans: Transportation Professions / Air Transportation / Logistics, grade: 1,7, University of Applied Sciences Wildau (Wildau Institute of Technology), course: Aviation Management 2012, language: English, abstract: Actually, a country where flying is affordable for only top 8 percent of the population is beneath any notice. But not in the case of the country called China. Recent years have seen a thriving Chinese economic development which has brought a huge demand for aviation business. The aviation market in China is expected to double in size about every eight years. As expansive as the market may seem today, it is still in its infancy. As a result, business aviation, private aviation, emergency, industrial aviation are expected to embrace for substantial growth potential. Today, the Chinese economic miracle has been fuelled in large part by a flood of foreign investment. However, the influence of Chinese government is extremely present and restricting the aspiring industry. Since China has been a socialist country, the leaders in Beijing play a predominant role in nearly every single sectors of Chinese economy. In contrast, government policies have been very supportive of the industry and, unsurprisingly, it has yielded positive results. The aim of this research paper is to analyze present capability and potential of Chinese aviation industry and to identify its future challenges. The key questions to be answered in this context are: What are recent developements of Chinas aviation policies focusing on airline consolidation and how does the domestic airline and manufacture framework look like? Do endemic manufacturers have the ability to become a serious competitor to persist on the global stage and what are current challenges of Chinese Aviation industry? In order to answer these questions I am goiig to examine the evolution of Chinas aviation polices focusing on airline consolidation and the efforts in constructing a global and competitive manufacturer environment. Based on the historical development of Chinese aviation industry I will assess present market conditions and possible perspectives of aviation in China. An overview of the enormous air transport growth including aviation manufacturer expansions is given. In the second step I am going to clarify whether the emerging aviation industry in China has the potential to become a serious global competitor on the manufacturer market. Furthermore I will assess selected current collaboration programmes of the Chinese aviation manufactures in order to answer whether Chinas aviation industry will be able to spread ones wings anytime soon.
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Engineering - Safety Engineering, grade: 1,0, University of Applied Sciences Wildau (Wildau Institute of Technology), course: ATC / ATM, language: English, abstract: In a conventional air transport system, airports and aircraft are highly dependent on each other in providing service for their customers and passengers. Especially advances in the engine and airframe technology forced airports to plan, design, and construct facilities necessary to ensure that they were not left behind in full participation in a high growth industry. Nowadays international airports are progressively faced with huge aircraft with greatly increased wingspans carrying almost 900 people. These new circumstances affect airport layouts eminently. Beside the configuration of cargo and passenger terminals, geometric and structural design of pavements, including taxiways, exists and aprons, number and orientation of runways, the length of the runway is a main factor which has to match the improved parameters. Nevertheless, international airports operate with a wide range of present-day aircraft which have quite different requirements of the runway. At this point it is up to the airport owner to declare distances on the runway which are available for satisfying the takeoff runs and landings of airplanes. It is exactly the mentioned runway which plays a central role in the entire airport facility system. The runway has always been the most crucial point of all maneuvering areas where all takeoff and landing movements take place. It is proven that takeoff and landing phases are the most critical parts of all stages of a flight. They are demanding the highest skills from the crews and placing huge stresses and strains on the aircraft itself. According to the Air Transport Safety Survey, runway excursions are the most common type of accident reported annually both in the European region and elsewhere in the world. 106 excursions with commercial and executive aircraft operations worldwide were recorded in 2012. That means there are at least two runway excursions each week worldwide. ICAO Aircraft Accident Data Reports have shown that aircraft undershooting or overrunning the runway during landing or takeoff suffer significant damage. To minimize such damage, it is considered necessary to provide structural measures or additional areas at and beyond the end of the runway or even surrounding the landing strip. Subsequently, provisions of declared dis-tances and safety areas make an important contribution to preclude potentially hazards to aircraft and to protect passengers and people on the ground in case of an aircraft veers off or overruns the runway.