This book argues that light manufacturing is appropriate for a resource-based country like Zambia. While Zambia's recent growth has been impressive, it has not been accompanied with adequate job creation. Long-term job creation in copper production is very small; links to the rest of the economy tend to be weak as well. Besides, the development of natural resources tends to discourage job-creating sectors such as manufacturing. To be sustainable and to create productive employment for its people, growth needs to be accompanied by structural transformation. Such transformation entails a growing share of manufacturing output in the economy. In the past, Zambia's efforts to promote and facilitate industrial growth have not been very successful. Policy regimes swung from one extreme to another. In the 1980s, Zambia put complete control of the industrial sector in the hands of the state. When this model proved unsuccessful, policy shifted in the opposite direction in the 1990s, and all earlier government interventions were lifted. Neither extreme led to sustained growth of manufacturing. This book suggests an alternative: directing government policies toward removing constraints in a few of the most promising light manufacturing sectors using practical and innovative solutions inspired by the fast-growing Asian economies whose starting point 20 years ago was not very different from Zambia's today. This book has several innovative features. First, it provides in-depth cost comparisons between Zambia and four other countries in Asia and Africa at sector and product levels. Second, the book uses a wide array of quantitative and qualitative techniques to identify key constraints to enterprises and to evaluate differences in the performance of firms across countries. Third, it uses a focused approach to identify country- and industry- specific constraints. It proposes market based measures and selected government intervention to ease these constraints. Fourth, it highlights the interconnectedness of constraints and solutions. For example, solving the manufacturing input problem requires actions in agriculture, education, and infrastructure. The book shows that Zambia has the potential to become regionally competitive in several light manufacturing subsectors by leveraging its comparative advantage in natural resource industries such as agriculture, livestock, and forestry. Interventions include both the provision of public goods and the removal of existing policy distortions in the economy. Growing production of light manufacturing goods would allow Zambia to capture more value from its raw materials and create more jobs.
Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Africa: An Empirical Analysis sheds light on the characteristics of formal and informal manufacturing firms in Africa by comparing these firms with firms in other regions. Drawing on two data sources, the authors find that there is a very low share of manufacturing in GDP in Africa and in African exports. Most African manufacturing firms are informal, perhaps because the enforcement of registration and licensing regulations is not strict. These firms are also smaller than firms in other regions and few export. Labor productivity is low in Africa relative to other regions, but this may be because of the more challenging environment with the lack of physical infrastructure, the heavy burden of business regulation, and other issues. However, after accounting for these differences, the authors find that firms in Sub-Saharan Africa appear more, not less, productive than firms elsewhere. This analysis suggests that improving the business environment might allow firms to enhance their performance. However, given the pervasive distortions in the business environment and the limited resources at the disposal of most African countries, Africa cannot and should not wait until the business environment becomes healthier before growing a more viable manufacturing sector. Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Africa: An Empirical Analysis shows that binding constraints vary by country, by sector, and by firm size. Therefore, countries should identify the constraints in the most promising sectors and adopt policies designed specifically to remove these constraints. The evidence in this book overwhelmingly dispels the false notion of Africa s inability to compete globally in manufacturing goods. This book will be of interest to economists, policy makers, and government officials working to improve manufacturing firm performance in Africa.
Based on a wide array of quantitative and qualitative techniques, Light Manufacturing in Vietnam identifies key constraints on manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam and evaluates differences in firm performance across China and Vietnam. The authors argue that, to continue on the high economic growth path of the past, Vietnam needs to address fundamental structural issues in the manufacturing sector that have been masked by this growth. Furthermore, addressing these issues would also help Vietnam move up the higher value added chain and avoid the middle-income trap that other East Asian economies have experienced.
Light Manufacturing in Tanzania argues that for Tanzania to remain one of the fastest growing economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, it has to make progress in the structural transformation that can lift workers from low-productivity agriculture and the informal sector to higher productivity activities. Manufacturing, which has been the main vehicle throughout the world to achieve this transformation, has remained stunted in Tanzania. Using new evidence, the book shows that feasible, low-cost, sharply focused policy initiatives aimed at enhancing private investment could launch Tanzania on a path to competitive light manufacturing. These initiatives would complement progress on broader investment reforms by increasing the share of industry in regional output and raising the market share of domestically produced goods in rapidly growing local markets for light manufactures. And, as local producers increase their scale, improve quality, and gain experience with technology, management, and marketing, they can take advantage of emerging export opportunities. In Tanzania, as in East Asia, policies that encourage foreign direct investment can speed industrial development and the expansion of exports. The impact of isolated successes can be multiplied. The strategies proposed here can launch a process that would create millions of productive jobs. Light Manufacturing in Tanzania has several innovative features. First, it provides in-depth cost comparisons between Tanzania and four other countries in Asia and Africa at the sector and product levels. Second, the book uses a wide array of quantitative and qualitative techniques to identify key constraints to enterprises and to evaluate differences in the performance of firms across countries. Third, it uses a focused approach to identify country- and industry-specific constraints. Fourth, it highlights the interconnectedness of constraints and solutions. For example, solving the manufacturing input problem requires actions in agriculture, education, and infrastructure. Detailed cross-country analysis was carried out in four subsectors in Tanzania: textiles and apparel, leather products, wood products, and agroprocessing. Based on this analysis, the book suggests directing government policies toward removing constraints in a few of the most promising light manufacturing sectors using practical and innovative solutions inspired by the fast-growing Asian economies the starting point of which 20 years ago was not so different from Tanzania's today. This book will be valuable to African policy makers, professional economists, and anyone interested in economic development, industrialization, and the structural transformation of developing countries. Endorsements: "Economic development should be viewed as a process of persistent structural change, which, if successful, supports constant technological upgrading of production and trade. For developing countries, industrialization was never an end in itself, but the principal means at their disposal to obtain a share of the benefits of technological progress and gradually raise the standard of living of their population. It was, and remains, necessary in order to take advantage of its externalities and dynamic economies of scale. This book builds on that theoretical framework and offers a strong policy rationale for labor-intensive industries in Tanzania. It is also a practical blueprint for employment creation in low-income countries. José Antonio Ocampo, Professor of Economics, Columbia University and Former Colombia Minister of Finance Africa needs to industrialize. Industry including modern services and agro-industry is key to job creation, poverty reduction, and growth. And without jobs no development. This excellent World Bank study demonstrates how Tanzania and other African countries can increase their competitiveness, and help jump-start a set of promising light manufacturing sectors. Rather than adding to an already long and intimidating to do list the authors identify concrete packages of country- and sector-specific policy initiatives, which are both feasible and inexpensive. I strongly recommend this study to everyone who is interested in how one of the biggest hurdles to development in Africa can indeed be overcome. Finn Tarp, Professor of Development Economics, University of Copenhagen, and Director of UNU-WIDER
This paper describes the characteristics of public investment management (PIM) in seven EU countries as it applies to a single sector transport infrastructure. The report highlights some of the common challenges that four relatively new EU member states Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Latvia face as they plan and execute their transport infrastructure projects. It recognizes the importance that EU-mandated processes and procedures have in shaping national systems in the new member states (NMS), but the report finds that actual practices often fall short of EU goals due to capacity constraints, weak institutional structures, and other factors. The experiences of the NMS are compared with those of more developed economies (namely Spain, the UK, and Ireland) to assess whether the later countries have faced similar challenges in managing public investment, and if so, what measures they have adopted to overcome them. This comparative analysis serves to draw out several good practice examples that are relevant for all countries. How those practices are applied in each country is a matter for further study, as each country considers its own political culture and administrative tradition. This paper is a first step toward building dialogue among public finance practitioners in Central and Eastern Europe on how to make public investment projects more effective and efficient over the long term.
Despite widespread agreement among economists that labor-intensive manufacturing has contributed mightily to rapid development in China and other fast-growing economies, most developing countries have had little success in raising the share of manufacturing in production, employment, or exports. Tales from the Development Frontier recounts efforts to establish light manufacturing clusters in several Asian and African countries, looking in particular at China. A companion volume to Light Manufacturing in Africa which laid out a strategy for injecting new industrial growth nodes into African economies Tales from the Development Frontier focuses on the six main binding constraints to competitiveness that nascent light manufacturing industries must overcome in developing countries: the availability, cost, and quality of inputs; access to industrial land; access to finance; trade logistics; entrepreneurial capabilities, both technical and managerial; and worker skills. The volume systematically explores potential growth opportunities in light manufacturing in a carefully selected subset of industries: agribusiness, apparel, leather goods, wood-working, and metal products. It specifies the constraints that need to be addressed before local and international entrepreneurs can take advantage of the latent comparative advantage available to many low-income economies in the target industries. It also proposes policies to ease the constraints policies that can open the door to rapid increases in industrial output, employment, productivity, and exports. The outcomes described in this volume include both inspiring successes and miserable failures in addressing the binding constraints in the identified sectors. These examples reveal how and why industrial development efforts in poor countries where, by definition, underlying conditions are far from ideal can accelerate growth. Most of the firms described in a series of case studies started from a very simple and modest base in an environment full of seemingly insurmountable obstacles. With its rich array of new material, this book will support the ongoing research of policy analysts focused on China and other developing countries. Above all, the volume aims to embolden business entrepreneurs and government officials in low-income countries to pursue newly emerging opportunities to expand and accelerate the growth of light manufacturing in their home economies.
This book examines how light manufacturing can offer a viable solution for Sub-Saharan Africa s need for structural transformation and productive job creation, given its potential competitiveness based on low wage costs and an abundance of natural resources that supply raw materials needed for industries. Based on five different analytical tools and data sources, the book examines in detail the binding constraints in each of the subsectors relevant for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): apparel, leather goods, metal products, agribusiness, and wood products. Ethiopia is used as an example, with Vietnam as a comparator and China as a benchmark, and with insights from Tanzania and Zambia used to draw out lessons more broadly for SSA. The book recommends a program of focused policies to exploit Africa s latent comparative advantage in a particular group of light manufacturing industries especially leather goods, garments, and agricultural processing. These industries hold the prospect of initiating rapid, substantial, and potentially self-propelling waves of rising output, employment, productivity, and exports that can push countries like Ethiopia on a path of structural change of the sort recently achieved in both China and Vietnam. The timing for these initiatives is very appropriate as China s comparative advantage in these areas is diminishing due to steep cost increases associated with rising wages and non-wage labor costs, escalating land prices, and mounting regulatory costs. Five features of this book distinguish it from previous studies. First, the detailed work on light manufacturing at the subsector and product levels in five countries provide in-depth cost comparisons between Asia and Africa that can be used as a framework for future studies. Second, the book uses a wide array of quantitative and qualitative techniques to identify key constraints to enterprises and to evaluate firm performance differences across countries. Third, the findings that firm constraints vary by country, sector, and firm size led to a focused approach to identifying constraints and combining market-based measures and select government intervention to remove them. Fourth, the solution to light manufacturing problems cuts across many sectors: solving the manufacturing inputs problem requires solving specific issues in agriculture, education, and infrastructure. African countries cannot afford to wait until all the problems across sectors are resolved. Fifth, the book draws on experiences and solutions from other developing countries to inform its recommendations. This book will be very valuable to African policy makers, professional economists, and anyone interested in the economic development, industrialization, and structural transformation of developing countries.