This book presents an overview of the technological advances that have occurred since the publication of the Editors earlier book High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: The Physical Basis. In this latest book, contributions from internationally recognized professionals and researchers in the field provide expanded treatment of the practical aspects of the subject. High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: Basic Concepts and Technological Practice provides a modern working manual for this specialized technology that is generic to a wide range of applications. The format makes the text suitable for use as a basis for special topic lecture courses at either the undergraduate or graduate level.Provides the fundamental physical concepts of the subjectFocuses on practical applicationsGives a historical survey of the fieldIncludes a detailed account of system design criteriaReviews theoretical models developed to explain the pinhole phenomenaPresents results of a series of experimental investigations on the subject
In order to be able to reflect the development of today's science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, starting with Volume 20, has moved beyond the basic physics of thin films. It now addresses the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Therefore, in order to reflect the modern technology-oriented problems, the title has been slightly modified from Physics of Thin Films to Thin Films.
This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.
The coverage of the book includes 13 topics relevant to classical mechanics, such as integration of one-dimensional equations of motion; the Hamiltonian equations of motion; and adiabatic invariants.
The book will be of great use to physics students studying classical mechanics.
assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions as well as further supplementary material available free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website.
The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
The overall layout of the book is similar to that of the previous two editions however, there are considerable changes in emphasis and several key additions including:
•up-to-date presentation of modern theories of liquid-vapour coexistence and criticality
•areas of considerable present and future interest such as super-cooled liquids and the glass transition
•the area of liquid metals, which has grown into a mature subject area, now presented as part of the chapter ionic liquids
•Provides cutting-edge research in the principles of liquid-state theory
•Includes frequent comparisons of theoretical predictions with experimental and simulation data
•Suitable for researchers and post-graduates in the field of condensed matter science (Physics, Chemistry, Material Science), biophysics as well as those in the oil industry
The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental data. The subjects dealt with include:
- electronic transport theory based on the test-particle and correlation-function concepts;
- scattering by phonons, impurities, surfaces, magnons, dislocations, electron-electron scattering and electron temperature;
- two-phonon scattering, spin-flip scattering, scattering in degenerate and many-band models.
Gas-Liquid And Liquid-Liquid Separators is divided into six parts: Part one and two covers fundamentals such as: physical properties, phase behaviour and calculations. Part three through five is dedicated to topics such as: separator construction, factors affecting separation, vessel operation, and separator operation considerations. Part six is devoted to the ASME codes governing wall thickness determination of vessel weight fabrication, inspection, alteration and repair of separators500 illustrationsEasy to understand calculations methodsGuide for protecting downstream equipmentHelps reduce the loss of expensive intermediate endsHelps increase product purity
CMOS Processors and Memories is divided into two parts: processors and memories. In the first part we start with high performance, low power processor design, followed by a chapter on multi-core processing. They both represent state-of-the-art concepts in current computing industry. The third chapter deals with asynchronous design that still carries lots of promise for future computing needs. At the end we present a “hardware design space exploration” methodology for implementing and analyzing the hardware for the Bayesian inference framework. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational cost and exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology CMOL. The first part concludes with hybrid CMOS-Nano architectures.
The second, memory part covers state-of-the-art SRAM, DRAM, and flash memories as well as emerging device concepts. Semiconductor memory is a good example of the full custom design that applies various analog and logic circuits to utilize the memory cell’s device physics. Critical physical effects that include tunneling, hot electron injection, charge trapping (Flash memory) are discussed in detail. Emerging memories like FRAM, PRAM and ReRAM that depend on magnetization, electron spin alignment, ferroelectric effect, built-in potential well, quantum effects, and thermal melting are also described.
CMOS Processors and Memories is a must for anyone serious about circuit design for future computing technologies. The book is written by top notch international experts in industry and academia. It can be used in graduate course curriculum.
This book gives a survey of astrophysics at the advanced undergraduate level, providing a physics-centred analysis of a broad range of astronomical systems. It originates from a two-semester course sequence at Rutgers University that is meant to appeal not only to astrophysics students but also more broadly to physics and engineering students. The organisation is driven more by physics than by astronomy; in other words, topics are first developed in physics and then applied to astronomical systems that can be investigated, rather than the other way around.
The first half of the book focuses on gravity. The theme in this part of the book, as well as throughout astrophysics, is using motion to investigate mass. The goal of Chapters 2-11 is to develop a progressively richer understanding of gravity as it applies to objects ranging from planets and moons to galaxies and the universe as a whole. The second half uses other aspects of physics to address one of the big questions. While “Why are we here?” lies beyond the realm of physics, a closely related question is within our reach: “How did we get here?” The goal of Chapters 12-20 is to understand the physics behind the remarkable story of how the Universe, Earth and life were formed. This book assumes familiarity with vector calculus and introductory physics (mechanics, electromagnetism, gas physics and atomic physics); however, all of the physics topics are reviewed as they come up (and vital aspects of vector calculus are reviewed in the Appendix).
Designed for those new to FTIR, but with enough reference material to appeal to journeyman and expert spectroscopists, this book does not demand any extensive familiarity with chemistry or physics. Specializing in concise and comprehensible explanations of FTIR topics, the author introduces the field of infrared spectroscopy, including the strengths and weaknesses of FTIR as a chemical analysis technique. He then describes the instrument itself and explores topics such as how an interferometer generates a spectrum, optimization of spectral quality, and which tests are used to monitor instrument health.
The book discusses how to properly use spectral processing to increase the information of a spectrum without damaging the data and takes considerable care in instructing on sample preparation, as good sample preparation constitutes half the battle in extracting good data. The final chapters examine single analyte quantitative analysis and conclude with an overview of infrared microscopy.
Drawing on the experience and knowledge of the author as both a professor and practitioner, Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy offers up-to-date information given in clear, easily understood language to appeal to beginner and expert spectroscopists alike. The author maintains a website and blog with supplemental material. His training course schedule is also available online.
A key objective of these volumes, which present a vector treatment of the principles of mechanics, is to help the student gain confidence in transforming problems into appropriate mathematical language that may be manipulated to give useful physical conclusions or specific numerical results. In the first volume, the elements of vector calculus and the matrix algebra are reviewed in appendices. Unusual mathematical topics, such as singularity functions and some elements of tensor analysis, are introduced within the text. A logical and systematic building of well-known kinematic concepts, theorems, and formulas, illustrated by examples and problems, is presented offering insights into both fundamentals and applications. Problems amplify the material and pave the way for advanced study of topics in mechanical design analysis, advanced kinematics of mechanisms and analytical dynamics, mechanical vibrations and controls, and continuum mechanics of solids and fluids.
Volume I of Principles of Engineering Mechanics provides the basis for a stimulating and rewarding one-term course for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students specializing in mechanics, engineering science, engineering physics, applied mathematics, materials science, and mechanical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Professionals working in related fields of applied mathematics will find it a practical review and a quick reference for questions involving basic kinematics.
Divided into five chapters, the book starts by giving an introduction to the discovery of active nitrogen, the energy content, and the methods by which this may be produced. The succeeding part deals with light emissions from active nitrogen system. This discussion includes molecular spectrum of nitrogen, emission from atomic energy and condensed active nitrogen, emission from molecular species with electronic energy levels below and above 9.76 eV, and light-emitting systems of active nitrogen.
The next part focuses on theories on active nitrogen. The theories discussed are long-lived Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow and short-lived, energetic afterglows. Numerical representations are provided to test the validity of the theories. Lastly, the discussions end with chemical reactions of active nitrogen. Topics contained in this part are text on recombination of N(4S) atoms; rate constants for reactions presumably induced by direct N(4S) attack; reactions caused by excited nitrogen molecular attack; and mechanism for reactions of active nitrogen that seem to influence direct N(4S) attack.
The book is a valuable source of information for readers interested in the research on active nitrogen.
Since the publication of the highly successful first edition ofBasic Gas Chromatography, the practice of chromatography hasundergone several notable developments. Basic GasChromatography, Second Edition covers the latest in the field,giving readers the most up-to-date guide available, whilemaintaining the first edition's practical, applied approach to thesubject and its accessibility to a wide range of readers.
The text provides comprehensive coverage of basic topics in thefield, such as stationary phases, packed columns and inlets,capillary columns and inlets, detectors, and qualitative andquantitative analysis. At the same time, the coverage also featureskey additions and updated topics including:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)Sampling methodsMultidimensional gas chromatographyFast gas chromatographyGas chromatography analysis of nonvolatile compoundsInverse gas chromatography and pyrolysis gaschromatography
Along with these new and updated topics, the references,resources, and Web sites in Basic Gas Chromatography have beenrevised to reflect the state of the field. Concise and fundamentalin its coverage, Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Editionremains the standard handbook for everyone from undergraduatesstudying analytical chemistry to working industrial chemists.
Mathematical methods are provided as design tools, and are often simplified via curve-fitting techniques that are particularly usable by handheld calculators. Useful equations and numerically solved examples, using situations encountered in practice, are supplied. Above all, this volume is a comprehensive and useful reference where the reader can find design rules and principles of high frequency applicators and probes for material processing and sensing applications. Electronic and electrical R&D engineers, physicists, university professors and students will all find this book a valuable reference.
Mehrdad Mehdizadeh is with the DuPont Company, Engineering Research & Technology Division in Wilmington, Delaware. His areas of expertise include high frequency hardware and electromagnetic methods of processing, sensing, and characterization of materials. His work and innovation in industrial, scientific, and medical applications of radio frequency and microwaves has resulted in 19 US patents and a number of publications. He earned his Ph.D. and M.S. from Marquette University (1983, 1980), and a B.S. from Sharif University of Technology (1977), all in electrical engineering. Dr. Mehdizadeh is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE ), Sigma Xi (Scientific Research Society), the International Microwave Power Institute (IMPI ), and a voting member of IEEE Standard Association.• Books in this area are usually theoretical; this book provides practical information for those who actually intend to design a system
• Features real world and numerically solved examples, and curve-fitted simple equations to replace complex equations provided in typical texts
• Author is a voting member of IEEE Standards Association
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
* Includes a solid introduction to the simulation of equilibrium processes and the simulation of complex kinetic processes.
* Provides examples of routines that are easily adapted to the processes investigated by the reader
* 'Model-based' analysis (linear and non-linear regression) and 'model-free' analysis are covered
The Essentials For Dummies Series
Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials ForDummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing tostudy new material, or who just need a refresher can have aconcise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entirecourse by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. Fromalgebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authorsfocus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.
This book is an easy-to-use compendium of problems encountered when using various commonly used analytical techniques. Emphasis is on impurities, by-products, contaminants and other artifacts. A separate entry is provided for each artifact. For specific chemicals, this entry provides the common name, mass spectrum, gas chromatographic data, CAS name and registry number, synonyms and a narrative discussion. More than 1100 entries are included. Mass spectral data are indexed in a 6-peak index (molecular ion, base peak, second peak, third peak) and there are also formula, author and subject indexes. An extensive bibliography contains complete literature citations.
The book is designed to be used. It will not only allow experienced analysts to profit from the mistakes of others, but it will also be invaluable to other scientists who use analytical instruments in their work.
Searching for the best laboratory instruments and systems can bea daunting and expensive task. A poorly selected instrument candramatically affect results produced and indirectly affect researchpapers, the quality of student training, and an investigator'schances for advancement. Buying and Selling LaboratoryInstruments offers the valuable insights of an analyticalchemist and consultant with over four decades of experience inlocating instruments based upon both need and price. It helps alldecision makers find the best equipment, service, and support whileavoiding the brand-loyalty bias of sales representatives so you canfully meet your laboratory's requirements.
The first section of the book guides buyers through the hurdlesof funding, purchasing, and acquiring best-fit instruments at theleast-expensive price. It explains how to find vendors that supporttheir customers with both knowledgeable service and applicationsupport. Also offered is guidance on adapting your existinginstruments to new applications, integrating new equipment, andwhat to do with instruments that can no longer serve in researchmode.
The second section explains the sales process in detail. This isprovided both as a warning against manipulative sales reps and as aguide to making the sale a win-win process for you and your vendor.It also shows you how to select a knowledgeable technical guru tohelp determine the exact system configuration you need and where tofind the best price for it. Added bonuses are summary figures ofbuying sequence and sales tools and an appendix containingfrequently asked questions and memory aids.
Buying and Selling Laboratory Instruments is for peopledirectly involved in selecting and buying instruments foroperational laboratories, from the principle investigator to theperson actually delegated with investigating and selecting thesystem to be acquired. Sales representatives; laboratory managers;universities; pharmaceutical, biotech, and forensic research firms;corporate laboratories; graduate and postdoctoral students; andprinciple investigators will not want to be without thisindispensible guide.
Designed to be completed in one semester, this text enablesstudents to fully grasp and apply the core concepts of analyticalchemistry and aqueous chemical equilibria. Moreover, the textenables readers to master common instrumental methods to perform abroad range of quantitative analyses. Author Brian Tissue haswritten and structured the text so that readers progressively buildtheir knowledge, beginning with the most fundamental concepts andthen continually applying these concepts as they advance to moresophisticated theories and applications.
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria isclearly written and easy to follow, with plenty of examples to helpreaders better understand both concepts and applications. Inaddition, there are several pedagogical features that enhance thelearning experience, including:Emphasis on correct IUPAC terminology"You-Try-It" spreadsheets throughout the text, challengingreaders to apply their newfound knowledge and skillsOnline tutorials to build readers' skills and assist them inworking with the text's spreadsheetsLinks to analytical methods and instrument suppliersFigures illustrating principles of analytical chemistry andchemical equilibriaEnd-of-chapter exercises
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria iswritten for undergraduate students who have completed a basiccourse in general chemistry. In addition to chemistry students,this text provides an essential foundation in analytical chemistryneeded by students and practitioners in biochemistry, environmentalscience, chemical engineering, materials science, nutrition,agriculture, and the life sciences.
This book guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use telescopes (from small amateur models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and to observe objects in the sky. Mathematics to around Advanced Placement standard (US) or A level (UK) is assumed, although High School Diploma (US) or GCSE-level (UK) mathematics plus some basic trigonometry will suffice most of the time. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires no prior knowledge or experience.
This is a ‘how to’ book that provides the knowledge and background required to understand how and why telescopes work. Equipped with the techniques discussed in this book, the observer will be able to operate with confidence his or her telescope and to optimize its performance for a particular purpose. In principle the observer could calculate his or her own predictions of planetary positions (ephemerides), but more realistically the observer will be able to understand the published data lists properly instead of just treating them as ‘recipes.’ When the observer has obtained measurements, he/she will be able to analyze them in a scientific manner and to understand the significance and meaning of the results.
“Telescopes and Techniques, 3rd Edition” fills a niche at the start of an undergraduate astronomer’s university studies, as shown by it having been widely adopted as a set textbook. This third edition is now needed to update its material with the many new observing developments and study areas that have come into prominence since it was published. The book concentrates on the knowledge needed to understand how small(ish) optical telescopes function, their main designs and how to set them up, plus introducing the reader to the many ways in which objects in the sky change their positions and how they may be observed. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the most advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable the reader to see some of the developments possible from the basic observing techniques covered in the main parts of the book.
Volume I focuses on physics and mechanics of micro- and opto-electronic structures and systems, i.e., on the science underpinnings of engineering methods and approaches used in microelectronics and photonics. Volume II deals with various practical aspects of reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic systems. Internationally recognized experts and world leaders in particular areas of this branch of applied science and engineering contributed to the book.
Why This Title
This title is written in a clear and logical manner that is accessible to environmental professionals of all disciplines. It contains hundreds of practical tips on planning, sampling, and interactions with analytical laboratories. Having this text as a desk reference will greatly improve skills in planning and sampling, and elevate understanding of chemical data to a new level.
This topic is of importance to a wide range of environmental professionals from a variety of disciplines (see audience). Written by a practicing professional for practicing professionals, this handbook provides everything an environmental professional needs to know to competently collect environmental chemical data.
The fun and easy way to get down to business with statistics
Stymied by statistics? No fear? this friendly guide offers clear, practical explanations of statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, with lots of examples that show you how these concepts apply to your everyday life.
Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more.Tracks to a typical first semester statistics courseUpdated examples resonate with today's studentsExplanations mirror teaching methods and classroom protocol
Packed with practical advice and real-world problems, Statistics For Dummies gives you everything you need to analyze and interpret data for improved classroom or on-the-job performance.
Two of the authors co-wrote The Elements of Statistical Learning (Hastie, Tibshirani and Friedman, 2nd edition 2009), a popular reference book for statistics and machine learning researchers. An Introduction to Statistical Learning covers many of the same topics, but at a level accessible to a much broader audience. This book is targeted at statisticians and non-statisticians alike who wish to use cutting-edge statistical learning techniques to analyze their data. The text assumes only a previous course in linear regression and no knowledge of matrix algebra.
Vector methods are developed in the first two chapters and are used throughout the book. Other chapters cover the fundamentals of Newtonian mechanics, the special theory of relativity, gravitational attraction and potentials, oscillatory motion, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, central-force motion, two-particle collisions, and the wave equation.
One is heuristic and nonrigorous, and attempts to develop in students an intuitive feel for the subject that enables him or her to think probabilistically. The other approach attempts a rigorous development of probability by using the tools of measure theory. The first approach is employed in this text.
The book begins by introducing basic concepts of probability theory, such as the random variable, conditional probability, and conditional expectation. This is followed by discussions of stochastic processes, including Markov chains and Poison processes. The remaining chapters cover queuing, reliability theory, Brownian motion, and simulation. Many examples are worked out throughout the text, along with exercises to be solved by students.
This book will be particularly useful to those interested in learning how probability theory can be applied to the study of phenomena in fields such as engineering, computer science, management science, the physical and social sciences, and operations research. Ideally, this text would be used in a one-year course in probability models, or a one-semester course in introductory probability theory or a course in elementary stochastic processes.
New to this Edition:
65% new chapter material including coverage of finite capacity queues, insurance risk models and Markov chainsContains compulsory material for new Exam 3 of the Society of Actuaries containing several sections in the new examsUpdated data, and a list of commonly used notations and equations, a robust ancillary package, including a ISM, SSM, and test bankIncludes SPSS PASW Modeler and SAS JMP software packages which are widely used in the field
Superior writing styleExcellent exercises and examples covering the wide breadth of coverage of probability topics Real-world applications in engineering, science, business and economics
The second edition differs substantially from the first edition,with over 30% new material, including:A new chapter on non-crystalline diffraction - designed toappeal to the large community who study the structure of liquids,glasses, and most importantly polymers and bio-moleculesA new chapter on x-ray imaging - developed in close cooperationwith many of the leading experts in the fieldTwo new chapters covering non-crystalline diffraction andimagingMany important changes to various sections in the book havebeen made with a view to improving the expositionFour-colour representation throughout the text to clarify keyconceptsExtensive problems after each chapter
There is also supplementary book material for this titleavailable online (ahref="http://booksupport.wiley.com/"http://booksupport.wiley.com/a).
Praise for the previous edition:
“The publication of Jens Als-Nielsen and DesMcMorrow’s Elements of Modern X-ray Physics is adefining moment in the field of synchrotron radiation… awelcome addition to the bookshelves of synchrotron–radiationprofessionals and students alike.... The text is now my personalchoice for teaching x-ray physics…” – PhysicsToday, 2002
The author begins with basic characteristics of financial timeseries data before covering three main topics:Analysis and application of univariate financial timeseriesThe return series of multiple assetsBayesian inference in finance methods
Key features of the new edition include additional coverage ofmodern day topics such as arbitrage, pair trading, realizedvolatility, and credit risk modeling; a smooth transition fromS-Plus to R; and expanded empirical financial data sets.
The overall objective of the book is to provide some knowledgeof financial time series, introduce some statistical tools usefulfor analyzing these series and gain experience in financialapplications of various econometric methods.