Informed by the latest research and combining cutting-edge insights from psychology, economics, neuroscience, and medicine, The Willpower Instinct explains exactly what willpower is, how it works, and why it matters. For example, readers will learn:
Willpower is a mind-body response, not a virtue. It is a biological function that can be improved through mindfulness, exercise, nutrition, and sleep.Willpower is not an unlimited resource. Too much self-control can actually be bad for your health.Temptation and stress hijack the brain's systems of self-control, but the brain can be trained for greater willpowerGuilt and shame over your setbacks lead to giving in again, but self-forgiveness and self-compassion boost self-control.Giving up control is sometimes the only way to gain self-control.Willpower failures are contagious—you can catch the desire to overspend or overeat from your friends—but you can also catch self-control from the right role models.In the groundbreaking tradition of Getting Things Done, The Willpower Instinct combines life-changing prescriptive advice and complementary exercises to help readers with goals ranging from losing weight to more patient parenting, less procrastination, better health, and greater productivity at work.
The Power of Your Subconscious Mind, one of the most beloved and bestselling inspirational guides of all time, shows how changing your thought patterns can produce dramatic improvements in your life. Using practical, easy-to-understand techniques and real-world case studies, Dr. Joseph Murphy reveals the vast influences of the subconscious mind on all aspects of existence-money, relationships, jobs, happiness-and how you can apply and direct its power to achieve your goals and dreams.
A life-changing classic since its initial publication in 1963, The Power of Your Subconscious Mind has opened millions of readers to the unseen force within them. Now, the fully intact, original text is redesigned and repackaged in this affordable, handsome volume-which also features one of Murphy's most irresistible works, How to Attract Money. This is the flagship edition of a self-help landmark.
An instant bestseller that is poised to become a classic, Moonwalking with Einstein recounts Joshua Foer's yearlong quest to improve his memory under the tutelage of top "mental athletes." He draws on cutting-edge research, a surprising cultural history of remembering, and venerable tricks of the mentalist's trade to transform our understanding of human memory. From the United States Memory Championship to deep within the author's own mind, this is an electrifying work of journalism that reminds us that, in every way that matters, we are the sum of our memories.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Even the smartest among us can feel inept as we fail to figure out which light switch or oven burner to turn on, or whether to push, pull, or slide a door. The fault, argues this ingenious-even liberating-book, lies not in ourselves, but in product design that ignores the needs of users and the principles of cognitive psychology. The problems range from ambiguous and hidden controls to arbitrary relationships between controls and functions, coupled with a lack of feedback or other assistance and unreasonable demands on memorization.
The Design of Everyday Things shows that good, usable design is possible. The rules are simple: make things visible, exploit natural relationships that couple function and control, and make intelligent use of constraints. The goal: guide the user effortlessly to the right action on the right control at the right time.
The Design of Everyday Things is a powerful primer on how--and why--some products satisfy customers while others only frustrate them.
Do you make goals, yet get discouraged when your plans don’t work? We all know that person who seemingly was born to succeed. Fitness, health, business, they achieve all their goals. You want that success, and know you can get it... but how?
Everywhere you turn, there are obstacles that block your path. Being successful doesn’t mean avoiding them, it means meeting those obstacles head-on and pushing through. You need the self-discipline and willpower to see you through to the end. You need the tools that will enable you to have that self-discipline and willpower. Daily Self-Discipline has those tools.
Inside, you’ll learn methods to:
- develop powerful self-discipline by building a fit body and mind,
- thrive in face of adversity, cravings, temptations and discomfort and feel good about it,
- develop key self-awareness skills to push yourself through to your goal,
- gain a clear vision of how self-discipline works that will inspire you to carry on no matter what,
- keep pushing when nothing seems to work and you’re on the verge of giving up.
Each page of this book is designed to help you build the self-discipline that leads to the resiliency and mental strength you need on a daily basis. Simple everyday exercises and habit-forming practices will teach you the skills you need to overcome obstacles and have confidence in yourself and your path to success.
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Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is a national health crisis that continues to grow—yet it remains one of the most misunderstood and incorrectly treated illnesses today. Neuropsychiatrist Daniel G. Amen, MD was one of the first to identify that there are multiple types beyond just purely hyperactive or inattentive ADD, each requiring a different treatment. Now, in this all-new, revised edition, Dr. Amen again employs the latest medical advances in the field, including the largest brain imaging study ever completed on patients with ADD, to identify, examine, and demystify the 7 distinct types of ADD and their specific treatments.
With updated recommendations for nutraceuticals and/or medications targeted to brain type, diet, exercise, lifestyle interventions, cognitive reprogramming, parenting and educational strategies, neurofeedback, and more, Dr. Amen’s revolutionary approach provides a treatment program that can lead sufferers of ADD to a normal, peaceful, and fully functional life.
Sufferers from ADD often say, “The harder I try, the worse it gets.” Dr. Amen tells them, for the first time, why, and more importantly how to heal ADD.
Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's famous investigations of "optimal experience" have revealed that what makes an experience genuinely satisfying is a state of consciousness called flow. During flow, people typically experience deep enjoyment, creativity, and a total involvement with life. In this new edition of his groundbreaking classic work, Csikszentmihalyi ("the leading researcher into ‘flow states’" —Newsweek) demonstrates the ways this positive state can be controlled, not just left to chance. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience teaches how, by ordering the information that enters our consciousness, we can discover true happiness and greatly improve the quality of our lives.
"Explores a happy state of mind called flow, the feeling of complete engagement in a creative or playful activity." —Time
Why do some products capture widespread attention while others flop? What makes us engage with certain products out of sheer habit? Is there a pattern underlying how technologies hook us?
Nir Eyal answers these questions (and many more) by explaining the Hook Model—a four-step process embedded into the products of many successful companies to subtly encourage customer behavior. Through consecutive “hook cycles,” these products reach their ultimate goal of bringing users back again and again without depending on costly advertising or aggressive messaging.
Hooked is based on Eyal’s years of research, consulting, and practical experience. He wrote the book he wished had been available to him as a start-up founder—not abstract theory, but a how-to guide for building better products. Hooked is written for product managers, designers, marketers, start-up founders, and anyone who seeks to understand how products influence our behavior.
Eyal provides readers with:
• Practical insights to create user habits that stick.
• Actionable steps for building products people love.
• Fascinating examples from the iPhone to Twitter, Pinterest to the Bible App, and many other habit-forming products.
If you want to make positive changes in your life and achieve your long-term goals, I can’t think of a better way to do it than to learn how to become more self-disciplined.
Science has figured out a lot of interesting aspects of self-discipline and willpower, but most of this knowledge is buried deep inside long and boring scientific papers.
If you’d like to benefit from these studies without actually reading them, this book is for you. I’ve done the job for you and researched the most useful and viable scientific findings that will help you improve your self-discipline.
Here are just a couple things you will learn from the book:
- what a bank robber with lemon juice on his face can teach you about self-control. The story will make you laugh out loud, but its implications will make you think twice about your ability to control your urges.
- how $50 chocolate bars can motivate you to keep going when faced with an overwhelming temptation to give in.
- why President Obama wears only gray and blue suits and what it has to do with self-control (it’s also a possible reason why the poor stay poor).
- why the popular way of visualization can actually prevent you from reaching your goals and destroy your self-control (and what to do instead).
- what dopamine is and why it’s crucial to understand its role to break your bad habits and form good ones.
- 5 practical ways to train your self-discipline. Discover some of the most important techniques to increase your self-control and become better at resisting instant gratification.
- why the status quo bias will threaten your goals and what to do to reduce its effect on your resolutions.
- why extreme diets help people achieve long-term results, and how to apply these findings in your own life.
- why and when indulging yourself can actually help you build your self-discipline. Yes, you can stuff yourself (from time to time) and still lose weight.
Instead of sharing with you the detailed "why" (with confusing and boring descriptions of studies), I will share with you the "how" – advice that will change your life if you decide to follow it.
You too can master the art of self-discipline and learn how to resist temptations. Your long term goals are worth it. Scroll up and buy the book now.
As a gift for buying my book, you'll get my another book, "Grit: How to Keep Going When You Want to Give Up."
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USA Today Best Seller
Amazon Best Book of the Year
The counterintuitive approach to achieving your true potential, heralded by the Harvard Business Review as a groundbreaking idea of the year.
The path to personal and professional fulfillment is rarely straight. Ask anyone who has achieved his or her biggest goals or whose relationships thrive and you’ll hear stories of many unexpected detours along the way. What separates those who master these challenges and those who get derailed? The answer is agility—emotional agility.
Emotional agility is a revolutionary, science-based approach that allows us to navigate life’s twists and turns with self-acceptance, clear-sightedness, and an open mind. Renowned psychologist Susan David developed this concept after studying emotions, happiness, and achievement for more than twenty years. She found that no matter how intelligent or creative people are, or what type of personality they have, it is how they navigate their inner world—their thoughts, feelings, and self-talk—that ultimately determines how successful they will become.
The way we respond to these internal experiences drives our actions, careers, relationships, happiness, health—everything that matters in our lives. As humans, we are all prone to common hooks—things like self-doubt, shame, sadness, fear, or anger—that can too easily steer us in the wrong direction. Emotionally agile people are not immune to stresses and setbacks. The key difference is that they know how to adapt, aligning their actions with their values and making small but powerful changes that lead to a lifetime of growth. Emotional agility is not about ignoring difficult emotions and thoughts; it’s about holding them loosely, facing them courageously and compassionately, and then moving past them to bring the best of yourself forward.
Drawing on her deep research, decades of international consulting, and her own experience overcoming adversity after losing her father at a young age, David shows how anyone can thrive in an uncertain world by becoming more emotionally agile. To guide us, she shares four key concepts that allow us to acknowledge uncomfortable experiences while simultaneously detaching from them, thereby allowing us to embrace our core values and adjust our actions so they can move us where we truly want to go.
Written with authority, wit, and empathy, Emotional Agility serves as a road map for real behavioral change—a new way of acting that will help you reach your full potential, whoever you are and whatever you face.
To quell anxiety and panic:
Use simple breathing techniques to immediately calm inner turmoil
To fight depression:
Learn how to kill ANTs (automatic negative thoughts)
To curb anger:
Follow the Amen anti-anger diet and learn the nutrients that calm rage
To conquer impulsiveness and learn to focus:
Develop total focus with the One-Page Miracle
To stop obsessive worrying:
Follow the "get unstuck" writing exercise and learn other problem-solving exercises
You'll see scientific evidence that your anxiety, depression, anger, obsessiveness, or impulsiveness could be related to how specific structures in your brain work.
You're not stuck with the brain you're born with.
No fictional character is more renowned for his powers of thought and observation than Sherlock Holmes. But is his extraordinary intellect merely a gift of fiction, or can we learn to cultivate these abilities ourselves, to improve our lives at work and at home?
We can, says psychologist and journalist Maria Konnikova, and in Mastermind she shows us how. Beginning with the “brain attic”—Holmes’s metaphor for how we store information and organize knowledge—Konnikova unpacks the mental strategies that lead to clearer thinking and deeper insights. Drawing on twenty-first-century neuroscience and psychology, Mastermind explores Holmes’s unique methods of ever-present mindfulness, astute observation, and logical deduction. In doing so, it shows how each of us, with some self-awareness and a little practice, can employ these same methods to sharpen our perceptions, solve difficult problems, and enhance our creative powers. For Holmes aficionados and casual readers alike, Konnikova reveals how the world’s most keen-eyed detective can serve as an unparalleled guide to upgrading the mind.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Have you ever wondered what separates people who think bigger from people who set their bar low? What makes one person accept low standards and another person to constantly raise them?
Why does one person strive to build an international organization affecting the lives of millions of people, while another person is content working her entire life as a clerk? (Not that there’s anything wrong with being a clerk!)
Why is one person challenging herself to run marathons, train her body and get fitter, while another is happy living a sedentary, unhealthy lifestyle?
What drives a person who’s optimizing every single aspect of her life and what causes another person to maintain the status quo?
You can say, “Well, the answer is simple enough – one person is ambitious, while the other one is not.” But what exactly causes it? And most importantly – how do you become more ambitious and think bigger? Is it something you’re born with and can’t change, or is it something over which you have control?
I found this topic so fascinating I decided to find out the answer for myself and write a book about it. This book is the result of my research about people who think big and the science of being more ambitious.
Here are just some of the things you will learn from the book:
- What key things you need to inspire yourself to think bigger, and more importantly, achieve your big goals.
- Why you need a “why,” and what kind of motivators will set you up for success (hint: attaining money or status are some of the least motivating goals possible).
- The single most important thing to thinking bigger. If you don’t have it in your life, you will sabotage your efforts – guaranteed.
- What the chimp is and why you need to learn how to control it to get yourself motivated and work on your big goals. You can be making things hard for yourself without being aware of it.
- How to cultivate the art of strategic laziness to achieve more while doing much less than other people (why work so hard if you can get better results by being lazy?).
- The seven most important triggers of flow – a state of perfect focus where the magic happens.
- The secret of achieving the impossible is not really such a secret, but most people tend to forget about it and get overwhelmed by their goals.
I wrote this book to increase my motivation, teach myself how to think bigger and learn how to raise my standards. I hope the answer I found will help you as much as it has helped me.
You can also learn how to find motivation to become the best version of you. Scroll up and buy the book now.
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Acclaimed sports psychologist Bob Rotella has advised everyone from professional golfers to NBA superstars to business executives on how to flourish under pressure and overcome challenges. Now, for the first time, he’s distilled his decades of in-depth research and practical experience into a potential-unlocking guide for everyone.
This exciting book is not a collection of Rotella’s theories; it consists of performance principles that have proven themselves in countless competitive situations, in arenas from which only the strongest minds emerge triumphant. It’s a book full of insights that you can learn and use the next morning—in the office, the classroom, or wherever your quest takes you—told not in abstractions, but through case studies and stories drawn from Rotella’s years teaching sports psychology, counseling athletes, and consulting for Fortune 500 companies. It explores how to keep the mind from holding you back, whatever your physical gifts or other talents. It’s about how to make a commitment, how to persevere, how to deal with failure—and how to train your mind to create a self-image that promotes confidence and accomplishment.
Any successful life starts with how you see yourself. And with these pearls of wisdom from the nation’s preeminent sports psychologist, you can learn to achieve the success of your dreams.
Dr. Bob Rotella is one of the hottest performance consultants in America today. Among his many professional clients are Nick Price (last year's Player of the Year), Tom Kite, Davis Love III, Pat Bradley, Brad Faxon, John Daly, and many others. Rotella, or “Doc,” as most players refer to him, goes beyond just the usual mental aspects of the game and the reliance on specific techniques. What Rotella does here in this extraordinary book, and with his clients, is to create an attitude and a mindset about all aspects of a golfer's game, from mental preparation to competition. The most wonderful aspect of it all is that it is done in a conversational fashion, in a dynamic blend of anecdote and lesson. And, as some of the world's greatest golfers will attest, the results are spectacular. Golfers will improve their golf game and have more fun playing. Some of Rotella's maxims include:
-On the first tee, a golfer must expect only two things of himself: to have fun, and to focus his mind properly on every shot.
-Golfers must learn to love 'the challenge when they hit a ball into the rough, trees, or sand. The alternatives—anger, fear, whining, and cheating—do no good.
-Confidence is crucial to good golf. Confidence is simply the aggregate of the thoughts you have about yourself.
-It is more important to be decisive than to be correct when preparing to play any golf shot or putt.
Filled with delightful and insightful stories about golf and the golfers Rotella works with, Golf Is Not a Game of Perfect will improve the game of even the most casual weekend player.
In 2009, internationally renowned game designer Jane McGonigal suffered a severe concussion. Unable to think clearly or work or even get out of bed, she became anxious and depressed, even suicidal. But rather than let herself sink further, she decided to get better by doing what she does best: she turned her recovery process into a resilience-building game. What started as a simple motivational exercise quickly became a set of rules for “post-traumatic growth” that she shared on her blog. These rules led to a digital game and a major research study with the National Institutes of Health. Today nearly half a million people have played SuperBetter to get stronger, happier, and healthier.
But the life-changing ideas behind SuperBetter are much bigger than just one game. In this book, McGonigal reveals a decade’s worth of scientific research into the ways all games—including videogames, sports, and puzzles—change how we respond to stress, challenge, and pain. She explains how we can cultivate new powers of recovery and resilience in everyday life simply by adopting a more “gameful” mind-set. Being gameful means bringing the same psychological strengths we naturally display when we play games—such as optimism, creativity, courage, and determination—to real-world goals.
Drawing on hundreds of studies, McGonigal shows that getting superbetter is as simple as tapping into the three core psychological strengths that games help you build:• Your ability to control your attention, and therefore your thoughts and feelings
• Your power to turn anyone into a potential ally, and to strengthen your existing relationships
• Your natural capacity to motivate yourself and super-charge your heroic qualities, like willpower, compassion, and determination
SuperBetter contains nearly 100 playful challenges anyone can undertake in order to build these gameful strengths. It includes stories and data from people who have used the SuperBetter method to get stronger in the face of illness, injury, and other major setbacks, as well as to achieve goals like losing weight, running a marathon, and finding a new job.
As inspiring as it is down to earth, and grounded in rigorous research, SuperBetter is a proven game plan for a better life. You’ll never say that something is “just a game” again.
From the Hardcover edition.
Looking both east and west, in bulletins from the past and from far afield, Oliver Burkeman introduces us to an unusual group of people who share a single, surprising way of thinking about life. Whether experimental psychologists, terrorism experts, Buddhists, hardheaded business consultants, Greek philosophers, or modern-day gurus, they argue that in our personal lives, and in society at large, it's our constant effort to be happy that is making us miserable. And that there is an alternative path to happiness and success that involves embracing failure, pessimism, insecurity, and uncertainty—the very things we spend our lives trying to avoid. Thought-provoking, counterintuitive, and ultimately uplifting, The Antidote is the intelligent person's guide to understanding the much-misunderstood idea of happiness.
If you browse through the interviews with some of the most successful people on Earth, you’ll find one common piece of advice shared by virtually all of them:
They never give up on their big goals.
Research shows that grit is a better predictor for success than any other factor. The ability to keep going despite setbacks is more important than your IQ, character or other external factors like your upbringing or surroundings.
But what does it really mean to “never give up”? What exactly is grit? How do you persevere when faced with larger than life difficulties? How do you keep going when you’re at the brink of exhaustion and all your hard work hasn’t been rewarded yet?
I wrote this book to explore the subject of persistence from a more scientific point of view than cliché self-help sayings. I want to share with you how exactly to stick to your goals according to peak performers and science – not vague motivational advice that assumes we have unlimited strength once we’re motivated enough.
Here are just a couple of things you will learn from the book:
- A crucial piece of advice you can learn from the first people who reached the South Pole. If you make the wrong choice, you’ll burn out – guaranteed.
- What famous American comic Jerry Seinfeld did in his early days of career to keep going. It’s a simple trick that provides huge results.
- What a study on top musicians, athletes, actors and chess players can teach you about achieving results and persistence. The elite performers practice much fewer hours than you believe.
- Five of the most common ways you lead yourself to self-sabotage. Usually, you’re not even aware of how many of your efforts go for naught simply because of the five things I discuss in this book.
- According to studies, this one trait is strongly associated with grit and persistence. Learn what it is and how to develop it in five different ways.
- Five focusing questions to keep going. Asking yourself these questions will help you boost your motivation when you’re at the brink of giving up.
- How listening to others whining makes a part of your brain shrink and affects your ability to persevere when faced with setbacks.
- Six bestselling authors and bloggers share their best techniques on how to keep going when you want to give up: Stephen Guise (author of “Mini Habits: Smaller Habits, Bigger Results”), Joel Runyon (blogger at ImpossibleHQ.com), Serena Star-Leonard (bestselling author of “How to Retire in 12 Months: Turning Passion into Profit”) Derek Doepker (bestselling author of “Why You’re Stuck”), Michal Stawicki (bestselling author of “Trickle-Down Mindset: The Missing Element In Your Personal Success”), and Hung Pham (bestselling author of “Break Through: 12 Powerful Steps to Destroy Your Mental Barriers and Achieve Success”).
There’s no reason why you should give up if you’re working on the right goal. Learn how to make sure you’ll reach your objectives. Scroll up and buy the book now.
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The Power of Your Subconscious Mind, one of the most brilliant and beloved spiritual self-help works of all time, teaches how to dramatically alter your life by changing your thoughts. Selling millions in various editions since its original publication in 1963, this life-changing classic is now available in a handsome and durable keepsake volume, to be cherished for decades. In addition to the complete original text, as published by the author in 1963, this edition features:A stately leather casing, perfect for home display A bonus work: Murphy's 1952 mind-power classic, Riches Are Your Right A red ribbon place marker Marbled endpapers Gilded paper edges Gold-stamped lettering on the casing A four-color O-card Hubbed spine Shrink-wrapping
"A guide to sustaining your newfound contentment." --Psychology Today
You see here a different kind of happiness book. The How of Happiness is a comprehensive guide to understanding the elemetns of happiness based on years of groundbreaking scientific research. It is also a practical, empowering, and easy-to-follow workbook, incorporating happiness strategies, excercises in new ways of thinking, and quizzes for understanding our individuality, all in an effort to help us realize our innate potential for joy and ways to sustain it in our lives. Drawing upon years of pioneering research with thousands of men and women, The How of Happiness is both a powerful contribution to the field of positive psychology and a gift to people who have sought to take their happiness into their own hands.
If so, you may be among the fifteen million adults in the United States who were raised with unhealthy parental control. In this groundbreaking bestseller by accomplished family therapist Dan Neuharth, Ph.D., you'll discover whether your parents controlled eating, appearance, speech, decisions, feelings, social life, and other aspects of your childhood—and whether that control may underlie problems you still struggle with in adulthood. Packed with inspiring case studies and dozens of practical suggestions, this book shows you how to leave home emotionally so you can improve assertiveness, boundaries, and confidence, quiet you "inner critics," and bring more balance to your moods and relationships. Offering compassion, not blame, Dr. Neuharth helps you make peace with your past and avoid overcontrolling your children and other loved ones.
Your body is comprised of energy pathways and energy centers that are in constant motion, a dynamic interplay with other energies and with your cells, organs, immune system, mood, and thoughts. If you can shift these energies, you can influence your physical health, your emotional patterns, and your state of mind.
The Promise of Energy Psychology gives simple step-by-step instructions that will help you to:
- overcome fear, guilt, shame, jealousy, or anger
- change unwanted habits and behaviors
- enhance your ability to love, succeed, and enjoy life
The energy approach presented in this book can help bring about significant change in your life. With this strategy, stubborn phobias often fade in minutes; the lifelong effects of an early trauma can frequently be reduced or completely eliminated; uncontrollable anger can rapidly become manageable; even elusive physical problems may respond where other treatments have failed. The Promise of Energy Psychology is an amazing tool that puts the ability to effect change directly into your hands, and finally gives you control over your fears, pain, and destructive behaviors.
The assumption that metrics comparing us to an average—like GPAs, personality test results, and performance review ratings—reveal something meaningful about our potential is so ingrained in our consciousness that we don’t even question it. That assumption, says Harvard’s Todd Rose, is spectacularly—and scientifically—wrong.
In The End of Average, Rose, a rising star in the new field of the science of the individual shows that no one is average. Not you. Not your kids. Not your employees. This isn’t hollow sloganeering—it’s a mathematical fact with enormous practical consequences. But while we know people learn and develop in distinctive ways, these unique patterns of behaviors are lost in our schools and businesses which have been designed around the mythical “average person.” This average-size-fits-all model ignores our differences and fails at recognizing talent. It’s time to change it.
Weaving science, history, and his personal experiences as a high school dropout, Rose offers a powerful alternative to understanding individuals through averages: the three principles of individuality. The jaggedness principle (talent is always jagged), the context principle (traits are a myth), and the pathways principle (we all walk the road less traveled) help us understand our true uniqueness—and that of others—and how to take full advantage of individuality to gain an edge in life.
Read this powerful manifesto in the ranks of Drive, Quiet, and Mindset—and you won’t see averages or talent in the same way again.
Most of us have no problems identifying goals we want to accomplish. It’s putting these plans into action that is difficult.
Sometimes we lack discipline or motivation. However, there’s another reason why you might struggle to make changes in your life – you have low self-efficacy and don’t believe in your abilities.
What is self-efficacy? What are the main four sources of it? How can you become more confident in your skills?
These are some of the questions I’ll answer in this short book. The advice you’re about to read is based both on scientific research and my personal experience. I will share fundamental knowledge that will help you build more confidence in your abilities and reach your goals.
Here are just a few things you will learn from the book:
- Five characteristics of people with strong self-efficacy and five characteristics of people with weak self-efficacy. These behaviors determine whether you’ll realize your full potential or succumb to mediocrity.
- What you can learn from building a university in space (and what it has to do with the belief in your own abilities). It’s the single most important thing to achieve bigger and bigger goals.
- A simple therapy to teach you how to handle failure the right way. It’s uncomfortable, but you can be sure it will kill your fear of failure once and for all.
- What a strange study about hitting dolls or treating them kindly can teach you about how others affect your beliefs about your competence. It’s the second most effective way to increase the strength of your belief in your abilities.
- What a phenomenon discovered by a German industrial psychologist can teach you about motivation. There’s a simple way to inspire you to put more effort into your goals.
- The #1 key to improving the confidence in your abilities. If you don’t have time to read the entire book, read this one tip alone.
- What a study on experts and novices can teach you about how experts approach problems. You too can adapt this behavior to shorten your learning curve and develop a stronger belief in your abilities.
If you don’t actively work on developing a strong sense of self-efficacy, making any kind of changes in your life will be an extremely difficult ordeal. Scroll up and buy this book now to change your life for the better.
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Why are we drawn to the ocean each summer? Why does being near water set our minds and bodies at ease? In BLUE MIND, Wallace J. Nichols revolutionizes how we think about these questions, revealing the remarkable truth about the benefits of being in, on, under, or simply near water. Combining cutting-edge neuroscience with compelling personal stories from top athletes, leading scientists, military veterans, and gifted artists, he shows how proximity to water can improve performance, increase calm, diminish anxiety, and increase professional success.
BLUE MIND not only illustrates the crucial importance of our connection to water-it provides a paradigm shifting "blueprint" for a better life on this Blue Marble we call home.
Can my partner abuse me and still be a good parent? Should I stay with my partner for my children's sake? How should I talk to my children about the abuse and help them heal? Am I a bad mother?
Mothers in physically or emotionally abusive relationships ask themselves these questions every day. Whether it’s physical or “just” emotional abuse, whether it’s aimed at them or you, whether they see or hear it, your kids need you.
This book, the first ever of its kind, shows mothers how to:
• Protect children and help them heal emotionally
• Provide love, support, and positive role models, even in the midst of abuse
• Increase their chances of winning custody
• Help their kids feel good about themselves
“A must-read for every mother who has been abused...it offers the knowledge women need to protect their children and help them heal.”—William S. Pollack, Ph.D., author of the national bestseller Real Boys
From the Trade Paperback edition.
How could looking at Monet’s water lily paintings help save your company millions? How can checking out people’s footwear foil a terrorist attack? How can your choice of adjective win an argument, calm your kid, or catch a thief?
In her celebrated seminar, the Art of Perception, art historian Amy Herman has trained experts from many fields how to perceive and communicate better. By showing people how to look closely at images, she helps them hone their “visual intelligence,” a set of skills we all possess but few of us know how to use properly. She has spent more than a decade teaching doctors to observe patients instead of their charts, helping police officers separate facts from opinions when investigating a crime, and training professionals from the FBI, the State Department, Fortune 500 companies, and the military to recognize the most pertinent and useful information. Her lessons highlight far more than the physical objects you may be missing; they teach you how to recognize the talents, opportunities, and dangers that surround you every day.
Whether you want to be more effective on the job, more empathetic toward your loved ones, or more alert to the trove of possibilities and threats all around us, this book will show you how to see what matters most to you more clearly than ever before.
Please note: this ebook contains full-color art reproductions and photographs, and color is at times essential to the observation and analysis skills discussed in the text. For the best reading experience, this ebook should be viewed on a color device.
In this intensely practical book, Harvard psychologists Robert Kegan and Lisa Laskow Lahey take us on a carefully guided journey designed to help us answer these very questions. And not just generally, or in the abstract. They help each of us arrive at our own particular answers that can solve the puzzling gap between what we intend and what we are able to accomplish. How the Way We Talk Can Change the Way We Work provides you with the tools to create a powerful new build-it-yourself mental technology.
If you are an entrepreneur or want to become one, self-discipline is one of the most important skills you need to develop to achieve success.
Entrepreneurship is a wild rollercoaster. It will test your willpower and persistence time after time, like nothing else. Get yourself ready for that ride by reading Self-Discipline for Entrepreneurs.
Learn how to overcome the common temptations of entrepreneurs and deal with some of the most common challenges that stop many of them in their tracks through developing and maintaining self-discipline by using the tools that are given in this book.
Drawing upon my own experience of successful entrepreneurship and current scientific research, this book covers the challenges faced by both new and seasoned entrepreneurs. Here are just some of the things you will learn:
- Three types of motivation and why one of them is much weaker than you think. Choose the right motivators and you'll dramatically strengthen your resolve.
- How to create a lifestyle centered around self-discipline. Discover how to change your mindset and your default behaviors so you will thrive as an entrepreneur, even when you find yourself in less than ideal circumstances.
- How to keep balance and maintain sanity as you work on your business. The book gives you four reasons that lead to work imbalance and offers actionable solutions to enable you to persist in achieving the success you desire. If you want to achieve lasting success, sustainability is key.
- Four toolsets to develop your self-discipline as an entrepreneur. Discover the most powerful traits, habits, or mindset changes that are necessary to strengthen your resolve as an entrepreneur.
- The most common challenges facing people who want to start a business. Learn how to escape from a syndrome that is debilitating for new entrepreneurs and discover how to get past some of the most common stumbling blocks.
- Common self-discipline challenges for experienced entrepreneurs. Once you have made a good start, if you want to remain successful as an entrepreneur, it's essential to discover how to handle these issues.
- Frequently asked questions related to self-discipline. Find out how to maintain self-discipline when you feel discouraged, keep going when everyone rejects you, boost your confidence when business goes down, find the willpower to work on your business if you have a day job and/or other obligations, and more.
The life of an entrepreneur can be arduous. Let this book help you prepare for these challenges and thrive, no matter what you encounter in your entrepreneurial life.
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"An essential playbook for success, happiness, and getting the most out of ourselves." Arianna Huffington, author of Thrive and The Sleep Revolution
"I doubt anyone can read Peak Performance without itching to apply something to their own lives." —David Epstein, New York Times bestselling author of The Sports Gene
A few common principles drive performance, regardless of the field or the task at hand. Whether someone is trying to qualify for the Olympics, break ground in mathematical theory or craft an artistic masterpiece, many of the practices that lead to great success are the same. In Peak Performance, Brad Stulberg, a former McKinsey and Company consultant and writer who covers health and the science of human performance, and Steve Magness, a performance scientist and coach of Olympic athletes, team up to demystify these practices and demonstrate how you can achieve your best.
The first book of its kind, Peak Performance combines the inspiring stories of top performers across a range of capabilities—from athletic to intellectual and artistic—with the latest scientific insights into the cognitive and neurochemical factors that drive performance in all domains. In doing so, Peak Performance uncovers new linkages that hold promise as performance enhancers but have been overlooked in our traditionally-siloed ways of thinking. The result is a life-changing book in which you can learn how to enhance your performance via myriad ways including: optimally alternating between periods of intense work and rest; priming the body and mind for enhanced productivity; and developing and harnessing the power of a self-transcending purpose.
In revealing the science of great performance and the stories of great performers across a wide range of capabilities, Peak Performance uncovers the secrets of success, and coaches you on how to use them. If you want to take your game to the next level, whatever "your game" may be, Peak Performance will teach you how.
Debbie Ford believes that we each hold within us a trace of every human characteristic that exists, the capacity for every human emotion. We are born with the ability to express this entire spectrum of characteristics. But, Ford points out, our families and our society send us strong messages about which ones are good and bad. So when certain impulses arise, we deny them instead of confronting them, giving them a healthy voice, then letting them go.
It is to these feelings that Ford turns our attention, these parts of our selves that don't fit the personae we have created for the rest of the world. She shows us the effects of living in the dark, of keeping all our supposedly unsavory impulses under wraps. We find ourselves disproportionately frustrated and angry at the selfishness of friends, the laziness of colleagues, the arrogance of siblings. When we are unable to reconcile similar impulses in ourselves, Ford explains, we waste our own energy judging others instead of empathizing. But most important, we deny ourselves the power and freedom of living authentically.
Through the stories and exercises in The Dark Side of the Light Chasers, Debbie Ford shows us not only how to recognize our hidden emotions, but also how to find the gifts they offer us. This is for fans of Marianne Williamson, Neale Donald Walsch, and Deepak Chopra. The very impulses we most fear may be the key to what is lacking in our lives.
We all sustain emotional wounds. Failure, guilt, rejection, and loss are as much a part of life as the occasional scraped elbow. But while we typically bandage a cut or ice a sprained ankle, our first aid kit for emotional injuries is not just understocked—it’s nonexistent.
Fortunately, there is such a thing as mental first aid for battered emotions. Drawing on the latest scientific research and using real-life examples, practicing psychologist Guy Winch, Ph.D. offers specific step-by-step treatments that are fast, simple, and effective. Prescriptive and unique, Emotional First Aid is essential reading for anyone looking to become more resilient, build self-esteem, and let go of the hurts and hang-ups that are holding them back.
More than forty-four percent of Americans admit to losing sleep over stress. And while most of us do everything we can to reduce it, Stanford psychologist and bestselling author Kelly McGonigal, Ph.D., delivers a startling message: Stress isn’t bad. In The Upside of Stress, McGonigal highlights new research indicating that stress can, in fact, make us stronger, smarter, and happier—if we learn how to embrace it.
The Upside of Stress is the first book to bring together cutting-edge discoveries on the correlation between resilience—the human capacity for stress-related growth—and mind-set, the power of beliefs to shape reality. As she did in The Willpower Instinct, McGonigal combines science, stories, and exercises into an engaging and practical book that is both entertaining and life-changing, showing you:
how to cultivate a mind-set to embrace stresshow stress can provide focus and energyhow stress can help people connect and strengthen close relationshipswhy your brain is built to learn from stress, and how to increase its ability to learn from challenging experiences
McGonigal’s TED talk on the subject has already received more than 7 million views. Her message resonates with people who know they can’t eliminate the stress in their lives and want to learn to take advantage of it. The Upside of Stress is not a guide to getting rid of stress, but a guide to getting better at stress, by understanding it, embracing it, and using it.
From the Hardcover edition.
Now, Markman takes his scientifically-based formula one step further to demonstrate the correlation between personality and habits, and the impact of personality and habits on leadership potential and innovation success.
Habits of Leadership explores the "Big 5" personality characteristics -- Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Emotional Stability -- as well as other key variables such as person’s ability to acquire and use knowledge or the level of one’s tolerance to risk. Using a unique personality profiler, readers are able to determine their strengths and weaknesses and then apply this understanding to develop smart habits.
Great leaders have key traits that influence their success. People who are Extroverts can serve as effective advocates for ideas. Those who are low in Agreeableness are willing to tell people things that they do not want to hear, and so facilitate open and honest lines of communication. People high in Conscientiousness get things done. They ensure that a project once started is completed.. Those who are high in Openness and are able to acquire and use knowledge through reasoning, intuition, or perception tend to be good change-makers. Their breadth of knowledge allows them to communicate ideas from a wide variety of sources to innovate and solve problems. And leaders possessed of emotional stability have the clear-mindedness and confidence to navigate through any storm.
Individuals who demonstrate these traits and who have developed habits that serve them well, are extraordinary. Yet the potential for greatness is within everyone. Habits of Leadership will show anyone how to develop and use these exceptional gifts.
Actions really do speak louder than words, but you've got to be able to understand them. That's where Body Language For Dummies, Second Edition comes in handy. If you find yourself puzzled by other people, or want to improve the impression you give, having an insight into body language is key, and this book will teach you to comprehend what people really mean, even if they say nothing at all, and how you can use your body and your expressions to make a positive impact.
Image and presentation are crucial to successful communication, and realising what kind of impression you give, and understanding how others judge you when you meet them, is an essential skill for getting where you want to go, both personally and professionally.
Body Language For Dummies, Second EditionExplores why we give the signals we do How to read the most common expressions Shows how you can use body language to transform your personal and professional relationships
Perfect for anyone looking for the inside edge in understanding their own and other people's actions, this book is ideal for those who want to ensure their communications are positive in every way, people in relationships, those looking for a relationship and trying to interpret the "signals" of the opposite sex, and countless other readers.
Other insights in this book reveal the practical side of policing, examining the use of psychology in hostage negotiation, interview and interrogation, threat assessment, and criminal profiling. Readers go behind the scenes to watch as police apply psychological principles in actual cases, and then are given the opportunity to match wits with a simulated foe themselves.
Based on their workshops and counseling experience, psychologists Jane B. Burka and Lenora M. Yuen offer a probing, sensitive, and at times humorous look at a problem that affects everyone: students and scientists, secretaries and executives, homemakers and salespeople. Procrastination identifies the reasons we put off tasks-fears of failure, success, control, separation, and attachment-and their roots in our childhood and adult experiences. Burka and Yuen even provide tips on living and working with the procrastinators you may know.
Wise, effective, and easy to use, this new edition shows why for 25 years Procrastination has been an immediate must-have for anyone who puts things off until tomorrow.
Scientific and philosophical concepts can change the way we solve problems by helping us to think more effectively about our behavior and our world. Surprisingly, despite their utility, many of these tools remain unknown to most of us.
In Mindware, the world-renowned psychologist Richard E. Nisbett presents these ideas in clear and accessible detail. Nisbett has made a distinguished career of studying and teaching such powerful problem-solving concepts as the law of large numbers, statistical regression, cost-benefit analysis, sunk costs and opportunity costs, and causation and correlation, probing the best methods for teaching others how to use them effectively in their daily lives. In this groundbreaking book, Nisbett shows us how to frame common problems in such a way that these scientific and statistical principles can be applied to them. The result is an enlightening and practical guide to the most essential tools of reasoning ever developed-tools that can easily be used to make better professional, business, and personal decisions.
As a single parent in our complex world, you face the challenge of doing alone a job that was meant for two people. In addition, self-doubt and guilt may dampen the joy you experience raising your child. What do you do?
Over the years, millions of parents just like you have come to trust Jane Nelsen's classic POSITIVE DISCIPLINE series for its consistant, commonsense approach to child rearing. In this completely revised and updated edition of Positive Discipline for Single Parents you'll learn how to succeed as a single parent in the most important job of your life: raising a child who is responsible, respectful, and resourceful.
Inside this reassuring book, you'll discover how to:
·Identify potential problems and develop skills to prevent them
·Budget time each week for family activities
·Create a respectful coparenting relationship with your former spouse
·Use nonpunitive methods to help your children make wise decisions about their behavior
·And much, much more!
"Provides very important information for single parents, especially in today's violent society. Used as a resource, it can help parents deal with discipline issues in a positive way and in turn help their children become responsible citizens."—Judye Foy, international vice president, Community Relations, Parents Without Partners
"Another great resource for both single parents and therapists . . . practical and enjoyable to read. A must for your parenting library."—Stephen Sprinkel, marriage and family therapist
In addition to comprehensive coverage and lucid explanations of how assessment, evaluation, and intervention work together to improve the care of individuals, the text contains many learning-oriented features, such as chapter outlines that convey content, direction, and key points; practical examples of principles and techniques; an abundant number of tables that summarize important concepts; exercises for designing or evaluating a specific intervention or for changing a program that is not working; and a list of key terms at the end of the chapters. By completing the exercises and understanding the terms, students can master the core content of the chapters.
This outstanding text enables students and professionals with varied interests to implement effective techniques with individuals and in contexts where behavior change is desperately neededin a world challenged by a wide range of social problems.
In The High Price of Materialism, Tim Kasser offers a scientific explanation of how our contemporary culture of consumerism and materialism affects our everyday happiness and psychological health. Other writers have shown that once we have sufficient food, shelter, and clothing, further material gains do little to improve our well-being. Kasser goes beyond these findings to investigate how people's materialistic desires relate to their well-being. He shows that people whose values center on the accumulation of wealth or material possessions face a greater risk of unhappiness, including anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and problems with intimacy—regardless of age, income, or culture.
Drawing on a decade's worth of empirical data, Kasser examines what happens when we organize our lives around materialistic pursuits. He looks at the effects on our internal experience and interpersonal relationships, as well as on our communities and the world at large. He shows that materialistic values actually undermine our well-being, as they perpetuate feelings of insecurity, weaken the ties that bind us, and make us feel less free. Kasser not only defines the problem but proposes ways we can change ourselves, our families, and society to become less materialistic.
Most of us go through life believing that we are in control of the choices we make—that we think and behave almost independently from the world around us. But as Drunk Tank Pink illustrates, the truth is our environment shapes our thoughts and actions in myriad ways without our permission or even our knowledge. Armed with surprising data and endlessly fascinating examples, Adam Alter addresses the subtle but substantial ways in which outside forces influence us—such as color’s influence on mood, our bias in favor of names with which we identify, and how sunny days can induce optimism as well as aggression. Drunk Tank Pink proves that the truth behind our feelings and actions goes much deeper than the choices we take for granted every day.
Adam Alter's forthcoming book, Irresistible, will be published by Penguin Press.
The new editors offer essential breath of experience on aviation human factors from multiple perspectives (i.e. scientific research, regulation, funding agencies, technology, and implementation) as well as knowledge about the science. The contributors are experts in their fields.
Topics carried over from the first edition are fully updated, several by new authors who are now at the fore of the field. New material - which represents 50% of the volume - focuses on the challenges facing aviation specialists today. One of the most significant developments in this decade has been NextGen, the Federal Aviation Administration's plan to modernize national airspace and to address the impact of air traffic growth by increasing airspace capacity and efficiency while simultaneously improving safety, environmental impacts and user access. NextGen issues are covered in full. Other new topics include: High Reliability Organizational Perspective, Situation Awareness & Workload in Aviation, Human Error Analysis, Human-System Risk Management, LOSA, NOSS and Unmanned Aircraft System.Comprehensive text with up-to-date synthesis of primary source material that does not need to be supplementedNew edition thoroughly updated with 50% new material and full coverage of NexGen and other modern issuesInstructor website with test bank and image collection makes this the only text offering ancillary supportLiberal use of case examples exposes readers to real-world examples of dangers and solutions
Every day we work hard to motivate ourselves, the people we live with, the people who work for and do business with us. In this way, much of what we do can be defined as being “motivators.” From the boardroom to the living room, our role as motivators is complex, and the more we try to motivate partners and children, friends and coworkers, the clearer it becomes that the story of motivation is far more intricate and fascinating than we’ve assumed.
Payoff investigates the true nature of motivation, our partial blindness to the way it works, and how we can bridge this gap. With studies that range from Intel to a kindergarten classroom, Ariely digs deep to find the root of motivation—how it works and how we can use this knowledge to approach important choices in our own lives. Along the way, he explores intriguing questions such as: Can giving employees bonuses harm productivity? Why is trust so crucial for successful motivation? What are our misconceptions about how to value our work? How does your sense of your mortality impact your motivation?
The science in The Resilience Factor takes an extraordinary leap from the research introduced in the bestselling Learned Optimism a decade ago. Just as hundreds of thousands of people were transformed by "flexible optimism," readers of this book will flourish, thanks to their enhanced ability to overcome obstacles of any kind. Karen Reivich and Andrew Shatté are seasoned resilience coaches and, through practical methods and vivid anecdotes, they prove that resilience is not just an ability that we're born with and need to survive, but a skill that anyone can learn and improve in order to thrive.
Readers will first complete the Resilience Questionnaire to determine their own innate levels of resilience. Then, the system at the heart of The Resilience Factor will teach them to:
• Cast off harsh self-criticisms and negative self-images
• Navigate through the fallout of any kind of crisis
• Cope with grief and anxiety
• Overcome obstacles in relationships, parenting, or on the job
• Achieve greater physical health
• Bolster optimism, take chances, and embrace life
In light of the unprecedented challenges we've recently faced, there’s never been a greater need to boost our resilience. Without resorting to feel-good pap or quick-fix clichés, The Resilience Factor is self-help at its best, destined to become a classic in the genre.
From the Hardcover edition.
Applied Behavioral Analysis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders ably synthesizes research data and trends with best-practice interventions into a comprehensive, state-of-the-art resource. Within its chapters, leading experts review current ABA literature in depth; identify interventions most relevant to children across the autism spectrum; and discuss potential developments in these core areas:
Assessment methods, from functional assessment to single case research designs.
Treatment methods, including reinforcement, replacement behaviors, and other effective strategies.
The role of the differential diagnosis in ABA treatment planning.
Specific deficit areas: communication, social skills, stereotypies/rituals.
Target behaviors, such as self-injury, aggression, adaptive and self-help problems.
ASD-related training concerns, including maintenance and transition issues, and parent training programs.
This volume is a vital resource for researchers, graduate students, and professionals in clinical child and school psychology as well as the related fields of education and mental health.
The next morning Skinner began this book. It took him over twenty years to complete. This book extends the laboratory-based principles of selection by consequences to account for what people say, write, gesture, and think. Skinner argues that verbal behavior requires a separate analysis because it does not operate on the environment directly, but rather through the behavior of other people in a verbal community. He illustrates his thesis with examples from literature, the arts, and sciences, as well as from his own verbal behavior and that of his colleagues and children. Perhaps it is because this theoretical work provides a way to approach that most human of human behavior that Skinner ofter called Verbal Behavior his most important work.
Today’s world is charging at a breakneck speed. People are working over twelve hours every single day, catching extra minutes of sleep in the metro, and completely giving up on the antiquated notion of time to spend with their own kids. There are people in their twenties neglecting every single aspect of their lives but their careers looking twice older than they should.
And 1 person out of 4 dies from cardiovascular disease – caused mostly by unhealthy eating, a lack of physical activity, smoking, and consuming too much alcohol and worthless junk food that clogs their arteries.
This book will teach you how to step away from noise, relax and recharge your batteries so you have enough left in you to control your life. Here are some of the things you'll learn:
- why rituals create your life and how to develop a proper morning routine to ensure a calm mind.
- 3 main stress management techniques for recharging you’re probably not aware of. They can make you well-rested or, if you disregard them, extremely exhausted.
- how to get away from highly-stimulating surroundings to recharge in peace. If you live in a city, you MUST read this chapter.
- how to let go of negative nagging thoughts you can’t get out of your head. You don’t have to carry them with you all the time.
- 7 powerful habits to reduce stress. And no, I’m not talking about obvious advice. You’ll discover how to exactly reduce stress with lesser-known tips.
This is your chance to find out what the hard science says about how to become more relaxed. You too can finally recharge your batteries and regain control over your life. Learn how.
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This book, written by the discoverers of the H factor, explores the scientific findings that show the importance of this personality dimension in various aspects of people’s lives: their approaches to money, power, and sex; their inclination to commit crimes or obey the law; their attitudes about society, politics, and religion; and their choice of friends and spouse. Finally, the book provides ways of identifying people who are low in the H factor, as well as advice on how to raise one’s own level of H.
Chabris and Simons combine the work of other researchers with their own findings on attention, perception, memory, and reasoning to reveal how faulty intuitions often get us into trouble. In the process, they explain:
• Why a company would spend billions to launch a product that its own analysts know will fail
• How a police officer could run right past a brutal assault without seeing it
• Why award-winning movies are full of editing mistakes
• What criminals have in common with chess masters
• Why measles and other childhood diseases are making a comeback
• Why money managers could learn a lot from weather forecasters
Again and again, we think we experience and understand the world as it is, but our thoughts are beset by everyday illusions. We write traffic laws and build criminal cases on the assumption that people will notice when something unusual happens right in front of them. We’re sure we know where we were on 9/11, falsely believing that vivid memories are seared into our minds with perfect fidelity. And as a society, we spend billions on devices to train our brains because we’re continually tempted by the lure of quick fixes and effortless self-improvement.
The Invisible Gorilla reveals the myriad ways that our intuitions can deceive us, but it’s much more than a catalog of human failings. Chabris and Simons explain why we succumb to these everyday illusions and what we can do to inoculate ourselves against their effects. Ultimately, the book provides a kind of x-ray vision into our own minds, making it possible to pierce the veil of illusions that clouds our thoughts and to think clearly for perhaps the first time.
From the Hardcover edition.
Explaining why traditional approaches to ethics don't work, the book considers how blind spots like ethical fading--the removal of ethics from the decision--making process--have led to tragedies and scandals such as the Challenger space shuttle disaster, steroid use in Major League Baseball, the crash in the financial markets, and the energy crisis. The authors demonstrate how ethical standards shift, how we neglect to notice and act on the unethical behavior of others, and how compliance initiatives can actually promote unethical behavior. They argue that scandals will continue to emerge unless such approaches take into account the psychology of individuals faced with ethical dilemmas. Distinguishing our "should self" (the person who knows what is correct) from our "want self" (the person who ends up making decisions), the authors point out ethical sinkholes that create questionable actions.
Suggesting innovative individual and group tactics for improving human judgment, Blind Spots shows us how to secure a place for ethics in our workplaces, institutions, and daily lives.