Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: A-, University of Basel (Europainstitute), course: Simulation course, language: English, abstract: 1. Definition of the Position (Simons/Tripp (2003) „The Negotiation Checklist“) 1.1. What is negotiation purpose of FINLAND? The aim of negotiations is to allow the use of vegetable substitutes (production of chocolate consisting of vegetable fat other than cocoa butter) not just among seven Member States, but also in the European Union 1.2. What are the negotiations subjects? 1.3. How important are these subjects for FINLAND? 1.4. What is „BATNA“ (Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement (Fisher/Ury)) for FINLAND? 1.5. Partners of negotiation: what are their purposes? How important for them are their purposes? What are their BATNAs? 1.6. Negotiations situation: Are there temporal restrictions? Who is in to the most impatient one? Which justice-norms are there? 1.7. Relations between the negotiations participants. Which strategies and tactics turn other negotiations participants in? 2. Which negotiation outcome would be a) in ideal, b) realistical evaluation of situation? 3. How I evaluate proposal of Commission in the light of preferences of FINLAND? 4. If FINLAND would be member of Presidency of Council: how I would evaluate proposal of Commission in the light of preferences of Council Presidency? 5. Which negotiation strategies will help to achieve aims of FINLAND (Presidency)? 6. Does FINLAND see any differences between their position of strategy in the first and second reading in the Council of Ministers and does FINLAND think that strategies of negotiation will be different between readings? 7. What would failure of directive mean for FINLAND (Presidency)? 8. What kind of consequences do I except for FINLAND’S negotiation manner? (If I am not BELGIUM or UK). 9. What will mean failure of directive for both antipodes – BELGIUM and UK? 10. What kind of consequences can I draw of possible negotiation strategies of both actors? 11. Which countries can I probably win over, which countries should I outvote? 12. If you only would choose one actor and only at a time in co-decisive procedure your lobby activities unfold could – which time and which actor you would choose?
Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Communications - Journalism, Journalism Professions, grade: A-, Central European University Budapest, course: “News Media and Political Power: Lessons from American Perspective”, language: English, abstract: The future of news media characterized by uncertainty, over- and underestimation is a fascinating area of study. Nowadays everything is glocal, everyone can be journalist and a political player - news consumers become news producers. Unfortunately, there is a lack of theoretical and empirical researches about the future of journalism. Therefore my research questions are: 1) How will the journalism develop? (global and U.S. vision)? 2) How will the journalism develop in Latvia? 3) What are the development scenarios? The final paper consists of three parts and I have also proposed some recommendations in the end.
Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2014 in the subject Business economics - Business Ethics, Corporate Ethics, grade: A, , course: Master in International Communication, language: English, abstract: The author of this paper has chosen to analyse two topics: 1) corporate social responsibility, 2) crisis communication. These two topics were chosen because of the reason that crisis communication and corporate social responsibility have a positive effect on brand reputation. These two topics are analyzed and compared on two companies: Ryanair and EasyJet in the industry of low-cost airlines. The author has chosen these two companies because of three reasons. First, Ryanair and EasyJet are both are European low cost airlines, therefore this is a study of two “most-similar’ cases. Ryanair was chosen as it was the first low-fare airline in Europe, is now the second-largest low fare airline in Europe after easyJet based on revenue, but the largest when considering its value by market capitalisation. Second, there are available materials on Ryanair’s and EasyJet’s corporate social responsibility and criss communication both on their website, as well as in academic papers. Third, chosen companies for analysis are interesting in that they both are large airline companies - competitors and both have been highly visible in media. The corporate social responsibility and crisis communication may be seen in several dimensions, either environmental, social etc. In this case study research is concentrated on CSR goals and practices of both of companies. Besides, In the face of crisis communication issues associated with Ryanair as well as EasyJet the importance of right corporate social responsibility management needs to be questioned. In the further part of this paper the author will compare Ryanair and EasyJet in general by providing firm characteristics. Irish low-cost airline Ryanair Holdings PLC (Ryanair), based in Dublin, has long had an image as a maverick. Ryanair is known as the Europe’s biggest discount carrier. The Dublin-based airline, is also known for its low-fare policy and business model based on flying to cheaper, smaller airports rather than the more expensive hubs used by national carriers.
Document from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: A, Central European University Budapest, course: Political Economy, language: English, abstract: The essays in this work deal with the main differences between historical institutionalism, sociological institutionalism and rational choice institutionalism, discuss the contribution of Marxism to political economy, evaluate the likelihood of exit and voice strategies of tea workers in a presented empirical condition and deal with the question "What is the impact of Latvia’s established welfare system on the mode of institutional change in the healthcare sector?".
Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: A-, Central European University Budapest, language: English, abstract: I have analysed the questionnaire I have used in my MA thesis: the type of survey, sample size, sampling technique, sampling and non-sampling errors, margin of error, questionnaire design (response scale, general considerations, open-ended vs. closed-ended questions, reliability and validity) and missing data.
Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: A-, Sciences Po Paris, Dijon, Nancy, Poitier, Menton, Havre (L’Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Lille), course: Borders, Borderlands, and Security, language: English, abstract: Paper addresses the transformation of the agenda of border security relating to Latvia-Russia border. There are discussed following problems in paper: Ø the relevance of signed treaty between Latvia and Russia; Ø the investment in Latvia/Russia border; Ø the effectiveness of cross-border cooperation; Ø problems with which Latvia-Russia border is dealing (increased number of cargos waiting for crossing Latvia/Russia border, smuggling, persons crossing border with fictitious documents, illegal border crossers and illegal immigrants). This paper focuses on what comes in through the border, and not so much on what goes out except problem of long truck lines. This paper also focuses on the investment and problems which affected Latvia’s side not Russia’s. Definition of Borders and Security Boundary - a demarcation indicating some division in spatial terms. Border – an international boundary line; when a border is seen as a zone it is often called a borderland or the borderlands. Frontier - a zone of contact with or without a specified boundary line. As L.Heininen and H.N.Nicol have emphasized ‘security’ is a broad concept, there are many ideas about the meaning of security and what should, or should not, be a ‘security’ issue, therefore there are many different understandings and ways to define and conceptualize security. Security in this paper is understood as direct intervention to prevent threats and interdict dangerous people and goods at the Latvia/Russia border. Function of the Conceptual Framework Author, as E.Brunet-Jailly in Borderlands: Comparing Border Security in North America and the European Union, in this paper tried, first, to discuss the relevance of agents on borders, second, to examine the porosity of border, and third, to suggest new policy guidelines to government and agents that might strengthen border security objectives.
Master's Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: B+, Central European University Budapest, language: English, abstract: The European Commission and scholars emphasize that the ERASMUS programme is a successful example of European integration, a symbol of construction of European identity and promoter of tolerance on the basis of breaking stereotypes, encouraging multicultural experience and intercultural education. But because of the lack of empirical findings, this Master thesis has been devoted to research of the impact of the ERASMUS programme on breaking the stereotypes and fostering European identity. The quantitative survey of three hundred thirty former ERASMUS, potential ERASMUS and non-ERASMUS students provides partly justification that the ERASMUS Programme has impact on breaking the stereotypes and promoting European identity. Potential ERASMUS students already have less stereotypes and European self-identification than non-mobile students, therefore the ERASMUS programme is rather catalyst than promoter of European identity and stereotypebreaker. Key words: the ERASMUS programme, European identity, stereotypes.
Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2007 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: A+, University of Latvia, course: European Union, language: English, abstract: The research paper deals with definition of the concept of common European culture, the arguments against and pro, the concept of citizenship and European citizenship, why and who needs it, cultural policy of European Union, treaties that define European citizenship, „Europeaness” in Euro Barometer statistics and other researches, problems of European citizenship.
Project Report from the year 2009 in the subject Sociology - Methodology and Methods, grade: A, Central European University Budapest, course: Introduction to Quantitative Analysis, language: English, abstract: This project report deals with quantitative analysis of data collected for purpose of my Master thesis “The ERASMUS Programme as Promoter of Tolerance comparing Latvia to France, Switzerland and Hungary”. There is analyzed data set, design of questionnaire and variables, hypotheses, assumptions of parametric data, Pearson correlation coefficient, homogeneity of variance, Spearman’s Rho and Kendall’s tau, causality, regression etc.
Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: A-, University of Basel (Europainstitut), course: Friedensförderungsseminar, language: English, abstract: ABSTRACT Aim of paper This paper deals with the effectiveness and achievements of ICTR that can be viewed in light of aims set out in the UN Resolution 955, 1994. In the Resolution UN is determined to: 1) have effective application and enforcement of restrictions against the warfare perpetrators; 2) bring justice and ensure that violations are halted; 3) have fair trials; 4) contribute to criminal justice and process of reconciliation and restoration and maintenance of peace. Hypotheses In the present paper author put forward two hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that creation of ICTR was a logical, but moderate step, which would have not been necessary if global society would have appropriately reacted to previous warnings about possible genocide in Rwanda. The second hypothesis is that ICTR was merely a vehicle of justice, but it is hardly designed as a vehicle for reconciliation. Analytical framework Author has discussed the work of ICTR and refer to particular aims, possibility of their achievement and assess outcomes. Author used three tools of analytical framework: legal, political and economical, as from these different standing points it is possible to assess the work of ICTR in its entirety. Legal aspects of work of ICTR extend from mere procedural points to ICTR’s contribution to legal tradition and legal developments. Author depicted which of legal aspects have undermined the authority and image of ICTR, as well as could be deemed as actual shortcomings, and how these aspects influence achievement of justice as the ultimate goal of legal authority. Financial aspect shows the costs of ICTR, but political aspect deals with assessment of set goals in the Resolution and bringing justice as a prerogative, as it is expected to be effective and appropriate. Main conclusions The paper shows that while making a significant contribution to the law of genocide and international criminal justice and establishing historical record (achievements), ICTR was incapable in reconciliation of witnesses and survivors and was described as “job creation for foreigners” (shortcomings).
Project Report from the year 2014 in the subject Sociology - Communication, grade: A, The Hague University, course: Master in International Communication, language: English, abstract: When students are traveling to study abroad, they may face different issues such as loneliness, isolation, discrimination that may affect their academic performance and cause stress and mental health problems directly or indirectly. Di Tommaso and Spinner found out that integration into social networks is the best predictor of lower levels of social loneliness. Universities provide support for international students and it is intended to facilitate an optimal (from the point of view of the universities) academic and social adjustment, however, causing boring and lonely social life ‘outside the classroom’ and feeling a lack of belonging contribute to their sense of alienation in the host society. Due to the heavy study load and stress and because of lack of time, international students tend to have more in-door activities. Because of the developed technologies and internet, most of them prefer to communicate through social media: especially when they encounter problems in their daily life, they tend to search solutions via social channels on internet. Moreover, the media channels that The Hague University of Applied Sciences (hereinafter HHS) uses now seems not to be adequate for integration. HHS uses media tools such as blackboard and emails to communicate with the students, and students could theoretically build up certain conversation via blackboard. However, students consider both channels as “formal” channels that are one-way communication channels instead of desired social channels which is two-way communication. In other words, students expect an effective mediator that can help them to understand and to adapt to the new studying and living environment. Hence, it is important to develop effective media channels that will contribute to integration among international students at HHS by providing recommendations for improvement in media channels and exploring possible solutions to the problem. Project Objective: To develop a communication plan aimed at integrating international students at the Hague University by providing recommendations for improvement of media channels. Advice Question: How to use media channels in order to enhance integration of the international students at The Hague University of Applied Sciences? Research Question: What are the factors that contribute to establishing of an effective media platform in order to improve the integration of international students?
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: A-, University of Basel (Europainstitute), course: Mediation, language: English, abstract: In the last fifteen years performance of mediators in the circumstances of lack of specialized training and background information has proved that UN ad hoc quality is too dependent on „trial and error“ (UNSC, 2009: 15). The case of ethno-political conflict in Rwanda (Baechler, 1998: 26) and performance of International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is one of such examples. UN Security Council Resolution 955 (UNSC, 1994: 1) as an aim set to achieve reconciliation and maintenance of peace. Unfortunately this aim has not been achieved: many people do not know about ICTR and those who know do not evaluate ICTR as successive in reconciliation. Only 36 per cent of Rwandans see any reconciliation (Cobban, 2006: 22-28). Moreover, over 80 per cent of Rwandans know little or nothing about the work of the ICTR (Sisson, 2006: 9). Author of this essay has chosen to deal with a comprehensive task to evaluate ICTR as a mediator. In this case ICTR is international, completely independent ‚outside’ mediator (Swisspeace/CSS, 2009: 3). Author has emphasized following five weaknesses of ICTR: lack of protection, lack of material support, lack of psychological support, lack of gender-perspective and need for education programmes. In the final part author drafted questions which should be asked by mediator.
Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2009 in the subject Women Studies / Gender Studies, grade: A-, Central European University Budapest, language: English, abstract: Abstract The research deals with the analysis of genocide in Rwanda in gender-specific terms. The paper identifies differences in gender related issues in two phases of conflict: open conflict and post conflict phase and on three levels: individual, community and state level with the focus on gender-based violence and intersectionality. The lack of analysis of men as victims and women as perpetrators in genocide in Rwanda still highlights the undiscovered issues of this fifteen year old conflict. Keywords: gender, violence, genocide, Rwanda.
Seminar paper from the year 2014 in the subject Business economics - Marketing, Corporate Communication, CRM, Market Research, Social Media, grade: A, The Hague University (Applied Sciences), course: Master in International Communication, language: English, abstract: There is a necessity to improve already strong, well-known brand image giving the world taste of something new. In order to re-increase sales, MEXX needs to define a new branding strategy/ies, so the central question “How can MEXX rebrand itself to occupy a more distinctive position in the fashion market?” will be answered in this brand rejuvenation plan. MEXX started locally in 1986 and now 25 years later operates in 66 countries over 4 continents, has 1100 own stores and 10’000 selling points (Mexx Marketing and Communication Plan, 2013). Mexx clothing embodies the essence of living the European lifestyles. Mexx is headquartered in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. European business has a direct retail offering combined with various wholesale channels and focuses on Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, France and Russia (The Gores Group, 2011). There were launched two lines of clothing in 1980, "Moustache" for men, and "Emanuelle" for women, which merged in 1986 to Mexx. In 2001, most of the company was sold for several 100 million dollars to Liz Claiborne Inc. and afterwards the Gores Group.
Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: A-, University of Basel (Europainstitut), language: English, abstract: Authors have proved hypothesis: Turkey’s military capabilities, experience in NATO and international peace keeping operations and missions could rather strengthen than weaken ESDP position. However, there are some weaknesses that Turkey faces (focus on ‘hard’ rather than ‘soft’ power, military is in the process of modernizing, underestimated role in peace keeping operations), Turkey’s contribution to ESDP is too significant (strong involvement in the missions) and will give more benefits than costs. Furthermore, Turkish accession to the EU would transform strategic challenges of ESDP.51 Only five of twenty ESDP peace keeping operations have been of a military nature, which mostly has been held by NATO or UN. “When it comes to much bigger military issues, the EU avoids taking strategic responsibility and still depends on the NATO to do its ‘dirty work’”52. Therefore military stronger EU would give NATO and UN credit that EU is also responsible in the field of crisis management. Such win-win situation would exempt US Secretary’s of State Madeleine Albright’s the “3 D’s”: 1) decoupling of ESDP from NATO, 2) duplication of capabilities, 3) discrimination of non-EU NATO members.53 Turkey would also play role of agent between EU and NATO and “parties involved will benefit from threelevel game”54 (EU-Turkey-NATO). Therefore it is advantageous and beneficial not only for Turkey, but also for the EU and the NATO as well.55 Finally, last week Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn once more showed that EU would not allow Turkey 'cruise control' on accession.56 Therefore Turkey-EU relations should balance the contributions and benefits of such partnership and show that both partners can be producers and consumers of security and experience of defence. Such dialogue will prove that EU can play an important role in CFSP/ESDP dimension also in the future.
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: A, University of Basel (Europainstitute), course: European Union, language: English, abstract: “Even from different pieces of puzzle it is possible to make one European puzzle”(Georg Kreis) European diversity in unity... Was it paraphrased mistakably or is it ironically contradicting the motto of the European Union “Unity in diversity”? And what kind of diversity we are talking about - cultural diversity, European diversity or diversity of languages? (Kreis: 2009) In author‟s turn she would like to speak about cultural diversity and put forward hypothesis that common European culture does exist.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2008 in the subject Sociology - Political Sociology, Majorities, Minorities, grade: A+, University of Latvia, language: Latin, abstract: Bachelor thesis “The ERASMUS Programme of European Union as the Promoter of Tolerance Comparing Latvia to France” draws attention to one of the most successful examples of European integration and symbols of construction of European identity – ERASMUS programme. There was brought forward issue is the ERASMUS Programme of European Union promoter of tolerance. For giving the response to given issue, the main aim of bachelor thesis was to do research on ERASMUS programme comparing the experience of students of Latvia to France. The author put forward following hypothesis – the ERASMUS programme of European Union promotes tolerance on the basis of encouraging multicultural experience, intercultural education, diminishing social distance, breaking stereotypes, furthering confidence and overtness. Through analysis of cognitions of D. Heyd, S. Lowy, I. Apine, L. Ose and other researchers author has drafted definition of tolerance – tolerance is desire, ability and action, it is honouring through co-operating and not showing prejudices against the member of the other culture. One of the most significant tasks of the thesis was analysis of ERASMUS programme in the context of history and European integration theories – neofunctionalism and liberal intergovernmental approach. Author of the thesis concludes that the commencement period of the formation of ERASMUS programme can be explained by both integration theories. Through analysis of questionnaires (quantitative method) of respondents of University of Latvia (UL) and Institut d’ Etudes Politiques (IEP) in the empirical part of bachelor thesis author came to conclusion that ERASMUS programme (on the basis of multicultural experience and intercultural education) has promoted overtness and confidence in students, diminishing social distance and encouraging the breaking of stereotypes during exchange that, in its turn, is indicative of tolerance promotion. Comparing the handed responses of respondents of UL and IEP, author has deduced that the role of promoting tolerance was less inherent to students of IEP than UL, in its turn, the formation of stereotypes was more inherent to students of UL. Through analysis of partly structured and structured interviews (qualitative method), both experts of ERASMUS programme and tolerance indicated that one of the aims of ERASMUS programme is promoting tolerance and intercultural education.
Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Miscellaneous, grade: A-, Central European University Budapest, language: English, abstract: The author has compared the issue of abortion focusing on pro-life vs. pro-choice position in Rawls’s theory of justice and political liberalism and Dworkin’s discussion about moral problems of abortion. In the first and second parts of this paper, the author has analyzed the abortion issue from the standpoint of the original position, veil of ignorance, rights and interests, detached vs. derivative position, natural vs. human investment while criticisising the application of Rawls’s natural duties and Dworkin’s intrinsic (sacred) value to abortion. In the final part, Rawls’s and Dworkin’s positions on abortion issues are compared, drawing conclusions on similarities and divergence.
Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2009 in the subject Law - Civil / Private / Industrial / Labour, grade: A-, University of Basel (Europainstitut), course: Social-Non Discrimination Law, language: English, abstract: The judgments of the European Court of Justice (hereinafter “ECJ”) are not often covered by media. With an exception, there are some cases that have a great impact in everyday life of nationals of the European Union (hereinafter “EU”). One of such cases is the long-awaited Age Concern England, which is significant for confirming that Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 th November 2000 (Employment Equality Directive, hereinafter “Directive”) prohibits discrimination on grounds of age. On 5th March 2009, the ECJ referred a decision back to the High Court after clarifying that social policy objectives “such as those related to employment and the labour market” may be considered legitimate under EC law. This means that employers can still lawfully dismiss employees at the age of 65. In the context of Directive, the present case both covers personal scope (the Directives apply to all persons: natural and legal, in the EU regardless of nationality, public and private sector) and material scope (question if retirement ages covered by Directive). In fact, Age Concern England case “enriches case law of discrimination on grounds of age, especially on the obligations of the Member States (hereinafter, “MS”) in respect of the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of age laid down in Article 2 (hereinafter – “Art.”) of Directive, particularly the degree with which that prohibition must be transposed into national law.” Moreover, Age Concern England continues case law of earlier cases involving arguments regarding discrimination on grounds of age, for example, Mangold, Lindorfer, Palacios de la Villa and Bartsch. Opinions among employment lawyers and other experts differ regarding the implications of the Age Concern England judgment. For employers, generally, this is a good decision; they can dismiss employees if they wish to. On balance, this is crucial judgment for workers aged 65 and over. There are approximately ten thousand people aged 65 that are forcibly dismissed every year in United Kingdom (hereinafter “UK”).
Literature Review from the year 2010 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: A-, Central European University Budapest, course: Gender, Politics and Intersectionality in Europe , language: English, abstract: The purpose of this literature review is to look at gender as a category of analysis in conflict and peace mediation. The analysis will provide the material basis for a research paper on “Gender and Conflict: Genocide in Rwanda” in the course “Gender, Politics and Intersectionality in Europe”. I put forward the thesis statement that genocide in Rwanda should be analysed in gender-specific terms and on different levels (individual, community) andat different phases (open-conflict, post-conflict). I have focused on papers by Cordula Reimann, who has a particular interest in largely hidden gender-specific sub-context of violent conflicts and their resolution. The literature review is divided into three parts. I begin with defining ‘gender’. The second part is the analysis of women’s and men’s different roles at various levels and phases of conflict. The third part deals with the question of what kind of checklist and indicators we need to take into account while analysing conflict in gender specific dimensions.
Master's Thesis from the year 2009 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: European Union, grade: A-, University of Basel (Europainstitute), language: English, abstract: Master thesis as one of the first such researches in Europe draws attention to the ERASMUS Programme – a successful example of European integration and a symbol of construction of European identity. Author has created definition of tolerance and through analysis of interviews with experts of the ERASMUS Programme and of tolerance has indicated that one of the Programme‟s objectives is the promotion of tolerance. Through analysis of questionnaires filled by respondents of University of Latvia, Science Po and ETH author has proved that the Programme promotes tolerance on the basis of encouraging multicultural experience, intercultural education, diminishing social distance, breaking stereotypes, furthering confidence and openness.
Literature Review from the year 2009 in the subject African Studies, grade: A, University of Basel (Europainstitute), course: Europa-Kolloquium, language: English, abstract: On 14th May of 2009 at Europainstitut Basel Patrick Chabal, professor at King's College London, presented his book “Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling”. The former scholar of Harvard and Cambridge has written or was cowriter for such books as Cultures Troubles (2006); Africa Works (1999); Power in Africa (1992 and 1994) and Amílcar Cabral (1982 and 2003). The question usually asked about Africa: Why people suffer? Suffer from poverty, violence, wars... Patrick Chabal asks more simple questions about these complex matters: How do people define who they are? Where do they belong? What do they believe? How do they struggle to survive and improve their lives? What is the impact of illness and poverty? (EIB: 2009) In doing so Chabal proposes a radically different way of looking at politics of “suffer and smile” in Africa (Zed Books, 2008: 5). To write about Africa in objective way is challenging, but Patrick Chabal tries to deal with this hard task.