First, there is a brief overview of the history and development of the spectroscope. This is followed by a short introduction to the theory of stellar spectra. The final parts of this section provide details of the necessary reference spectra required for instrument testing and spectral comparison. It concludes with a chapter covering the various types of spectroscopes available to the amateur.
Next, there is a series of "How to..." sections. These cover all aspects of setting up and using various types of commercially available and home-built spectroscopes. Transmission gratings are covered first, and then more complex models, all the way to the sophisticated Littrow design.
The final part of Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs is about practical spectroscope design and construction. It contains a collection of detailed instructions covering the design and building of three different types of spectroscope, along with the necessary design theory (with minimal math). Developing an instrument in simple steps from the basic grating spectroscope, using standard "off the shelf" adaptors, the author describes how to build spectroscopes equal in performance to the better commercial units, constructed using basic hand tools for a fraction of the cost!
This is the only up-to-date practical spectroscopy book available to amateurs. For the first time, it also brings together an invaluable user knowledge base – a collection of observing, analyzing, and processing hints and tips that will allow the amateur to build up and develop important skills in preparing scientifically acceptable spectral data, which can make a valuable contribution to ProAm (professional/amateur) projects. It covers in detail all aspects of the design, construction techniques, testing, calibrating, and using a spectroscope – enough detail to enable the average amateur astronomer to successfully build and use his own spectroscope for a fraction of the current commercial cost.
This book is an ideal complement to Robinson’s Spectroscopy: the Key to the Stars (Springer 2007) and Martin’s Spectroscopic Atlas of Bright Stars (Springer, due 2009). Together, the three books form a complete package for all amateur astronomers who are interested in practical spectroscopy.
As Professor Chris Kitchin said, "If optical spectroscopy had not been invented then fully 75 percent of all astronomical knowledge would be unknown today, and yet the subject itself receives scant attention in astronomical texts." Olivier Thizy (of Shelyak Instruments, the builder of the LiHiResIII commercial spectroscope) writes on an Internet forum; "What is missing is tutorial books and "how to" books with amateur equipment? I believe spectroscopy is in general moving from builders to users (as CCD cameras did in the 1990's)... ...literature is following but slowly."
This is the practical spectroscopy book that amateur astronomers have been waiting for!
"Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work."
—Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News
Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexity and build electro-optical systems that just work, with maximum insight and minimum trial and error.
Written in an engaging and conversational style, this Second Edition has been updated and expanded over the previous edition to reflect technical advances and a great many conversations with working designers. Key features of this new edition include:Expanded coverage of detectors, lasers, photon budgets, signal processing scheme planning, and front ends Coverage of everything from basic theory and measurement principles to design debugging and integration of optical and electronic systems Supplementary material is available on an ftp site, including an additional chapter on thermal Control and Chapter problems highly relevant to real-world design Extensive coverage of high performance optical detection and laser noise cancellation
Each chapter is full of useful lore from the author's years of experience building advanced instruments. For more background, an appendix lists 100 good books in all relevant areas, introductory as well as advanced. Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work, Second Edition is essential reading for researchers, students, and professionals who have systems to build.
Gas-Liquid And Liquid-Liquid Separators is divided into six parts: Part one and two covers fundamentals such as: physical properties, phase behaviour and calculations. Part three through five is dedicated to topics such as: separator construction, factors affecting separation, vessel operation, and separator operation considerations. Part six is devoted to the ASME codes governing wall thickness determination of vessel weight fabrication, inspection, alteration and repair of separators500 illustrationsEasy to understand calculations methodsGuide for protecting downstream equipmentHelps reduce the loss of expensive intermediate endsHelps increase product purity
Beginning with simple theoretical models and experimental techniques, the book develops the complete repertoire of theoretical principles and experimental techniques necessary for understanding and implementing the most sophisticated NMR experiments.
Important new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy have emerged since the first edition of this extremely successful book was published in 1996. This updated version includes new sections describing measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling constants for structure determination, TROSY and deuterium labeling for application to large macromolecules, and experimental techniques for characterizing conformational dynamics. In addition, the treatments of instrumentation and signal acquisition, field gradients, multidimensional spectroscopy, and structure calculation are updated and enhanced.
The book is written as a graduate-level textbook and will be of interest to biochemists, chemists, biophysicists, and structural biologists who utilize NMR spectroscopy or wish to understand the latest developments in this field.Provides an understanding of the theoretical principles important for biological NMR spectroscopyDemonstrates how to implement, optimize and troubleshoot modern multi-dimensional NMR experimentsAllows for the capability of designing effective experimental protocols for investigations of protein structures and dynamicsIncludes a comprehensive set of example NMR spectra of ubiquitin provides a reference for validation of experimental methods
Integrated throughout the text are real-world applications that emphasize the relevance of thermodynamics principles to some of the most critical problems and issues of today, including a wealth of coverage of topics related to energy and the environment, biomedical/bioengineering, and emerging technologies.
This new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and has been redesigned to give the book a more contemporary look. As with previous editions it contains numerous examples, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding. Updates include: Increased coverage of MALDI and ESI, more detailed description of time of flight spectrometers, new material on isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and an expanded range of applications.
Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition is an invaluable resource for all undergraduate and postgraduate students using this technique in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, material science and food science. It is also of interest for researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.
Designed for those new to FTIR, but with enough reference material to appeal to journeyman and expert spectroscopists, this book does not demand any extensive familiarity with chemistry or physics. Specializing in concise and comprehensible explanations of FTIR topics, the author introduces the field of infrared spectroscopy, including the strengths and weaknesses of FTIR as a chemical analysis technique. He then describes the instrument itself and explores topics such as how an interferometer generates a spectrum, optimization of spectral quality, and which tests are used to monitor instrument health.
The book discusses how to properly use spectral processing to increase the information of a spectrum without damaging the data and takes considerable care in instructing on sample preparation, as good sample preparation constitutes half the battle in extracting good data. The final chapters examine single analyte quantitative analysis and conclude with an overview of infrared microscopy.
Drawing on the experience and knowledge of the author as both a professor and practitioner, Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy offers up-to-date information given in clear, easily understood language to appeal to beginner and expert spectroscopists alike. The author maintains a website and blog with supplemental material. His training course schedule is also available online.
In addition to a history of the science behind the pursuit, directions are included for four easy-to-build projects, based around long-term NASA and Stanford Solar Center projects. The first three projects constitute self-contained units available as kits, so there is no need to hunt around for parts. The fourth – more advanced – project encourages readers to do their own research and track down items.
Getting Started in Radio Astronomy provides an overall introduction to listening in on the radio spectrum. With details of equipment that really works, a list of suppliers, lists of online help forums, and written by someone who has actually built and operated the tools described, this book contains everything the newcomer to radio astronomy needs to get going.
This book presents an overview of the technological advances that have occurred since the publication of the Editors earlier book High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: The Physical Basis. In this latest book, contributions from internationally recognized professionals and researchers in the field provide expanded treatment of the practical aspects of the subject. High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: Basic Concepts and Technological Practice provides a modern working manual for this specialized technology that is generic to a wide range of applications. The format makes the text suitable for use as a basis for special topic lecture courses at either the undergraduate or graduate level.Provides the fundamental physical concepts of the subjectFocuses on practical applicationsGives a historical survey of the fieldIncludes a detailed account of system design criteriaReviews theoretical models developed to explain the pinhole phenomenaPresents results of a series of experimental investigations on the subject
Reviews of the First Edition
“For anyone wishing to know what really goes on in their NMR experiments, I would highly recommend this book” – Chemistry World
“…I warmly recommend for budding NMR spectroscopists, or others who wish to deepen their understanding of elementary NMR theory or theoretical tools” – Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry
In order to be able to reflect the development of today's science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, starting with Volume 20, has moved beyond the basic physics of thin films. It now addresses the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Therefore, in order to reflect the modern technology-oriented problems, the title has been slightly modified from Physics of Thin Films to Thin Films.
This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.
In an age of custom-fabricated, do-it-yourself product design and creation, the collective potential of a million garage tinkerers and enthusiasts is about to be unleashed, driving a resurgence of American manufacturing. A generation of “Makers” using the Web’s innovation model will help drive the next big wave in the global economy, as the new technologies of digital design and rapid prototyping gives everyone the power to invent--creating “the long tail of things”.
assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions as well as further supplementary material available free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website.
As fields like communications, speech and image processing, and related areas are rapidly developing, the FFT as one of the essential parts in digital signal processing has been widely used. Thus there is a pressing need from instructors and students for a book dealing with the latest FFT topics.
Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications provides a thorough and detailed explanation of important or up-to-date FFTs. It also has adopted modern approaches like MATLAB examples and projects for better understanding of diverse FFTs.
Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is designed for senior undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, engineers, and scientists in the field, and self-learners to understand FFTs and directly apply them to their fields, efficiently. It is designed to be both a text and a reference. Thus examples, projects and problems all tied with MATLAB, are provided for grasping the concepts concretely. It also includes references to books and review papers and lists of applications, hardware/software, and useful websites. By including many figures, tables, bock diagrams and graphs, this book helps the reader understand the concepts of fast algorithms readily and intuitively. It provides new MATLAB functions and MATLAB source codes. The material in Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is presented without assuming any prior knowledge of FFT. This book is for any professional who wants to have a basic understanding of the latest developments in and applications of FFT. It provides a good reference for any engineer planning to work in this field, either in basic implementation or in research and development.
Divided into five chapters, the book starts by giving an introduction to the discovery of active nitrogen, the energy content, and the methods by which this may be produced. The succeeding part deals with light emissions from active nitrogen system. This discussion includes molecular spectrum of nitrogen, emission from atomic energy and condensed active nitrogen, emission from molecular species with electronic energy levels below and above 9.76 eV, and light-emitting systems of active nitrogen.
The next part focuses on theories on active nitrogen. The theories discussed are long-lived Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow and short-lived, energetic afterglows. Numerical representations are provided to test the validity of the theories. Lastly, the discussions end with chemical reactions of active nitrogen. Topics contained in this part are text on recombination of N(4S) atoms; rate constants for reactions presumably induced by direct N(4S) attack; reactions caused by excited nitrogen molecular attack; and mechanism for reactions of active nitrogen that seem to influence direct N(4S) attack.
The book is a valuable source of information for readers interested in the research on active nitrogen.
Since the publication of the highly successful first edition of Basic Gas Chromatography, the practice of chromatography has undergone several notable developments. Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Edition covers the latest in the field, giving readers the most up-to-date guide available, while maintaining the first edition's practical, applied approach to the subject and its accessibility to a wide range of readers.
The text provides comprehensive coverage of basic topics in the field, such as stationary phases, packed columns and inlets, capillary columns and inlets, detectors, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. At the same time, the coverage also features key additions and updated topics including:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Sampling methods Multidimensional gas chromatography Fast gas chromatography Gas chromatography analysis of nonvolatile compounds Inverse gas chromatography and pyrolysis gas chromatography
Along with these new and updated topics, the references, resources, and Web sites in Basic Gas Chromatography have been revised to reflect the state of the field. Concise and fundamental in its coverage, Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Edition remains the standard handbook for everyone from undergraduates studying analytical chemistry to working industrial chemists.
Mathematical methods are provided as design tools, and are often simplified via curve-fitting techniques that are particularly usable by handheld calculators. Useful equations and numerically solved examples, using situations encountered in practice, are supplied. Above all, this volume is a comprehensive and useful reference where the reader can find design rules and principles of high frequency applicators and probes for material processing and sensing applications. Electronic and electrical R&D engineers, physicists, university professors and students will all find this book a valuable reference.
Mehrdad Mehdizadeh is with the DuPont Company, Engineering Research & Technology Division in Wilmington, Delaware. His areas of expertise include high frequency hardware and electromagnetic methods of processing, sensing, and characterization of materials. His work and innovation in industrial, scientific, and medical applications of radio frequency and microwaves has resulted in 19 US patents and a number of publications. He earned his Ph.D. and M.S. from Marquette University (1983, 1980), and a B.S. from Sharif University of Technology (1977), all in electrical engineering. Dr. Mehdizadeh is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE ), Sigma Xi (Scientific Research Society), the International Microwave Power Institute (IMPI ), and a voting member of IEEE Standard Association.• Books in this area are usually theoretical; this book provides practical information for those who actually intend to design a system
• Features real world and numerically solved examples, and curve-fitted simple equations to replace complex equations provided in typical texts
• Author is a voting member of IEEE Standards Association
Additional highlights include:
- Fundamental information on communications, signal and system theories
- Coverage of superheterodyne, direct-conversion, low-IF, and band-pass sampling radio architectures
- Frequency planning, system link budgeting, and performance evaluation of transmitters and receivers
- Nonlinearity effect analyses involving intermodulation, interferer blocking, spectrum regrowth and modulation
- Approaches for specifying RF ASICs on which mobile systems are built
- AGC systems, ADC dynamic range consideration and power management are addressed
- In-depth treatment of both theoretical and practical aspects of mobile station RF system design
This comprehensive reference work covers a wide range of topics from general principles of communication theory, as it applies to digital radio designs to specific examples on implementing multimode mobile systems. Wireless engineering professionals will definitely find this an invaluable reference book.
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
What’s New in This EditionThree new chapters on electromagnetic fields in transformers, transformer-system interactions and modeling, and monitoring and diagnostics An extensively revised chapter on recent trends in transformer technology An extensively updated chapter on short-circuit strength, including failure mechanisms and safety factors A step-by-step procedure for designing a transformer Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field
A blend of theory and practice, this comprehensive book examines aspects of transformer engineering, from design to diagnostics. It thoroughly explains electromagnetic fields and the finite element method to help you solve practical problems related to transformers. Coverage includes important design challenges, such as eddy and stray loss evaluation and control, transient response, short-circuit withstand and strength, and insulation design. The authors also give pointers for further research. Students and engineers starting their careers will appreciate the sample design of a typical power transformer.
Presenting in-depth explanations, modern computational techniques, and emerging trends, this is a valuable reference for those working in the transformer industry, as well as for students and researchers. It offers guidance in optimizing and enhancing transformer design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring to meet the challenges of a highly competitive market.
* Includes a solid introduction to the simulation of equilibrium processes and the simulation of complex kinetic processes.
* Provides examples of routines that are easily adapted to the processes investigated by the reader
* 'Model-based' analysis (linear and non-linear regression) and 'model-free' analysis are covered
The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
The overall layout of the book is similar to that of the previous two editions however, there are considerable changes in emphasis and several key additions including:
•up-to-date presentation of modern theories of liquid-vapour coexistence and criticality
•areas of considerable present and future interest such as super-cooled liquids and the glass transition
•the area of liquid metals, which has grown into a mature subject area, now presented as part of the chapter ionic liquids
•Provides cutting-edge research in the principles of liquid-state theory
•Includes frequent comparisons of theoretical predictions with experimental and simulation data
•Suitable for researchers and post-graduates in the field of condensed matter science (Physics, Chemistry, Material Science), biophysics as well as those in the oil industry
Laser Fabrication and Machining of Materials introduces readers to the fundamental properties and physical phenomena of laser machining and its applications on the macro, micro, and nano scales. Examples of existing, emerging, and potential techniques are discussed, giving students and practicing engineers alike the opportunity to expand their use of lasers in such disciplines as mechanical processes, electronics, materials, and manufacturing.
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy deals with the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. It measure the absorption of different IR frequencies by a sample positioned in the path of an IR beam. Currently, infrared spectroscopy is one of the most common spectroscopic techniques used in the food industry. With the rapid development in infrared spectroscopic instrumentation software and hardware, the application of this technique has expanded into many areas of food research. It has become a powerful, fast, and non-destructive tool for food quality analysis and control.
Infrared Spectroscopy for Food Quality Analysis and Control reflects this rapid technology development. The book is divided into two parts. Part I addresses principles and instruments, including theory, data treatment techniques, and infrared spectroscopy instruments. Part II covers the application of IRS in quality analysis and control for various foods including meat and meat products, fish and related products, and others.
*Explores this rapidly developing, powerful and fast non-destructive tool for food quality analysis and control
*Presented in two Parts -- Principles and Instruments, including theory, data treatment techniques, and instruments, and Application in Quality Analysis and Control for various foods making it valuable for understanding and application
*Fills a need for a comprehensive resource on this area that includes coverage of NIR and MVA
This book explains the basic principles of spectroscopy, including the fundamental optical constraints and all mathematical aspects needed to understand the working principles in detail. It covers the complete theoretical and practical design of standard and Echelle spectrographs. Readers are guided through all necessary calculations, enabling them to engage in spectrograph design. The book also examines data acquisition with CCD cameras and fiber optics, as well as the constraints of specific data reduction and possible sources of error. In closing it briefly highlights some main aspects of the research on massive stars and spectropolarimetry as an extension of spectroscopy. The book offers a comprehensive introduction to spectroscopy for students of physics and astronomy, as well as a valuable resource for amateur astronomers interested in learning the principles of spectroscopy and spectrograph design.
Principle, experimental set ups, parameters and interpretation rules of several advanced IR-based techniques; application to biointerface characterisation through the presentation of recent examples, will be given in this book. It will describe how to characterise amino acids, protein or bacterial strain interactions with metal and oxide surfaces, by using infrared spectroscopy, in vacuum, in the air or in an aqueous medium. Results will highlight the performances and perspectives of the technique.Description of the principles, expermental setups and parameter interpretation, and the theory for several advanced IR-based techniques for interface characterisationContains examples which demonstrate the capacity, potential and limits of the IR techniquesHelps finding the most adequate mode of analysisContains examplesContains a glossary by techniques and by keywords
The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental data. The subjects dealt with include:
- electronic transport theory based on the test-particle and correlation-function concepts;
- scattering by phonons, impurities, surfaces, magnons, dislocations, electron-electron scattering and electron temperature;
- two-phonon scattering, spin-flip scattering, scattering in degenerate and many-band models.
A discussion is then presented on carbon-13 NMR, detailing its pros and cons and showing how it can be used in conjunction with proton NMR via the pivotal 2-D techniques (HSQC and HMBC) to yield vital structural information. Some of the more specialist techniques available are then discussed, i.e. flow NMR, solvent suppression, Magic Angle Spinning, etc. Other important nuclei are then discussed and useful data supplied. This is followed by a discussion of the neglected use of NMR as a tool for quantification and new techniques for this explained. The book then considers the safety aspects of NMR spectroscopy, reviewing NMR software for spectral prediction and data handling and concludes with a set of worked Q&As.
This book is an easy-to-use compendium of problems encountered when using various commonly used analytical techniques. Emphasis is on impurities, by-products, contaminants and other artifacts. A separate entry is provided for each artifact. For specific chemicals, this entry provides the common name, mass spectrum, gas chromatographic data, CAS name and registry number, synonyms and a narrative discussion. More than 1100 entries are included. Mass spectral data are indexed in a 6-peak index (molecular ion, base peak, second peak, third peak) and there are also formula, author and subject indexes. An extensive bibliography contains complete literature citations.
The book is designed to be used. It will not only allow experienced analysts to profit from the mistakes of others, but it will also be invaluable to other scientists who use analytical instruments in their work.