Essay from the year 2010 in the subject Film Science, grade: 1,2, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: The family as an institution that is accountable for raising responsible and mature adults who become representatives of their societies is a key principle of social organisation (Bernardes 1997: 2, Hill 1998: 63). For children, familial life is the very first experience of social relations, through which they become part of a larger community. The intertwining of the levels of human aggregation can be studied ‘as the complex mechanisms around which the history of a nation is constructed’ (Ginsborg 2003: xiii). Thus, analysing the state of the family is an effective vehicle for tracing social and cultural conflicts within a nation. In respect thereof, this essay is aimed to explore the metaphoric effect of the families displayed in Amelio’s Il ladro di Bambini and Saura’s Cría Cuervos. This essay attempts to analyse how the families displayed in Ladro and Cría can be used to explore the state of the Italian and Spanish nation. Thus, in the second chapter the family shall be looked at as the base of social aggregation in the sense of Aristotle and de Bonald. Moreover, in chapter three the emphasis lies on the different generations in the two films that represent the countries’ cultural, social and political changes. In chapter four, the contrast between old and modern that results from these changes will be looked at in more detail. Furthermore, chapter five will pursue the afore-mentioned issues with the focus on the dysfunctional family as a social and political metaphor. Lastly, chapter six shall conclude the essay with a retrospective analysis.
Essay from the year 2010 in the subject Speech Science / Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: ‘Slang is a language that rolls up its sleeves, spits on its hands and goes to work.’ This is how American poet Sandburg described the linguistic phenomenon of slang in the New York Times in 1959 (quoted in Crystal 2006: 117). His definition accurately expresses the spirit of slang, but somewhat exaggerates its virtue. Nevertheless, Sandburg’s definition has become an often quoted phrase. His quotation already indicates the peculiarity of slang, which sparked my interest in analysing the relationship between such a complex linguistic manifestation and the compound human activity of translation. Therefore, this essay aims to explore the questions evolving around the translation of slang and gives examples by reference to the novel From Here to Eternity (1951) by US American writer James Jones (1921-1977). The novel was translated into several languages, inter alia into German by Otto Schrag (1951) and into Hungarian by Szíjgyártó László (1975). The novel’s abundance in slang expressions means a great challenge for the translator and thus offers insightful material for the exploration of translation theory and practice. After a general introduction of the linguistic phenomenon of slang, including a theoretical analysis of its characteristics, functions and its linguistic features as well as a brief overview of slang in literature, chapter three shall introduce Jones’s novel with the focus on its slang elements. Furthermore, the first part of chapter four is dedicated to explore the translatability of slang on the basis of Hervey and Higgins’ theory of compromise and compensation by giving German and Hungarian translation examples of the novel. Moreover, subchapter 4.2 will examine the translation methods with regard to Jones’s novel by focusing on the different traditions of American, German and Hungarian slang usage. Subchapter 4.3 shall continue to analyse the German and Hungarian translations of slang specifically in reference to From Here to Eternity. Throughout the essay certain linguistic items chosen from the novel will be analysed and German and Hungarian examples will be contrasted to the English original.
Essay from the year 2010 in the subject Film Science, grade: 1,3, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: In his attempt to break down binary thought structures that characterise interactions between different cultures, in his 1994 work Location of culture, Homi Bhabha defines the term of third space as a place where identities can be renegotiated. The third space can be located beyond the bipolarity of ‘us’ and ‘them’ and thus is a territory where we can escape the dilemma of dichotomies and hierarchies. Özpetek, in Hamam, il bagno turco [Ferzan Özpetek, 1992] as well as in Harem suaré [Ferzan Özpetek, 2001], seizes on the idea of Bhaba’s third space to describe the encounter with the cultural other and the erotic attraction to the other. In Hamam as well as in Harem Özpetek is accused of applying an Orientalist approach by showing an utopian imagination of the Oriental Other. According to Said, the notion of the Orient is a discursive construct of the West, while the underlying construction is strictly dichotomic - ‘us’ vs. ‘them’ (Said 1978:44). Indeed, imaginary projections of the Orient are often claimed to be mere imaginations and explanations of the Other and the foreign (Breger & Döring 1998: 30). However, in Özpetek’s films the constructs of Turkey should not be seen as merely following the Orientalist canon, but should rather be ’understood as a measure of Özpetek’s nostalgia, as a transcultural person who now lives in Italy’ (Anderlini 2004: 165). In his cinematic processing of concrete life experiences of diaspora, Özpetek relies on the concept of the third space, by applying it as a guide for a global re-mapping and leaving behind the binary division of West vs. East and traditional vs. modern. What is discussed in this essay is the hamam as the third space in Özpetek’s Hamam and Harem, where people can negotiate their fixed cultural identities and hybridise with the Other. Thus, the third space is applied as an intercultural medium, a space for reflection and mediation (Breger & Döring 1998: 27). Before focusing on the hamam as the third space, the interaction between East and West, which makes up a crucial part of both films, shall be looked at in chapter two. Furthermore, the hamam will be analysed in chapter three as not only a divested, but also queer space. On top of that, in part four, the emphasis will be placed on the female empowerment that is triggered through the characters’ experience in the hamam. Lastly, a retrospective analysis of the paper will conclude the essay.
Seminar paper from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Marketing, Corporate Communication, CRM, Market Research, Social Media, grade: 1,2, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: The retail industry in the UK, as a relatively mature and oligopolistic sector, can be characterised by overcapacity, price-driven marketing, and a high concentration of firms (Morschett, Swoboda, & Schramm-Klein, 2005, p. 275). WH Smith has a history of over 200 years of development dating back to 1792 (Figure 6, Appendix). However, WH Smith is one of Britain’s leading retailers of today and known for its chain of High Street stores, travel outlets at airports, train stations, motorway service areas, hospitals, workplaces and bus stations selling books, stationery, magazines, newspapers, and entertainment products (WH Smith, 2009a). Most of WH Smith’s business outside the UK (United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Singapore) was subsequently sold as financial targets were not met. For the year of 2010, WH Smith is planning to expand its business to non-European markets (i.e. India), were it plans to open six outlet stores at the Delphi airport in 2010 (WH Smith, 2009b). This paper offers a case study of the UK retailer WH Smith. With regard to the structure of this essay, initially a short company overview will highlight WH Smith’s areas of operations. Thereafter, the company’s internal capabilities and its external environment will be examined in chapters two and three, respectively. This will then give the foundation for a substantial analysis of WH Smith’s positioning strategy. Recommendations on how to ameliorate the company’s strategy will be presented in chapter five. Finally, in a retrospective analysis of this paper the findings on the strategic development of WH Smith will be summarised and an outlook will be given in the concluding chapter six.
Seminar paper from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Law, grade: C, Ipswich School, course: GCSE Law, 18 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: What does consumer law consist of and are consumers adequately protected by the current consumer law in the UK? This coursework has the aim to analyse the different aspects of consumer protection covered by UK consumer law and the effectiveness of the current laws in protecting consumers. The focus is only on consumer law which applies to England, as there are some differences between laws in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.
Essay from the year 2008 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, grade: 1,8, European Business School - International University Schloß Reichartshausen Oestrich-Winkel, course: Management & Leadership, language: English, abstract: In recent years insolvencies of German companies have dramatically increased. Were it around 33 000 companies in 2003 who were filed for insolvency, more than double that amount (68 898 companies) became bankrupt in 2005 (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2006, p. 352), and one can only imagine the aftermath the financial crisis will have on companies worldwide. The reasons are manifold: recession, international competitive pressures, and high production costs. However, seldom the very leaders of these organizations admit to their responsibility in company failures. Many of these leaders are charismatic leaders. On the one hand they possess substantial skill sets vital for organizations, especially in times of crisis and uncertainty, and on the other hand they can be detrimental for a company when using their skills in a wrong way. This is often referred to as the “dark side” of charismatic leadership. The essay tries to analyse ways, in which organizations are able to take advantage of the charismatic leader, without having to deal with the dark side to a large extent.
Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject Business economics - Marketing, Corporate Communication, CRM, Market Research, Social Media, grade: 1,0, University of St Andrews, course: Retailing Corporate Strategy / Corporate Strategy, language: English, abstract: “Strategy is defined as the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise” (Chandler, 1990, p. 13). As the quote by Chandler suggests, strategy is concerned with the alignment of a corporation to the market in order to achieve its long-term targets. Therefore, the adoption of a strategic approach is essential for large organisations (especially retail organisations) as it is fundamental for the development of a company and consequently its success in the long run. With increasing differentiation in product portfolios, notably in the retail industry (e.g. with retailers like Marks & Spencer or Bhs both adding food to an existing non-food offer, or the grocery supermarket chains offering clothing and other merchandise categories) companies are more frequently separating their product range into several corporate divisions, which are also known as independent, market-oriented strategic business units (SBUs). In this strategy (business strategy), the strategy formulation (i.e. how the company can achieve a competitive advantage in each area of business) is carried out by the head of each business segment. The strategic alignment of each business unit is then determined by the top-level corporate strategy, where decisions are made by the upper management. Next to these two areas of strategy formation (i.e. corporate and business unit level), strategy can equally be developed from a functional viewpoint (also known as functional strategy) when making decisions as to which marketing concepts should be used or which capital equipment the company should employ to be flexible and cost-efficient for example. Within this multi-level structure of strategic decision-making there must be a sufficient amount of co-ordination on all three levels (Megicks, 2007, pp. 484-485). The overall strategic goal of the organisation, as Porter (1980) describes it, is to achieve “a position of sustainable competitive advantage” and therefore differentiate the value a company generates and offers in comparison to its competitors. These activities to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage should fulfil the following criteria: they should (1) be associated to an attribute with value and relate to the targeted customer segment, (2) be sustainable (not easily imitable), as well as (3) be perceived by the customer (Mintzberg, 1996, p. 88).
Essay from the year 2010 in the subject Film Science, grade: 1,4, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: With the dissolution of the Soviet state and the breakdown of Soviet ideologies the question about Russian national identity became a central issue in post-Soviet Russian culture (Horton 2001: 218). By promoting specific values of traditional Soviet ideals, Mikhalkov, in Burnt by the Sun [Mikhalkov, 1994], revives a national ideology and aims to re-establish the Russian national identity in post-Soviet Russia. The film recalls the idea of a distinctive Russian fate that has, admittedly, time and again resulted in political catastrophes, but nevertheless has become the basis of Russian culture having unique status and thus is crucial in forming a contemporary Russian cultural identity (Anemone 2001: 143). By reminding of past traditions and values, the film is devoted to explore what being Russian means (Larson 2003:492). The major attention in this essay lies in exploring the utopian world created by Mikhalkov to establish an illusionistic past with the focus on the national hero. Modern nation-states often feel the need to create a myth of national identity. By doing so it is crucial to have a heroic figure at hand that represents the strengths and potencies of the nation and that people can aspire to and look up to. Such an ideal, however, cannot exist in real life which is why Mikhalkov creates an illusionistic world within reality to allow his heroic figure to flourish. By recalling a heroic Russian past, specifically a Soviet one, Mikhalkov demonstrates his affection to Socialist ideas and his endeavour to bring about a ‘new hero of our time’ (Larsen 2003: 493); just one as post-Soviet Russia with its national identity being unsettled and uncertain was lacking. Therefore, the second chapter of this essay is dedicated to explore the effects of Mikhalkov’s film making that forms a polarity between utopia and reality, with a focus on the time and space structure. Moreover, in the third chapter, an emphasis is placed on the character of Kotov who, as the great family father, embodies the heroic figure that the director has created to re-establish historical ideals. Finally, in a retrospective analysis, the essay will be concluded by drawing a parallel between the Russian cultural crisis and the film’s shaping of Russian national identity.
Seminar paper from the year 2009 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Other, grade: 1,2, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: In the course of this essay the terminology that was applied by the Russian Formalist theoreticians shall be investigated (many terms were even invented and introduced by the Formalists themselves). More precisely, a careful look will be taken at how the literary critics, Medvedev and Bakhtin in The Formal Method in Literary Scholarship and Hansen-Löve in Der Russische Formalismus examine the Formalist terms. In order to evaluate Formalist terminology accurately and objectively, the mentioned critics’ theories shall be underpinned by and contrasted with the opinion of other critics in this field. Two of Shklovsky’s articles, The Resurrection of the Word and Art as Device are taken as a starting point for paving the way for a detailed analysis of the formal terminology. The major focus lies on the term ‘ostranenie’ that was firstly introduced by Shklovsky (1991) and is most commonly translated as ‘estrangement’, ‘defamiliarisation’ or ‘making it strange’. The essay shall not only analyse the origins of this concept, but furthermore, compare the different interpretations the term entails. Hansen-Löve’s evaluation of the concept of ostranenie as well as Medvedev and Bakhtin’s assessment of Shklovsky’ analysis of Tolstoy’s Kholstomer in the view of estrangement reveals the critical approach on which this essay is based on. Moreover, the Russian term of ‘obnazenie’, the ‘laying-bare’ of the work (Hansen-Löve, 1978) and ‘oveshchestvlenie’, the process of materialisation (Medvedev & Bakhtin, 1978), shall be regarded throughout this essay, since both concepts go hand in hand with the idea of ostranenie. In the last part of the essay, the formal theory of shutting out subjective consciousness from the work (Medvedev & Bakhtin, 1978) and the effects of this concept are in the centre of the attention. This shall lead to the final evaluation of the quality in the formalist concept of perception.
Essay from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Personnel and Organisation, grade: A, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: Human resource management (HRM) is becoming an increasingly important topic as organisations are forced to adapt their operations to a rapidly growing global environment (Boxall, Purcell & Wright, 2007, pp. 216-218). In this regard, international human resource management (IHRM) has gained in substantiality compared to domestic human resource management in terms of management, organisational structures, cultures and workforce utilisation. The sustainable international human resource management is essential for implementing strategies in multinational companies (MNCs) (Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1989). Companies generally engage in internationalisation activities for the following reasons: higher profit and sales potential, risk spreading, realisation of competitive or country-specific advantages (CSAs), reaction to competitor actions, capitalisation on government incentives, securing business relations, access to know-how and hedging of currency movements (Rump, 2006, p. 10). From an HR perspective companies need to address issues such as the selection, recruiting, compensation, and legal/regulatory requirements of a ‘global workforce’ (Du Plessis, Venter, Prabhudev, 2007, p. 59). Overall, the globalisation has led to a heightened acknowledgement of a well-managed workforce (Keating & Thompson, 2004, p. 595). On top of that, this development has also contributed to the view that HRM has become a function of strategic significance rather than simply a support function (Scullion & Starkey, 2000, pp. 1061-1081; Pucik, 1992, pp. 61-81). The objective of this paper is to provide a clear overview of the differences between domestic and international HRM analysing recent developments and current issues in this subject. The coursework is divided into five chapters. Initially, the general theoretic foundations of human resource management are explained in chapter two. Thereafter, the specific commonalities and differences of domestic and international human resource management will be outlined in chapters three and four, respectively. Finally, in a retrospective analysis of the paper, the research findings will be analysed and an outlook of the future development of HRM on a global level compared to domestic human resource management will be given.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2009 in the subject Health Science, grade: 1,9, European Business School - International University Schloß Reichartshausen Oestrich-Winkel (Department for Market-Oriented Management), course: Health Care Management, language: English, abstract: In recent years, the German health care sector underwent considerable structural changes. Nevertheless, medical facilities increasingly recognise that their resources are limited and that they are subject to mechanisms of other markets, meaning that they need to ensure the own position in the health care market more than ever (Schreyögg, 2000, p. 185). Increased competition between hospitals, scarce resources, and amendments of legislation are forcing every provider of medical services to consider a sustained and efficient structure of the provision of their services over and above a strong customer orientation. With several reforms coming from the government, which were supposed to retain an eminent level of public health care and at the same time putting a halt on the consistently rising health care costs, the hospital was now heavily reliant on the number of patients treated. Thus, hospitals were faced with the challenge of retaining or gaining more patients, while concurrently having an unchanged or lower budget, which meant that the role of the hospital changed from being a mere renderer of medical services to having the function of an economic actor. Concretely, this implied for hospitals adopting a strategic concept that is aligned to the market and to the heterogeneous target groups of this market. Moreover, patients are nowadays not only driven in their demand by the quality of the medical treatment, but by a function of several different factors, which include among others the communication of a positive image through advertising and public relations. Nevertheless, business-like reasoning of the economist on the one hand and traditional Aesculapius professional perception of the physician on the other hand seem to be incompatible with each other, especially when having to make cost-benefit considerations for a treatment or in terms of hospital advertising. Frequently, ethical concerns stand in the way. However, it is inevitable that with the transition from a state-controlled to an autonomous health-care sector in a free-market economy, these concerns are put aside in the long-term, the more so as rising privatisations require economic thinking in hospital management. In every corporate process, communication management is a decisive factor and it should be embraced whenever implementing new strategies or informing the internal or external public (Ströh & Jaatinen, 2001, pp. 143-168).
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Culture and Applied Geography, grade: 1,4, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: In the course of this essay the two books, How to be an alien by George Mikes and Empire of the Mind by Iqbal Ahmed, shall be carefully examined by placing an emphasis on how the sense of the British identity has changed since the end of the British Empire. The primary focus lies on the imperial and industrial decline, thus, due to the scope of this essay, other core issues that co-form the British identity, such as multiculturalism will not be considered. Mikes’ depictions are based on the English society of the beginning of the twentieth century, a time that was directly influenced by the decline of the empire. Ahmed’s experiences, on the other hand, are of a much more recent nature. This essay, therefore, presents the link between Britain losing its empire and the modern Britain of today. Firstly, the effects of the end of the empire will be examined by presenting two opposing post-war theories, which will then be applied to Mikes’ How to be an alien. In order to picture the impact of the end of the empire, the role of cricket shall be investigated as well as the shift in social structures. Furthermore, the industrial decline, as a ‘fellow traveller’ of the imperial decline, is analysed by means of Ahmed’s Empire of the mind. The last part of this essay is dedicated to tracing the remnants of the empire on the basis of Ahmed’s journey.
Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject Business economics - Supply, Production, Logistics, grade: 2,1, European Business School - International University Schloß Reichartshausen Oestrich-Winkel (SMI), 42 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Table of Contents List of Abbreviations i List of Figures and Tables ii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Problem Formulation and Objectives 1 1.2 Course of the Investigation 2 2 Characteristics of Sourcing 3 2.1 The Global Sourcing Theory 3 2.2 The Sourcing Process 4 3 Emerging Markets - Risks and Opportunities of Global Sourcing 7 4 Case Study in Global Sourcing – The Jungheinrich AG 11 Concluding Remarks and Outlook 13 Reference List 15 List of Appendixes 19 Appendix 20 Honourable Declaration 22 1 Introduction 1.1 Problem Formulation and Objectives Global sourcing or sourcing in emerging markets per se is becoming more and more influential, and is a crucial factor of success in many companies. Globalisation is certainly one of the most outstanding phenomena in our today’s world. [...] Especially German companies are facing a multitude of obstacles in their domestic market: High salaries and non-wage labour costs, market saturation and elevated production costs, associated with rising product prices, as well as increasing market dynamism and competi-tiveness forcing the companies to constantly adapt to those changes. Many companies have thus seen an opportunity in global sourcing and moved to emerging market economies (EMEs) in the search for reducing their costs (Heakal, 2003). The foremost reason why those companies move to aspiring markets like China, India, South-East Asia, Eastern Europe or Latin America are the lower wholesale prices in those countries (Kalkowsky, 2006). However, most firms have a different approach to the sourc-ing process and consequently varying success amongst them. This study investigates the strategic challenges of German retail companies in conducting and balancing their sourcing activities in order to respond to the particularities and chal-lenges of specific emerging markets. At the same time an analysis on sourcing process op-erations and structures, together with risks and opportunities of different markets is carried out.
Essay from the year 2010 in the subject Philosophy - Practical (Ethics, Aesthetics, Culture, Nature, Right, ...), grade: 1,0, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: Already in ancient times the image of the Other was negatively connoted with the Foreign imagined as a monster creature, dog-headed or monocular, which has manifested itself in the opposition of the ‘civilised’ and the ‘primitive world’. This construct helps integrate the foreign reality into the own cultural horizon of knowledge. This builds the starting point for the thesis of this essay that suggests that only through the unprejudiced encounter with the Other can the Self truly be. The idea derives from Kant’s theory that claims that in order to be ourselves we need to combine with other people (Wohlgemut 2009). Therefore, what is attempted in this essay is to analyse the process of self-awareness in Maria Edgeworth’s Ennui (1809), Lady Morgan’s The Wild Irish Girl (1806) and in Levinas’s The Trace of the Other (1986). In his philosophy of encounter, Levinas promotes the devotion to the Other. For him, the key to ethical commitment lies in the encounter with the Other. As will be shown in the course of this essay, the two discussed Irish national tales develop their narrative around this philosophy of encountering the Other that brings about self-awareness. To set a ground for the analysis, chapter two is dedicated to explore the phenomenon of mythisising the Other. Subsequently, chapter three shall analyse in what way Edgeworth, Lady Morgan and Levinas promote the shedding of the myths that develop around representing the Foreign. The process of overcoming cultural borders shall be looked at in more detail in chapter four. Furthermore, chapter five shall elucidate the national characters displayed in the Irish tales and contrast them to Levinas philosophy. Lastly, chapter six will conclude the essay in a retrospective analysis.
Wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz aus dem Jahr 2007 im Fachbereich Philosophie - Theoretische (Erkenntnis, Wissenschaft, Logik, Sprache), Note: 1,6, European Business School - Internationale Universität Schloß Reichartshausen Oestrich-Winkel, Veranstaltung: Wissenschaftstheorie, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Um einen Einstieg in die Thematik der Definition wissenschaftlicher Grundbegriffe im Rahmen der modernen Wissenschaftstheorie zu finden, bietet sich eine Auseinandersetzung mit dem Zwergplaneten Pluto und der Aberkennung seines Planetenstatus’ an. Der nach dem römischen Gott der Unterwelt benannte Himmelskörper des Kuipergürtels ist ein sich in einer elliptischen Bahn um die Sonne bewegender Zwergplanet und wurde am 18. Feb-ruar 1930 durch das Lowell-Observatorium von dem Planetenforscher Clyde Tombaugh entdeckt. Ausgangspunkt war die Suche nach einem weiteren äußeren Planeten, dessen Existenz die Störungen in den Umlaufbahnen von Neptun und Uranus durch seine Gravitationseffekte erklären sollte (Encrenaz et al., 2004, S. 384). Diese Erkenntnisse erwiesen sich jedoch als falsch, da sich später herausstellte, dass die reine Masse des Pluto nicht ausreichend groß genug ist, um die bestehenden Bahnstörungen zu verursachen (Glover, Chaikin, Daniels, Gianopoulos, & Malay, 2005, S. 166). Auf Grund der technischen Beschränktheit in der Erforschung von Himmelskörpern Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts erlangte man nur ungefähre Auskunft über den Durchmesser des Pluto, auch war es zunächst mit großen Fernrohren unmöglich, diesen unmittelbar mikrometrisch zu messen, da das Erkennen von Strukturen auf dieser Entfernung nahezu ausgeschlossen war. Aus der beobachteten scheinbaren Helligkeit Plutos (15 mag) und einer plausiblen Annahme seines Rückstrahlungsvermögen, schlussfolgerte man, dass der Himmelskörper etwa Erdgröße habe. Nach der Entdeckung des Pluto begann eine ausgedehnte Suche nach einem weiteren, zehnten Planeten, einem Transpluto, um die Bahnstörungen erklären zu können.
Intermediate Examination Paper from the year 2009 in the subject Business economics - Miscellaneous, grade: 1,2, University of St Andrews, language: English, abstract: Corporate Governance (CG) has always been a critically viewed topic and is being increasingly discussed after the Enron and WorldCom scandals, which had a worldwide outreach (Petra, 2006, p. 107) or major cases of poor corporate governance in Asia such as the Peregrine or the CA Pacific Securities Case in the 1990s. On this account, stricter rules have been introduced and existing regulations were re-examined in many markets in order to restore the public confidence in corporate governance systems and the transparency and accountability of organisations. The corporate governance system in Hong Kong is characterised by unique features differing from the Anglo-American framework. The extensive amount of family-controlled companies and mainland firms would suggest a deficient corporate governance system. In spite of this, a study by Nan, Kang and Kim (1999) comparing corporate governance among Asian economies indicated that Hong Kong has significantly higher corporate governance standards and equally more sophisticated legal systems governing the protection of property rights than other countries in that area. As regard to the structure of this coursework, initially, the general theoretic foundations of corporate governance are explained in chapter two. Thereafter, the specifics of the market in Hong Kong will be examined, comparing the development of global corporate governance to the development in Hong Kong. It is also explained why transplanted British and American laws and regulations seem ineffective. Chapter 4.1 then analyses the composition of shareholders in Hong Kong, answering the question as to why there is only a small number of minority shareholders actively participating in corporate governance. In chapter 4.2, it will be discussed whether minority shareholders are successful in confronting the current system. Chapter five gives recommendations on how to establish a corporate governance system tailored to Hong Kong and Asian emerging markets more broadly. Finally, in a retrospective analysis of the paper, the research findings will be analysed and an outlook of the future development of corporate governance in Hong Kong will be given.
Essay aus dem Jahr 2009 im Fachbereich Politik - Politische Systeme - Allgemeines und Vergleiche, Note: 2,0, European Business School - Internationale Universität Schloß Reichartshausen Oestrich-Winkel, Veranstaltung: Governance Ethics, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Corporate Governance (CG) ist seit jeher ein kritisch betrachtetes Thema und wird nach den Skandalen von Unternehmen wie Enron und WorldCom im Jahre 2002 wieder verstärkt diskutiert (Petra, 2006, S. 107). Aus diesem Grund kam es auch zu einer Überarbeitung und Neuentwicklung von einzelnen Vorschriften, um das Vertrauen der Öffentlichkeit in Corporate Governance wiederherzustellen. Die Corporate Governance Strukturen der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und dem Vereinigten Königreich werden aufgrund ihrer Gemeinsamkeiten im so genannten anglo-amerikanischen System eingegliedert und zusammengefasst. Nichtsdestotrotz sind aber auch beachtliche Unterschiede vorhanden, die die Differenzierung beider Systeme bedingen. Die Zielsetzung dieses Essays ist, einen kritischen Einblick in die Corporate Governance Systeme der USA und des Vereinigten Königreiches zu geben, um dann die umfangreichen Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede zu analysieren. Im Hinblick auf die Struktur der Arbeit werden zunächst die Gemeinsamkeiten der beiden Systeme vorgestellt. Danach werden in Kapitel 2.2 die Hauptunterschiede präsentiert und dabei auf die unterschiedlichen Regelungen und die Beziehungen zu den Hauptakteuren der Corporate Governance untersucht. In der abschließenden Zusammenfassung wird dann schließlich eine retrospektive Analyse der Erkenntnisse vorgenommen um dann einen Ausblick auf zukünftige Entwicklungen der Corporate Governance zu geben.
Essay from the year 2009 in the subject Speech Science / Linguistics, grade: 1,0, University of St Andrews, course: Language and Nation in Europe, language: English, abstract: In the broadest sense, language is a means of identification and self-identification of individuals and social systems (Bodi 1995: 17). In German-speaking countries this can be a controversial issue. Terminologically, the existence of a nation-state called Germany (in German Deutschland = German country) makes it difficult for other German-speaking societies to determine their own national and linguistic idiosyncrasy (Bodi 1995: 19). Through the use of Austrian German language participants not only identify as Austrians, but the common language and history also necessitates identification with other members of the entire German language community. To understand this complexity, the development of Austrian German as a standard variety of the German language is necessary. In the course of this essay it will become clear that historical transitions and political aspects of nation-building are essential constituents of language development or -as Clyne points out- the development of Austrian German norms ‘is reflected in a pendulum swing between language planning for national identity and an acceptance of standardized German norms’ (Clyne 1992: 121). Therefore, theoretical, language-political and social-historical aspects of the development and current situation of Austrian German shall be investigated. The complex situation that revolves around the German language demands the exploration of the concept of German as a pluricentric language, which will be dealt with in the second chapter. The third chapter is dedicated to the development of the Austrian standard variety with emphasise on social and political history. A special emphasis is placed on the concept of nation-building and the associated national language. Furthermore, in chapter four the development of Austrian German norms shall be considered in the light of Haugen’s process of standardisation. A part of this chapter is also dedicated to exploring the diglossic situation in Austria. Lastly, the essay also deals with the current situation of Austrian German and gives an example of how its general prestige can be raised. Finally, in a retrospective analysis of the paper, the research findings will be analysed and an outlook of the future development of Austrian German will be given in the concluding chapter six.