In the late 1970s and early 1980s, our nation began to grapple with the legacy of past disposal practices for toxic chemicals. With the passage in 1980 of the Comprehensive Envir- mental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Sup- fund, it became the law of the land to remediate these sites. The U. S. Department of Defense (DoD), the nation’s largest industrial organization, also recognized that it too had a legacy of contaminated sites. Historic operations at Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps facilities, ranges, manufacturing sites, shipyards, and depots had resulted in widespread contamination of soil, groundwater, and sediment. While Superfund began in 1980 to focus on remediation of heavily contaminated sites largely abandoned or neglected by the private sector, the DoD had already initiated its Installation Restoration Program in the mid-1970s. In 1984, the DoD began the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) for contaminated site assessment and remediation. Two years later, the U. S. Congress codified the DERP and directed the Secretary of Defense to carry out a concurrent program of research, development, and demonstration of innovative remediation technologies. As chronicled in the 1994 National Research Council report, “Ranking Hazardous-Waste Sites for Remedial Action,” our early estimates on the cost and suitability of existing techn- ogies for cleaning up contaminated sites were wildly optimistic. Original estimates, in 1980, projected an average Superfund cleanup cost of a mere $3.
This volume provides a review of the past 10 to 15 years of intensive research, development and demonstrations that have been on the forefront of developing bioaugmentation into a viable remedial technology. This volume provides both a primer on the basic microbial processes involved in bioaugmentation, as well as a thorough summary of the methodology for implementing the technology. This reference volume will serve as a valuable resource for environmental remediation professionals who seek to understand, evaluate, and implement bioaugmentation.
The purpose of this book is to help engineers and scientists better understand dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination of groundwater and the methods and technology used for characterization and remediation. Remediation of DNAPL source zones is very difficult and controversial and must be based on state-of-the-art knowledge of the behavior (transport and fate) of nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface and site specific geology, chemistry and hydrology. This volume is focused on the characterization and remediation of nonaqueous phase chlorinated solvents and it is hoped that mid-level engineers and scientists will find this book helpful in understanding the current state-of-practice of DNAPL source zone management and remediation.